Dry-Jet Wet Spinning of Thermally Stable Lignin-Textile Grade Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Regenerated from Chloride-Based Ionic Liquids Compounds.
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report on the use of amorphous lignin, a waste by-product of the paper industry, for the production of high performance carbon fibers (CF) as precursor with improved thermal stability and thermo-mechanical properties. The precursor was prepared by blending of lignin with polyacrylonitrile (PAN), which was previously dissolved in an ionic liquid. The fibers thus produced offered very high thermal stability as compared with the fiber consisting of pure PAN. The molecular compatibility, miscibility, and thermal stability of the system were studied by means of shear rheological measurements. The achieved mechanical properties were found to be related to the temperature-dependent relaxation time (consistence parameter) of the spinning dope and the diffusion kinetics of the ionic liquids from the fibers into the coagulation bath. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical tests (DMA) were utilized to understand in-depth the thermal and the stabilization kinetics of the developed fibers and the impact of lignin on the stabilization process of the fibers. Low molecular weight lignin increased the thermally induced physical shrinkage, suggesting disturbing effects on the semi-crystalline domains of the PAN matrix, and suppressed the chemically induced shrinkage of the fibers. The knowledge gained throughout the present paper allows summarizing a novel avenue to develop lignin-based CF designed with adjusted thermal stability.
Project description:This article presents experimental data on visual, mechanical, thermal, and structural characterization by hot-pressing four sources of milled plant powders and coconut fibers. It correlates chemical composition obtained by (FTIR), particle size, and reports bending strength, water resistance morphological (SEM) and thermal stability, structural properties (FTIR and XRD). It further supplements findings of the influence of microfibrillation and chemical composition on hot-pressing plant fibers as presented in the research article "Effects of Chemical Composition, Mild Alkaline Pretreatment and Particle Size on Mechanical, Thermal, and Structural Properties of Binderless Lignocellulosic Biopolymers Prepared by Hot-Pressing Raw Microfibrillated Phoenix Dactylifera and Cocos Nucifera Fibers and Leaves" . For more insights into the difference among non-lignin-, lignin-, and semi lignin-based adhesion refer to the research article . This dataset is made publicly available for potential reuse in recycling agricultural waste fibers for value-added materials.
Project description:Lignin/lignin blends were used to improve fiber spinning, stabilization rates, and properties of lignin-based carbon fibers. Organosolv lignin from Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) were used as blends for making lignin-based carbon fibers. Different ratios of yellow poplar:switchgrass lignin blends were prepared (50:50, 75:25, and 85:15 w/w). Chemical composition and thermal properties of lignin samples were determined. Thermal properties of lignins were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal analysis confirmed switchgrass and yellow poplar lignin form miscible blends, as a single glass transition was observed. Lignin fibers were produced via melt-spinning by twin-screw extrusion. Lignin fibers were thermostabilized at different rates and subsequently carbonized. Spinnability of switchgrass lignin markedly improved by blending with yellow poplar lignin. On the other hand, switchgrass lignin significantly improved thermostabilization performance of yellow poplar fibers, preventing fusion of fibers during fast stabilization and improving mechanical properties of fibers. These results suggest a route towards a 100% renewable carbon fiber with significant decrease in production time and improved mechanical performance.
Project description:This paper presents an idea of using carbonized electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers as a sensor material in a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The electrospun PAN fibers are lightweight, less costly and do not interfere with the functioning of infrastructure. This study deals with the fabrication of PAN-based nanofibers via electrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization in order to remove all non-carbonaceous material and ensure pure carbon fibers as the resulting material. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the ionic conductivity of PAN fibers. The X-ray diffraction study showed that the repeated peaks near 42° on the activated nanofiber film were α and β phases, respectively, with crystalline forms. Contact angle, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also employed to examine the surface, thermal and chemical properties of the carbonized electrospun PAN fibers. The test results indicated that the carbonized PAN nanofibers have superior physical properties, which may be useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications in different industries.
Project description:The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the morphology and thermo-mechanical properties of bamboo fibers. The fibers are subjected to an alkali treatment using 4 wt % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 1 h. Mechanical measurements show that the present concentration has an insignificant effect on the fiber tensile strength. In addition, systematic experimental results characterizing the morphological aspects and thermal properties of the bamboo fibers are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that an alkali treatment may increase the effective surface area, which is in turn available for superior bonding with the matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis reveals that the alkali treatment leads to a gradual removal of binding materials, such as hemicellulose and lignin from the bamboo fiber. A comparison of the curve of thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry for the treated and untreated samples is presented to demonstrate that the presence of treatment contributes to a better thermal stability for bamboo fibers.
Project description:Polymer composites with excellent thermal conductivity and superior mechanical strength are in high demand in the electrical engineering systems. However, achieving superior thermal conductivity and mechanical properties simultaneously at high loading of fillers will still be a challenging issue. In this work, a facile method was proposed to prepare the epoxy composite with carbon fibers (CFs) and alumina (Al2O3). This CF and Al2O3 hybrid structure can effectively reduce the interfacial thermal resistance between the matrix and the CFs. The thermal conductivity of epoxy composite with 6.4 wt % CFs and 74 wt % Al2O3 hybrid filler reaches 3.84 W/(m K), which is increasing by 2096% compared with that of pure epoxy. Meanwhile, the epoxy composite still retains outstanding thermal stability and mechanical performance at high filler loading. A cost-effective avenue to prepare highly thermally conductive and superior mechanical properties of polymer-based composites may enable some prospective application in advanced thermal management.
Project description:To construct a polyetherimide (PEI)-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) composite membrane with multicore-shell structure, a ternary solution was prepared and electrospun by single-nozzle electrospinning. A theoretical prediction was made for the feasibility of complete distinction of two phases. The diameters of the membrane fibers and the PEI multi-core fibrils varied with the PEI ratio and the spinning time, respectively. The tensile strength and modulus were improved to 48 MPa and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The shrinkage of the membrane was only 6.6% at 180 °C, at which temperature the commercial PE separator melted down. The reinforcement in mechanical and thermal properties is associated with multiple PEI nanofibrils oriented along the fiber axis. Indeed, the unique morphology of self-assembled multicore-shell fibers plays an important role in their properties. All in all, PEI/PVdF membranes are appropriate for a lithium-ion battery application due to their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability, and controllable textural properties.
Project description:This paper presents an experimental study conducted to investigate the effect of fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) with two types of fiber-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nylon. A small fiber volume fraction, such as 0.05% or 0.1%, in RFAC with polyvinyl alcohol or nylon fibers was used for optimum efficiency in minimum quantity. Additionally, to make a comparative evaluation of the mechanical properties and shrinkage cracking, we examined natural fine aggregate concrete as well. The test results revealed that the addition of fibers and fine aggregates plays an important role in improving the mechanical performance of the investigated concrete specimens as well as controlling their cracking behavior. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced RFAC were slightly better than those of non-fiber-reinforced RFAC. The shrinkage cracking behavior was examined using plat-ring-type and slab-type tests. The fiber-reinforced RFAC showed a greater reduction in the surface cracks than non-fiber-reinforced concrete. The addition of fibers at a small volume fraction in RFAC is more effective for drying shrinkage cracks than for improving mechanical performance.
Project description:The radial structural heterogeneity of thermally-stabilized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber is considered to be a limiting factor affecting the mechanical properties of the resulting carbon fibers. In this study, we demonstrate that a low-dose (60 kGy) γ-ray irradiation pretreatment can effectively mitigate the radial structural heterogeneity of PAN fibers after thermal stabilization. The characterization results indicate that low-dose γ-ray irradiation only affects the physical structure of PAN through decreasing its crystalline size and crystallinity, rather than inducing chemical cross-linking and/or intramolecular cyclization. It is proposed that an increased amorphous region in PAN fibers prompted by low-dose γ-ray irradiation can facilitate oxygen diffusion from skin to core during stabilization, which results in the increased structural homogeneity of stabilized PAN fibers.
Project description:Functional lignin-SiO₂ hybrid fillers were prepared for potential application in binders for phenolic resins, and their chemical structure was characterized. The properties of these fillers and of composites obtained from them with phenolic resin were compared with those of systems with lignin or silica alone. The chemical structure of the materials was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C CP MAS NMR). The thermal stability of the new functional fillers was examined by thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS). Thermo-mechanical properties of the lignin-silica hybrids and resin systems were investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The DMTA results showed that abrasive composites with lignin-SiO₂ fillers have better thermo-mechanical properties than systems with silica alone. Thus, fillers based on lignin might provide new, promising properties for the abrasive industry, combining the good properties of lignin as a plasticizer and of silica as a filler improving mechanical properties.
Project description:Nanocellulose, as a biobased versatile nanomaterial that can be derived with tailorable surface functionalities, dimensions, and morphologies, has considerable implications for modifying the rheology, mechanical reinforcement, and influencing the carbonization efficiency in the production of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers. Herein, we report the influence of three different nanocellulose types, varying in the derivatization method, source, and aspect ratio, on the mechanical properties and thermal transformations of solution-spun PAN/nanocellulose nanocomposite fibers into carbon fibers. The incorporation of 0.1 wt % nanocellulose into solution-spun PAN fibers led to a 7-19% increase in tensile modulus and 0-27% increase in tensile strength in the solution-spun fibers, compared to a control PAN fiber. These improvements varied depending on the nanocellulose type. After low-temperature carbonization at 1200 °C, improvements in the mechanical properties of the nanocellulose-reinforced carbon fibers, compared with a PAN fiber, were also observed. In contrast to the precursor fibers, the improvement % in the carbonized fibers was found to be dependent on the nanocellulose morphology and was linearly correlated with increasing aspect ratio of nanocellulose. For example, in carbon fibers with a cotton-derived low-aspect-ratio cellulose nanocrystal and spinifex-derived high-aspect-ratio CNC and nanofiber, up to 4, 87, and 172% improvements in tensile moduli were observed, respectively. Due to the processing methods used, the nanocellulose aspect ratio and crystallinity are inversely related, and as such, the increase in the carbon fiber mechanical properties was also related to a decrease in crystallinity of the nanocellulose reinforcers. Raman spectra and electron microscopy analysis suggest that mechanical improvement after carbonization is due to internal reinforcement by highly ordered regions surrounding the carbonized nanocellulose, within the turbostratic carbon fibers.