Mortality and its association with CD4 cell count and hemoglobin level among children on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Even though there are advancements in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment approach, HIV continues to be a global challenge. Pediatrics HIV is one of the challenges in the reduction of child mortality particularly in less developed countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the pooled proportion of child mortality and the effect of hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count among children on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. Method:All published were articles searched using PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Web of Science database. Besides, Ethiopian institutional research repositories and reference lists of included studies were used. We limited the searching to studies conducted in Ethiopia and written in the English language. Studies that were done in a cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control study design were considered for the review. The weighted inverse variance random effects model was applied, and the overall variations between studies were checked by using heterogeneity test Higgins's (I 2). Subgroup analysis by region and year of publication was conducted. All of the included articles were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality appraisal criteria. In addition, publication bias was also checked with Egger's regression test and the funnel plot. Based on the results, trim and fill analysis was performed to manage the publication bias. Result:A total of 16 studies with 7047 participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall pooled proportion of mortality among children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) was found to be 11.78% (95% CI 9.34, 14.23). In subgroup analysis, the highest child mortality was observed in the Amhara region 16.76 % (95% CI 9.63, 23.90) and the lowest is in the Tigray region 4.81% (95% CI 2.75, 6.87). Besides, the proportion of mortality among children with low CD4 count and hemoglobin level was 2.42 (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.65, 3.56) and 3.24 (AOR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.51, 6.93) times higher compared to their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion:The proportion of mortality among children on ART was high in Ethiopia. Those children who had low CD4 cell count and low hemoglobin levels at baseline need special attention, treatment, and care. Trial registration:The protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered in PROSPERO with the registration number CRD42018113077.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe forms of malnutrition have drastic effects on childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia. Although few studies have previously estimated treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Ethiopia, the findings were widely varied and inconsistent. This study thus aimed to pool estimates of treatment outcomes and identify predictors of mortality among children with SAM in Ethiopia. METHODS:A systematic review was carried out to select 21 eligible articles from identified 1013 studies (dating from 2000 to 2018) that estimated treatment outcomes and predictors of mortality among SAM children. Databases including PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Sciences; Cochrane, Psych INFO and Google Scholar were comprehensively reviewed using medical subject headings (MESH) and a priori set criteria PRISMA guideline was used to systematically review and meta-analyze eligible studies. Details of sample size, magnitude of effect sizes, including Hazard Ratio (HRs) and standard errors were extracted. Random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates in Stata/se version-14. Cochran's Q, I2, and meta-bias statistics were assessed for heterogeneity and Egger's test for publication bias. RESULT:Twenty-one studies were included in the final analysis, which comprised 8057 under-five children with SAM in Ethiopia. The pooled estimates of treatment outcomes, in terms of death, recovery, defaulter and transfer out and non-response rates were 10.3% (95% CI: 8.3, 12.3), 70.5% (95% CI: 65.7, 72.2), 13.8% (95% CI: 10.8, 16.9) and 5.1% (95% CI: 3.3, 6.9), respectively. Diarrhea (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2), dehydration (HR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.3, 4.2) and anemia (HR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) were statistically significant predictors of mortality among these children. No publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION:Treatment outcomes in under-five children with SAM are lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) standard, where mortality is being predicted by comorbidities at admission. Children with SAM need to be treated for diarrhea, dehydration and anemia at the primary point of care to reduce mortality.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>In resource-limited settings, the mortality rate among tuberculosis and human Immunodeficiency virus co-infected children is higher. However, there is no adequate evidence in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Hence, this study aims to estimate lifetime survival and predictors of mortality among TB with HIV co-infected children after test and treat strategies launched in Northwest Ethiopia Hospitals, 2021.<h4>Methods</h4>Institution-based historical follow-up study was conducted in Northwest Ethiopia Hospitals among 227 Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus co-infected children from March 1, 2014, to January 12, 2021. The data were entered into Epi info-7 and then exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. The log-rank test was used to estimate the curve difference of the predictor variables. Bivariable cox-proportional hazard models were employed for each predictor variable. Additionally, those variables having a p-value < 0.25 in bivariate analysis were fitted into a multivariable cox-proportional hazards model. P-value < 0.05 was used to declare significance associated with the dependent variable.<h4>Results</h4>From a total of 227 TB and HIV co-infected children, 39 died during the follow-up period. The overall mortality rate was 3.7 (95% CI (confidence interval): 2.9-4.7) per 100 person-years with a total of 1063.2-year observations. Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) non-users [Adjusted Hazarded Ratio (AHR) = 3.8 (95% CI: 1.64-8.86)], presence of treatment failure [AHR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.14-78.17)], and Cluster of differentiation 4(CD4) count below threshold [AHR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.21-6.45)] were significant predictors of mortality.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this study, the mortality rate among TB and HIV co-infected children was found to be very high. The risk of mortality among TB and HIV co-infected children was associated with treatment failure, CD4 count below the threshold, and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy non-users. Further research should conduct to assess and improve the quality of ART service in Northwest Ethiopia Hospitals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Globally, complications of preterm birth are among the most common cause of neonatal mortality. In Ethiopia, the neonatal mortality reduction is not worthy of attention. Hence, this study reviewed the prevalence of preterm birth and factors associated with preterm birth in Ethiopia. METHODS:The review protocol of this study has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017077356). The PRISMA guideline was followed for this review. Studies that assessed the prevalence and/or associated factors of preterm birth in Ethiopia and published from Jan 01, 2009 to Dec 31, 2019 were considered. Studies were searched from the PubMed and Science Direct among medical electronic databases and Google Scholar. Random-effects model was used for detected heterogeneity among studies. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were assessed. Pooled estimates with its 95% confidence interval were reported using forest plots. The quality of evidence from the review was assessed using GRADE approach. RESULTS:Twenty-two studies involving a total of 12,279 participants were included. The overall pooled prevalence of preterm birth in Ethiopia was 10.48% (95% CI: 7.98-12.99). Pooled odds ratio showed rural residence (AOR?=?2.34, 95% CI: 1.35-4.05), being anemic (AOR?=?2.59, 95% CI: 1.85-3.64), <?4 antenatal care visits (AOR?=?2.34, 95%CI: 1.73-3.33), pregnancy induced hypertension (AOR?=?3.49, 95% CI: 2.45-4.97), prelabor rapture of membrane (AOR?=?4.42, 95% CI: 2.28-8.57), antepartum hemorrhage (AOR?=?5.02, 95% CI: 2.90-8.68), multiple pregnancies (AOR?=?3.89, 95% CI: 2.52-5.99), past adverse birth outcomes (AOR?=?3.24, 95% CI: 2.53-4.15) and chronic illness (AOR?=?4.89, 95%CI: 3.12-7.66) were associated with increased likelihood of preterm birth. Further, support during pregnancy was associated with reduced occurrence of preterm birth. CONCLUSION:The pooled national level prevalence of preterm birth in Ethiopia is high. Socio demographic, nutritional, health care, obstetric and gynecologic, chronic illness and medical conditions, behavioral and lifestyle factors are the major associated factors of preterm birth in Ethiopia. This evidence is graded as low grade. Thus, efforts should be intensified to address reported risk factors to relieve the burden of preterm birth in the study setting, Ethiopia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethiopia has shown significant efforts to address the burden of TB/HIV comorbidity through the TB/HIV collaborative program. However, these diseases are still the highest cause of death in the country. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated this program by investigating the overall proportion of unknown HIV status among TB patients using published studies in Ethiopia. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in Ethiopia. We identified the original studies using the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, and Google Scholar. The heterogeneity across studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and I 2 statistics. The Begg's rank correlation and the Egger weighted regression tests were assessed for the publication bias. We estimated the pooled proportion of unknown HIV status among TB patients using the random-effects model. RESULTS:Overall, we included 47 studies with 347,896?TB patients eligible for HIV test. The pooled proportion of unknown HIV status among TB patients was 27%(95% CI; 21-34%) and with a substantial heterogeneity (I2 =?99.9%). In the subgroup analysis, the pooled proportion of unknown HIV status was 39% (95% CI; 25-54%) among children and 20% (95% CI; 11-30%) among adults. In the region based analysis, the highest pooled proportion of unknown HIV status was in Gambella, 38% (95% CI; 16-60%) followed by Addis Ababa, 34%(95% CI; 12-55%), Amhara,30%(95% CI; 21-40%),and Oromia, 23%(95% CI; 9-38%). Regarding the study facilities, the pooled proportion of unknown HIV status was 33% (95% CI; 23-43%) in the health centers and 26%(95% CI; 17-35%) in the hospitals. We could not identify the high heterogeneity observed in this review and readers should interpret the results of the pooled proportion analysis with caution. CONCLUSION:In Ethiopia, about one-third of tuberculosis patients had unknown HIV status. This showed a gap to achieve the currently implemented 90-90-90 HIV/AIDS strategic plan in Ethiopia, by 2020. Therefore, Ethiopia should strengthen TB/HIV collaborative activities to mitigate the double burden of diseases.
Project description:Introduction:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in a gradual depletion of immune function, particularly CD4 cells. The CD4 assessment plays a significant role in assessing treatment responses and clinical decision-making for patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. However, new data on CD4 count changes are scarce; the volatility of CD4 counts after initiation of ART over time remains largely uncharacterized. This study aimed to identify the predictors of CD4 changes over time among HIV-infected children who began ART in Amhara, Ethiopia. Methods:A retrospective follow-up study was performed. A total of 983 HIV-infected children who initiated ART in government hospitals in the Amhara region between 2010 and 2016 were included using a simple random sampling technique. Data were extracted using a structured checklist. An exploratory data analysis was carried out to explain individual and average profile plots. The linear mixed model was used to identify the CD4 change count predictors over time. Variables with p value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant in a multivariable linear mixed regression analysis. Results:The mean CD4 count of the participants was 465.1 cells/mm3 with an average CD4 count increase of 30.06 cells/mm3 over 6 months from baseline CD4 count and ART initiation. Childhood age (? = - 0.015; 95% Cl - 0.021, - 0.009), opportunistic infection at ART initiation (? = - 0.044, 95% CI - 0.085, - 0.004), hemoglobin level (? = 0.013; 95% CI 0.004, 0.022), and baseline WHO clinical stage II (? = - 0.046, 95% CI - 0.091, - 0.0003) were significant predictors of CD4 changes over time. Conclusions:The average CD4 count increase was sufficient in HIV patients who began combined antiretroviral therapy over time. The younger age of the infant, the higher baseline level of hemoglobin, the baseline WHO clinical stage II, and opportunistic infections led to changes in CD4 counts. As a result, timely diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections will reduce the risk of opportunistic infections.
Project description:<h4>Backgrounds</h4>Pregnancy related complications are major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diversified food consumption is essential to produce hormones during pregnancy and it reduced complications. In Ethiopia, many researchers were investigated about the proportion of pregnant women with dietary diversity and its determinant factors. However, those studies are inconsistent and fragmented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the pooled proportion of pregnant women with dietary diversity practice and its associated factors in Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a systematic electronic web-based search of PubMed/ /MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Google online databases for identifying studies on proportion of pregnant women with dietary diversity practice and its associated factors in Ethiopia using pre-defined quality and inclusion criteria. STATA version 14 statistical software was used to analyze the data. We extracted relevant data and presented in tabular form. The I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity across studies. Funnel plot asymmetry and Begg's test were used to check for publication bias. The final effect size was determined by applying a random-effects model.<h4>Results</h4>Our search identified 170 studies. Of which, 23 were included in the final analysis stage. The pooled proportion of dietary diversity among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 41% (95% CI: 33, 49). Mothers can read and write (OR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.64)), maternal primary school and above educated (OR = 2.11 (95% CI: 1.10, 4.05)), nutritional information (OR = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.1, 7.99), dietary diversity knowledge (OR = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.73, 4.73)) and household had rich wealth index (OR = 3.45 (95% CI: 1.19, 10.1)) were significantly associated with dietary diversity practice during pregnancy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this meta-analysis; we found that low proportion of pregnant women with adequate dietary diversity in Ethiopia (41%). Maternal education, nutritional information, dietary diversity knowledge and wealth index level of household were significantly associated factors of pregnant woman with dietary diversity practice. This finding implies that improving the awareness of woman about dietary diversity during pregnancy and empowering women economically would play a significant role to improve dietary diversity practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective means of public health interventions to prevent childhood deaths from infectious diseases. Although several fragmented studies have been conducted concerning full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23?months in Ethiopia, the pooled estimate has not been determined so far. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of full vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23?months in Ethiopian. METHODS:To find potentially relevant studies, we systematically searched five major databases (i.e., PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct). This review included community based cross-sectional studies reported in English language; had good quality, and published from the 1st of January 2000 to the 20th of November 2019. Data were analyzed using Stata™ Version 14.1 software. The pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were presented using forest plots. Higgins and Egger's tests were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias, respectively. Primary estimates were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model. RESULTS:Of the total of 851 identified articles 21 studies involving 12,094 children met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The included studies sample size ranged from 173 to 923. The lowest proportion of full vaccination coverage was reported from Afar Region [21% (95% CI: 18, 24%)], whereas the highest proportion of full vaccination coverage was reported from Amhara Region [73% (95% CI: 67, 79%)]. The overall prevalence of full vaccination coverage among children in Ethiopia was 60% (95% CI: 51, 69%). CONCLUSIONS:Our finding suggested that six in every 10 children in Ethiopia were fully vaccinated. However, this finding is much lower than the World Health Organization recommended rate. Moreover, high regional variations in terms of full vaccination coverage across the country was observed. Therefore, a special attention should be given to improve the overall childhood vaccination coverage.
Project description:Iron metabolism and anemia may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and erythrocyte indices) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explored their prognostic value. Six bibliographic databases were searched up to August 3rd 2020. We included 189 unique studies, with data from 57,563 COVID-19 patients. Pooled mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients across all ages were 129.7 g/L (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 128.51; 130.88) and 777.33 ng/mL (95% CI, 701.33; 852.77), respectively. Hemoglobin levels were lower with older age, higher percentage of subjects with diabetes, hypertension and overall comorbidities, and admitted to intensive care. Ferritin level increased with older age, increasing proportion of hypertensive study participants, and increasing proportion of mortality. Compared to moderate cases, severe COVID-19 cases had lower hemoglobin [weighted mean difference (WMD),?-?4.08 g/L (95% CI?-?5.12;?-?3.05)] and red blood cell count [WMD,?-?0.16?×?1012 /L (95% CI?-?0.31;?-?0.014)], and higher ferritin [WMD,?-?473.25 ng/mL (95% CI 382.52; 563.98)] and red cell distribution width [WMD, 1.82% (95% CI 0.10; 3.55)]. A significant difference in mean ferritin levels of 606.37 ng/mL (95% CI 461.86; 750.88) was found between survivors and non-survivors, but not in hemoglobin levels. Future studies should explore the impact of iron metabolism and anemia in the pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of COVID-19.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malnutrition on the background of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a complex medical condition that carries significant morbidity and mortality for affected children, with greater mortality from SAM (Severe Acute Malnutrition) among HIV-positive children than their HIV-negative peers. HIV-induced immune impairment heightened risk of opportunistic infection and can worsen nutritional status of children. HIV infection often leads to nutritional deficiencies through decreased food intake, mal-absorption and increased utilization and excretion of nutrients, which in turn can hasten death. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa. METHODS:The authors systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed studies that assessed the prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Gray Literatures using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guideline. The last search date was December 30/2019. The data was extracted in excel sheet considering country, study design, year of publication, prevalence reported. Then the authors transformed the data to STATA 14 for analysis. Heterogeneity across the studies was assessed by the Q and the I2 test. A weighted inverse variance random-effects model was used to estimate the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting. The subgroup analysis was done by country, year of publication, and study design. To examine publication bias, a funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used. RESULTS:For the analysis a total of 22 studies with 22074 patients were used. The pooled prevalence of under-weight, wasting, and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa was found to be 41.63% (95%CI; 35.69-47.57; I2 = 98.7%; p<0.001), 24.65% (95%CI; 18.34-30.95; I2 = 99.2%; p<0.001), and 49.68% (95%CI; 42.59-56.77; I2 = 99.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 49.67% in Ethiopia followed by 42.00 in Rwanda. It was high among cohort studies (44.87%). Based on the year of publication, the prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 40.88% from studies conducted from January 2008-December 2014, while it was 43.68% from studies conducted from 2015-2019. The prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be 29.7% in Tanzania followed by 24.94% in Ethiopia. Based on the study design, the prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be high in cohort studies (31.15%). The prevalence of stunting among HIV positive children was found to be 51.63% in Ethiopia, followed by 48.21% in Uganda. CONCLUSIONS:The results presented above provide evidence of a higher prevalence of under nutrition among HIV positive children in East Africa. Despite the country level variations of child under nutrition in East Africa, still it is high in all aspects compared to the studies from other parts of Africa. It is recommended that further systematic review and meta-analysis need to be conducted on magnitude of malnutrition among HIV positive children in Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) and HV have been intertwined and makeup a deadly human syndemic worldwide, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Previous studies have reported different TB incidences and its association with CD4+ T cell counts among HIV positive patients in Ethiopia. Thus, the goal of this meta-analysis was, first, to determine pooled incident TB among adult HIV positive patients, and second, to assess the association between incident TB and baseline CD4+ T cell count strata's. METHODS:We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Science Direct and Google scholar databases from June 1 to 30, 2018. The I2 statistics and Egger's regression test was used to determine heterogeneity and publication bias among included studies respectively. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled incident TB and odds ratio with the respective 95% confidence intervals using Stata version 11.0 statistical software. RESULTS:A total of 403 research articles were identified, and 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled incident TB among adult HIV infected patients in Ethiopia was 16.58% (95% CI; 13.25-19.91%). Specifically, TB incidence in Pre-ART and ART was 17.16% (95% CI; 7.95-26.37%) and 16.24% (95% CI; 12.63-19.84%) respectively. Moreover, incident TB among ART receiving patients with baseline CD4+ T cell count < and > 200 cells/mm3 was 28.86% (95% CI; 18.73-38.98%) and 13.7% (95% CI; 1.41-25.98%) correspondingly. The odds of getting incident TB was 2.88 (95% CI; 1.55-5.35%) for patients with baseline CD4+ T cell count <?200 cells/mm3 compared to patients with baseline CD4+ T cell count >?200 cells/mm3. CONCLUSION:High incident TB among adult HIV positive patients was estimated, especially in patients with CD4+ T cell count <?200 cells/mm3. Therefore, Early HIV screening and ART initiation, as well as strict compliance with ART and increasing the coverage of TB preventive therapy to more risky groups are important to prevent the problem. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Study protocol registration: CRD42018090802.