A Pharmacogenomic Landscape in Human Liver Cancers.
ABSTRACT: Liver cancers are highly heterogeneous with poor prognosis and drug response. A better understanding between genetic alterations and drug responses would facilitate precision treatment for liver cancers. To characterize the landscape of pharmacogenomic interactions in liver cancers, we developed a protocol to establish human liver cancer cell models at a success rate of around 50% and generated the Liver Cancer Model Repository (LIMORE) with 81 cell models. LIMORE represented genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity of primary cancers. Interrogation of the pharmacogenomic landscape of LIMORE discovered unexplored gene-drug associations, including synthetic lethalities to prevalent alterations in liver cancers. Moreover, predictive biomarker candidates were suggested for the selection of sorafenib-responding patients. LIMORE provides a rich resource facilitating drug discovery in liver cancers.
Project description:Gene mutations play critical roles during cancer development and progression, and therefore represent targets for precision medicine. Here we recapitulated the pharmacogenomic data to delineate novel candidates for actionable mutations and therapeutic target drugs. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated that the loss-of-function of SULF2 by mutation (N491K) or inhibition enhanced sorafenib sensitivity in liver cancer cells and in vivo mouse models. This effect was mediated by deregulation of EGFR signaling and downstream expression of LCN2. We also report that the liver cancer patients non-responding to sorafenib treatment exhibit higher expression of SULF2 and LCN2. In conclusion, we suggest that SULF2 plays a key role in sorafenib susceptibility and resistance in liver cancer via deregulation of LCN2. Diagnostic or therapeutic targeting of SULF2 (e.g., OKN-007) and/or LCN2 can be a novel precision strategy for sorafenib treatment in cancer patients. Overall design: The analysis of gene expression profiling according to SULF2 condition.
Project description:Emerging evidence has revealed significant roles for small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in tumorigenesis. However, the genetic and pharmacogenomic landscape of snoRNAs has not been characterized. Using the genotype and snoRNA expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we characterized the effects of genetic variants on snoRNAs across 29 cancer types and further linked related alleles with patient survival as well as genome-wide association study risk loci. Furthermore, we characterized the impact of snoRNA expression on drug response in patients to facilitate the clinical utility of snoRNAs in cancer. We also developed a user-friendly data resource, GPSno (http://hanlab.uth.edu/GPSno), with multiple modules for researchers to visualize, browse, and download multi-dimensional data. Our study provides a comprehensive genetic and pharmacogenomic landscape of snoRNAs, which will shed light on future clinical considerations for the development of snoRNA-based targeted therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer is among the most lethal human malignancies. Previous studies have identified molecular aberrations that constitute dynamic biological networks and genomic complexities of gastric tumors. However, the clinical translation of molecular-guided targeted therapy is hampered by challenges. Notably, solid tumors often harbor multiple genetic alterations, complicating the development of effective treatments. METHODS:To address such challenges, we established a comprehensive dataset of molecularly annotated patient derivatives coupled with pharmacological profiles for 60 targeted agents to explore dynamic pharmacogenomic interactions in gastric cancers. RESULTS:We identified lineage-specific drug sensitivities based on histopathological and molecular subclassification, including substantial sensitivities toward VEGFR and EGFR inhibition therapies in diffuse- and signet ring-type gastric tumors, respectively. We identified potential therapeutic opportunities for WNT pathway inhibitors in ALK-mutant tumors, a significant association between PIK3CA-E542K mutation and AZD5363 response, and transcriptome expression of RNF11 as a potential predictor of response to gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our results demonstrate the feasibility of drug screening combined with tumor molecular characterization to facilitate personalized therapeutic regimens for gastric tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gynecologic malignancy is one of the leading causes of mortality in female adults worldwide. Comprehensive genomic analysis has revealed a list of molecular aberrations that are essential to tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis of gynecologic tumors. However, targeting such alterations has frequently led to treatment failures due to underlying genomic complexity and simultaneous activation of various tumor cell survival pathway molecules. A compilation of molecular characterization of tumors with pharmacological drug response is the next step toward clinical application of patient-tailored treatment regimens. RESULTS:Toward this goal, we establish a library of 139 gynecologic tumors including epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs), cervical, endometrial tumors, and uterine sarcomas that are genomically and/or pharmacologically annotated and explore dynamic pharmacogenomic associations against 37 molecularly targeted drugs. We discover lineage-specific drug sensitivities based on subcategorization of gynecologic tumors and identify TP53 mutation as a molecular determinant that elicits therapeutic response to poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. We further identify transcriptome expression of inhibitor of DNA biding 2 (ID2) as a potential predictive biomarker for treatment response to olaparib. CONCLUSIONS:Together, our results demonstrate the potential utility of rapid drug screening combined with genomic profiling for precision treatment of gynecologic cancers.
Project description:As the first oral multi-target anti-tumor drug proved for the treatment of patients with advanced liver cancer in 2007, sorafenib has changed the landscape of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. However, drug resistance largely hinders its clinical application. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding (lncRNAs), have recently been demonstrated playing critical roles in a variety of cancers including HCC, while the mechanisms of ncRNAs in HCC sorafenib resistance have not been extensively characterized yet. Herein, we summarize the mechanisms of recently reported ncRNAs involved in sorafenib resistance and discuss the potential strategies for their application in the battle against HCC.
Project description:An individual tumor harbors multiple molecular alterations that promote cell proliferation and prevent apoptosis and differentiation. Drugs that target specific molecular alterations have been introduced into personalized cancer medicine, but their effects can be modulated by the activities of other genes or molecules. Previous studies aiming to identify multiple molecular alterations for combination therapies are limited by available data. Given the recent large scale of available pharmacogenomic data, it is possible to systematically identify multiple biomarkers that contribute jointly to drug sensitivity, and to identify combination therapies for personalized cancer medicine. In this study, we used pharmacogenomic profiling data provided from two independent cohorts in a systematic in silico investigation of perturbed genes cooperatively associated with drug sensitivity. Our study predicted many pairs of molecular biomarkers that may benefit from the use of combination therapies. One of our predicted biomarker pairs, a mutation in the BRAF gene and upregulated expression of the PIM1 gene, was experimentally validated to benefit from a therapy combining BRAF inhibitor and PIM1 inhibitor in lung cancer. This study demonstrates how pharmacogenomic data can be used to systematically identify potentially cooperative genes and provide novel insights to combination therapies in personalized cancer medicine.
Project description:In recent decades the identification of pharmacogenomic gene-drug associations has evolved tremendously. Despite this progress, a major fraction of the heritable inter-individual variability remains elusive. Higher-dimensional phenomena, such as gene-gene-drug interactions, in which variability in multiple genes synergizes to precipitate an observable phenotype have been suggested to account at least for part of this missing heritability. However, the identification of such intricate relationships remains difficult partly because of analytical challenges associated with the complexity explosion of the problem. To facilitate the identification of such combinatorial pharmacogenetic associations, we here propose a network analysis strategy. Specifically, we analyzed the landscape of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters for 100 top selling drugs as well as all compounds with pharmacogenetic germline labels or dosing guidelines. Based on this data, we calculated the posterior probabilities that gene i is involved in metabolism, transport or toxicity of a given drug under the condition that another gene j is involved for all pharmacogene pairs (i, j). Interestingly, these analyses revealed significant patterns between individual genes and across pharmacogene families that provide insights into metabolic interactions. To visualize the gene-drug interaction landscape, we use multidimensional scaling to collapse this similarity matrix into a two-dimensional network. We suggest that Euclidian distance between nodes can inform about the likelihood of epistatic interactions and thus might provide a useful tool to reduce the search space and facilitate the identification of combinatorial pharmacogenomic associations.
Project description:The extent to which pharmacogenomic-guided medication use has been adopted in various health systems is unclear. To assess the uptake of pharmacogenomic-guided medication use, we determined its frequency across our health system, which does not have a structured testing program. Using a multisite clinical data repository, we identified adult patients' first prescribed medications between January 2011 and December 2013 and investigated the frequency of germline and somatic pharmacogenomic testing, by the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase level of the US Food and Drug Administration label information. There were 268,262 medication orders for drugs with germline pharmacogenomic testing information in their drug labels. Pharmacogenomic testing was detected for 1.5% (129/8,718) of medication orders with recommended or required testing. Of the 3,817 medication orders associated with somatic pharmacogenomic testing information in their drug labels, 20% (372/1,819) of required tests were detected. The low rates of detectable pharmacogenomic testing suggest that structured testing programs are required to achieve the success of precision medicine.
Project description:The PharmacoGenomic Mutation Database (PGMD) is a comprehensive manually curated pharmacogenomics database. Two major sources of PGMD data are peer-reviewed literature and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) drug labels. PGMD curators capture information on exact genomic location and sequence changes, on resulting phenotype, drugs administered, patient population, study design, disease context, statistical significance and other properties of reported pharmacogenomic variants. Variants are annotated into functional categories on the basis of their influence on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy or clinical outcome. The current release of PGMD includes over 117 000 unique pharmacogenomic observations, covering all 24 disease superclasses and nearly 1400 drugs. Over 2800 genes have associated pharmacogenomic variants, including genes in proximity to intergenic variants. PGMD is optimized for use in annotating next-generation sequencing data by providing genomic coordinates for all covered variants, including Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, haplotypes, diplotypes, Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), copy number variations and structural variations.
Project description:Modern research in the biomedical sciences is data-driven utilizing high-throughput technologies to generate big genomic data. The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) is an example for a large-scale genomic data repository providing hundred thousands of high-dimensional gene expression measurements for thousands of drugs and dozens of cell lines. However, the remaining challenge is how to use these data effectively for pharmacogenomics. In this paper, we use LINCS data to construct drug association networks (DANs) representing the relationships between drugs. By using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of drugs we demonstrate that the DANs represent a systems pharmacogenomic landscape of drugs summarizing the entire LINCS repository on a genomic scale meaningfully. Here we identify the modules of the DANs as therapeutic attractors of the ATC drug classes.