Activation, Deficiency, and Reduced IFN-? Production of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
ABSTRACT: Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that can activate either in response to T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement or through activating cytokines and play an important role in autoimmune disorders. The study examined the level and function of MAIT cells in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Circulating MAIT cell levels were significantly reduced in IBD patients. This MAIT cell deficiency was correlated with IBD disease activity grades, hemoglobin, and CRP. IFN-? production of circulating MAIT cells in response to both MHC class 1b-like related protein (MR1)-dependent and -independent stimulations was decreased in IBD patients, which was partially associated with reduced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) transcription factor, a main regulator of IFN-? production. Expression levels of CD69, programmed death-1 (PD-1), and annexin V in MAIT cells were elevated in IBD patients. CCL20, CXCL10, CXCL16, and CCL25 were expressed higher in inflamed intestinal tissues than in noninflamed tissues. This study demonstrates that circulating MAIT cells are activated and numerically and functionally deficient in IBD patients. Furthermore, activated MAIT cells have the potential to migrate to inflamed tissues. These findings suggest an important role of MAIT cells in mucosal immunity in IBD.
Project description:Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with low-grade inflammation, activation of immune cells, and alterations of the gut microbiota. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, which are innate-like T cells that recognize bacterial ligands, are present in blood and enriched in mucosal and inflamed tissues. Here, we analyzed MAIT cells in the blood and adipose tissues of patients with T2D and/or severe obesity. We determined that circulating MAIT cell frequency was dramatically decreased in both patient groups, and this population was even undetectable in some obese patients. Moreover, in both patient groups, circulating MAIT cells displayed an activated phenotype that was associated with elevated Th1 and Th17 cytokine production. In obese patients, MAIT cells were more abundant in adipose tissue than in the blood and exhibited a striking IL-17 profile. Bariatric surgery in obese patients not only improved their metabolic parameters but also increased circulating MAIT cell frequency at 3 months after surgery. Similarly, cytokine production by blood MAIT cells was strongly decreased after surgery. This study reveals profound MAIT cell abnormalities in patients harboring metabolic disorders, suggesting their potential role in these pathologies.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an antimicrobial MR1-restricted T cell subset and play an important role in immune defense response to bacteria. However, little is known about the role of MAIT cells in cancer. The aims of this study were to examine the level and function of MAIT cells in cancer patients and to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels. Ninety-nine patients with cancer and 20 healthy controls were included in this study. Circulating MAIT cell levels were significantly reduced in patients with mucosal-associated cancers (MACs), such as gastric, colon and lung cancers, but their capacities for IFN-?, IL-17, or TNF-? production were preserved. This MAIT cell deficiency was significantly correlated with N staging and carcinoembryonic antigen level. Percentages of MAIT cells were significantly higher in cancer tissue than in peripheral blood and immunofluorescent labeling showed MAIT cell infiltration into colon cancer tissues. Circulating MAIT cells exhibited high levels of CCR6 and CXCR6, and their corresponding chemokines, such as CCL20 and CXCL16, were strongly expressed in colon cancer tissues. Activated MAIT cells not only had lymphokine-activated killer activity, but they also had direct cytotoxicity on K562 cells via degranulation of granzyme B and perforin. This study primarily demonstrates that circulating MAIT cells are reduced in MAC patients due to migration to mucosal cancer tissues and they have the potential to kill cancer cells. In addition, this circulating MAIT cell deficiency is related to the degree of cancer progression in mucosal tissues.
Project description:Bioactive peptides secreted by probiotic Bifidobacterium longum (peptide B7) and opportunistic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis (peptide B12) modulate the intestinal cytokine milieu in health. Here, we characterized their capacity to modulate both the mucosal cytokine production and the phenotype of circulating antigen presenting cells (APCs) in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The IBD mucosa produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines referred to healthy controls (HCs). Peptides B7 and B12, however, did not ameliorate the mucosal cytokine milieu in IBD. Human circulating APCs (B-cells, monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs)) were characterized by flow cytometry in presence/absence of the peptides. Circulating B-cells, monocytes, and cDCs from IBD patients were more activated than those from HCs. Peptide B7, but not B12, decreased CCR2 expression on all APC subsets from HC, but not IBD patients. Moreover, both peptides tend to further increase their pro-inflammatory profile in IBD. In summary, IBD patients display mucosal and circulating APC pro-inflammatory properties. Peptide B7 immunomodulatory capacity elicited over circulating APCs from HC, but not IBD patients, suggests the presence of disrupted modulatory mechanisms for this peptide in IBD. Future studies should address the effect of bacteria-derived immunomodulatory peptides in non-inflamed (quiescent) IBD patients.
Project description:Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important for immune defense against infectious pathogens and regulate the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. However, their roles in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are still unclear. This study examined the phenotype, distribution, clinical relevance and potential function of MAIT cells in CRC patients. We found that the percentages of circulating memory CD8(+) MAIT cells were significantly reduced while tumor infiltrating MAIT cells were increased, especially in patients with advanced CRC. The serum CEA levels were positively correlated with the percentages of tumor infiltrating MAIT cells in CRC patients, but negatively correlated with the percentages of circulating MAIT in advanced CRC patients. Activated circulating MAIT cells from CRC patients produced lower IFN-?, but higher IL-17. Furthermore, higher levels of V?7.2-J?33, IFN-? and IL-17A were expressed in the CRC tissues. Co-culture of activated MAIT cells with HCT116 cells enhanced IL-17 expression and induced HCT116 cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a contact- and dose-dependent manner, which was abrogated by treatment with anti-MR1. Therefore, MAIT cells preferably infiltrate into the solid tumor in CRC patients and may participate in the immune surveillance of CRC.
Project description:Conventional memory CD8(+) T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are found in blood, liver, and mucosal tissues and have similar effector potential following activation, specifically expression of IFN-? and granzyme B. To better understand each subset's unique contributions to immunity and pathology, we interrogated inflammation- and TCR-driven activation requirements using human memory CD8(+) T and MAIT cells isolated from blood and mucosal tissue biopsies in ex vivo functional assays and single cell gene expression experiments. We found that MAIT cells had a robust IFN-? and granzyme B response to inflammatory signals but limited responsiveness when stimulated directly via their TCR. Importantly, this is not due to an overall hyporesponsiveness to TCR signals. When delivered together, TCR and inflammatory signals synergize to elicit potent effector function in MAIT cells. This unique control of effector function allows MAIT cells to respond to the same TCR signal in a dichotomous and situation-specific manner. We propose that this could serve to prevent responses to antigen in noninflamed healthy mucosal tissue, while maintaining responsiveness and great sensitivity to inflammation-eliciting infections. We discuss the implications of these findings in context of inflammation-inducing damage to tissues such as BM transplant conditioning or HIV infection.
Project description:Many mediators and regulators of extravasation by bona fide human memory-phenotype T cells remain undefined. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like, antibacterial cells that we found excelled at crossing inflamed endothelium. They displayed abundant selectin ligands, with high expression of FUT7 and ST3GAL4, and expressed CCR6, CCR5, and CCR2, which played non-redundant roles in trafficking on activated endothelial cells. MAIT cells selectively expressed CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBP?). Knockdown of C/EBP? diminished expression of FUT7, ST3GAL4 and CCR6, decreasing MAIT cell rolling and arrest, and consequently the cells' ability to cross an endothelial monolayer in vitro and extravasate in mice. Nonetheless, knockdown of C/EBP? did not affect CCR2, which was important for the step of transendothelial migration. Thus, MAIT cells demonstrate a program for extravasastion that includes, in part, C/EBP? and C/EBP?-regulated genes, and that could be used to enhance, or targeted to inhibit T cell recruitment into inflamed tissue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections. However, little is known about the role of MAIT cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the level and function of MAIT cells in patients with scrub typhus and to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Thirty-eight patients with scrub typhus and 53 health control subjects were enrolled in the study. The patients were further divided into subgroups according to disease severity. MAIT cell level and function in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT cell levels were found to be significantly reduced in scrub typhus patients. MAIT cell deficiency reflects a variety of clinical conditions. In particular, MAT cell levels reflect disease severity. MAIT cells in scrub typhus patients displayed impaired tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production, which was restored during the remission phase. In addition, the impaired production of TNF-? by MAIT cells was associated with elevated CD69 expression. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that circulating MAIT cells are activated, numerically deficient, and functionally impaired in TNF-? production in patients with scrub typhus. These abnormalities possibly contribute to immune system dysregulation in scrub typhus infection.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells rapidly produce proinflammatory cytokines in an innate-like manner and play an important role in controlling the host immune response. This study examined the function of MAIT cells in trauma patients. The expression of cytokines in peripheral blood MAIT cells was measured by flow cytometry. MAIT cells in trauma patients displayed impaired tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, together with elevated CD69 expression. The expression of CD69 was negatively correlated with MAIT cell frequency. These patients had higher plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18. In particular, CD69 expression of MAIT cells was increased by stimulation with IL-18 in synergy with other proinflammatory cytokines or plasma of trauma patients. The production of TNF-α by MAIT cells was characterized by an initial burst and rapid decline, in contrast to delayed and sustained production of interferon (IFN)-γ. Activated MAIT cells showed a functional defect in the production of TNF-α upon restimulation. This study demonstrates that circulating MAIT cells are activated and functionally impaired in TNF-α production in patients with trauma. The activation and dysfunction of MAIT cells was mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. These findings provide important information underlying the innate immune response of patients with trauma.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted T-cell subset. MAIT cells are CD161(+), express a V7.2 TCR, are primarily CD8(+) and numerous in blood and mucosal tissues. However, their role in HIV-1 infection is unknown. In this study, we found levels of MAIT cells to be severely reduced in circulation in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection. Residual MAIT cells were highly activated and functionally exhausted. Their decline was associated with time since diagnosis, activation levels, and the concomitant expansion of a subset of functionally impaired CD161(+) V7.2(+) T cells. Such cells were generated in vitro by exposure of MAIT cells to Escherichia coli. Notably, whereas the function of residual MAIT cells was at least partly restored by effective antiretroviral therapy, levels of MAIT cells in peripheral blood were not restored. Interestingly, MAIT cells in rectal mucosa were relatively preserved, although some of the changes seen in blood were recapitulated in the mucosa. These findings are consistent with a model in which the MAIT-cell compartment, possibly as a result of persistent exposure to microbial material, is engaged, activated, exhausted, and progressively and persistently depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel population of innate-like lymphocytes, have been involved in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, their role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the alterations of phenotype and immunological function of MAIT cells in NAFLD. Analysis of PBMCs in 60 patients with NAFLD and 48 healthy controls (HC) revealed that circulating MAIT cell frequency decreased in NAFLD, especially in the patients with higher serum levels of ?-glutamyl transferase or total triglyceride. Functional alterations of circulating MAIT cells were also detected in NAFLD patients, such as the increased production of IL-4 whereas the decreased production of IFN-? and TNF-?. Furthermore, elevated expression of CXCR6 was observed in circulating MAIT cells of patients. Meanwhile, we found an increased number of MAIT cells in the livers of NAFLD, and the number was even greater in patients with higher NAFLD activity score. Moreover, activated MAIT cells induced monocytes/macrophages differentiation into M2 phenotype in vitro. Additionally, MAIT cells were enriched and displayed Th2 type cytokines profile in livers of wild type mice fed with methionine and choline deficient diet (MCD). Notably, mice deficient of MAIT cells exhibited more severe hepatic steatosis and inflammation upon MCD, accompanied with more CD11c+ proinflammatory macrophages (M1) and less CD206+ anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2) in livers. Our results indicate that MAIT cells protect against inflammation in NAFLD through producing regulatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization, which may provide novel therapeutic strategies for NAFLD.