Diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy for pigmented skin lesions presenting dermoscopic features of cutaneous melanoma
ABSTRACT: Introduction The incidence and mortality of melanoma are rising rapidly. Despite ongoing research and the introduction of new therapeutic methods, advanced melanoma is still considered incurable. Early detection and surgical excision of the tumor increases patients’ survival. Since the diagnostic protocol includes surgical excision of all suspicious lesions, it is burdened with a high rate of unnecessary excisions that cause unwanted scarring. This is why the development of accurate diagnostic techniques is crucial. The most common diagnostic tool in early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is dermoscopy, though there are emerging new techniques, such as reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Aim To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy as a secondary examination in melanocytic lesions previously diagnosed as melanomas by means of dermoscopy. Material and methods Forty-six melanocytic lesions presenting dermoscopic features of cutaneous malignant melanoma were examined by means of reflectance confocal microscopy. Results The RCM evaluation showed sensitivity at the level of 100% and specificity at 62%. Conclusions It can be estimated that double evaluation of melanocytic lesions by dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy may allow up to 62% of unnecessary excisions to be avoided.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) as a stand-alone diagnostic tool for suspect skin lesions has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE:Primary aim was to measure experts' accuracy in RCM-based management decisions. Secondary aim was to identify melanoma-specific RCM features. METHODS:The study enrolled patients ?18 years that underwent biopsy of skin lesions clinically suspected to be melanoma. One hundred lesions imaged by RCM were randomly selected from 439 lesions prospectively collected at four pigmented lesion clinics. The study data set included 23 melanomas, three basal cell and two squamous cell carcinomas, 11 indeterminate melanocytic lesions and 61 benign lesions including 50 nevi. Three expert RCM evaluators were blinded to clinical or dermoscopic images, and to the final histopathological diagnosis. Evaluators independently issued a binary RCM-based management decision, 'biopsy' vs. 'observation'; these decisions were scored against histopathological diagnosis, with 'biopsy' as the correct management decision for malignant and indeterminate lesions. A subset analysis of 23 melanomas and 50 nevi with unequivocal histopathological diagnosis was performed to identify melanoma-specific RCM features. RESULTS:Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 74%, 67% and 70% for reader 1, 46%, 84% and 69% for reader 2, and 72%, 46% and 56% for reader 3, respectively. The overall kappa for management decisions was 0.34. Readers had unanimous agreement on management for 50 of the 100 lesions. Non-specific architecture, non-visible papillae, streaming of nuclei, coarse collagen fibres and abnormal vasculature showed a significant association with melanoma in the evaluation of at least two readers. CONCLUSIONS:Reflectance confocal microscopy tele-consultation of especially challenging lesions, based on image review without benefit of clinical or dermoscopy images, may be associated with limited diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement. Architectural and stromal criteria may emerge as potentially useful and reproducible criteria for melanoma diagnosis.
Project description:Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) together with dermoscopy enables improved differentiation of melanomas from most nevi. The resulting high sensitivity for detecting melanoma with RCM is complemented by a concomitant increased specificity, which results in the reduction of unnecessary biopsies of nevi. Although RCM can achieve high diagnostic accuracy for early melanoma detection, false-negative and false-positive cases of melanoma are occasionally encountered. This article reviews the essential clues and pitfalls for the diagnosis of melanoma via RCM and highlights the importance of evaluating RCM findings in light of the clinical scenario and dermoscopic features.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Benign and malignant facial skin lesions may be difficult to differentiate clinically and with dermoscopy. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) as a second-level examination for facial skin neoplasms. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Retrospective and blinded evaluation of 160 consecutive facial lesions was carried out in two separate steps. Clinical and dermoscopic images were assessed first, followed by combined evaluation of clinical/dermoscopic and RCM images. Our study included 60 % malignant lesions, comprising 43 % melanomas, 9 % basal cell carcinomas, 5 % in situ squamous cell carcinomas and 3 % lymphomas. RESULTS:Ancillary RCM significantly improved diagnostic specificity for the detection of malignancy compared to clinical/dermoscopic evaluation alone (58 % vs 28 %). However, sensitivity was slightly lower for RCM-based image evaluation (93 % vs 95 %) due to misclassification of one in situ SCC and one lymphoma. In terms of melanoma diagnosis, RCM-based image evaluation was generally superior; sensitivity was only slightly increased (88 % vs 87 %), but melanoma specificity was significantly higher (84 % vs 58 %). CONCLUSION:RCM is a valuable diagnostic adjunct for facial skin lesions; unnecessary biopsies in this cosmetically sensitive area could be reduced by one third without missing a melanoma.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Most skin lesions first present in primary care, where distinguishing rare melanomas from benign lesions can be challenging. Dermoscopy improves diagnostic accuracy among specialists and is promoted for use by primary care physicians (PCPs). However, when used by untrained clinicians, accuracy may be no better than visual inspection. This study aimed to undertake a systematic review of literature reporting use of dermoscopy to triage suspicious skin lesions in primary care settings, and challenges for implementation.<h4>Design</h4>A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis.<h4>Data sources</h4>We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and SCOPUS bibliographic databases from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2017, without language restrictions.<h4>Inclusion criteria</h4>Studies including assessment of dermoscopy accuracy, acceptability to patients and PCPs, training requirements, and cost-effectiveness of dermoscopy modes in primary care, including trials, diagnostic accuracy and acceptability studies.<h4>Results</h4>23 studies met the review criteria, representing 49?769 lesions and 3708 PCPs, all from high-income countries. There was a paucity of studies set truly in primary care and the outcomes measured were diverse. The heterogeneity therefore made meta-analysis unfeasible; the data were synthesised through narrative review. Dermoscopy, with appropriate training, was associated with improved diagnostic accuracy for melanoma and benign lesions, and reduced unnecessary excisions and referrals. Teledermoscopy-based referral systems improved triage accuracy. Only three studies examined cost-effectiveness; hence, there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions. Costs, training and time requirements were considered important implementation barriers. Patient satisfaction was seldom assessed. Computer-aided dermoscopy and other technological advances have not yet been tested in primary care.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dermoscopy could help PCPs triage suspicious lesions for biopsy, urgent referral or reassurance. However, it will be important to establish further evidence on minimum training requirements to reach competence, as well as the cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability of implementing dermoscopy in primary care.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>CRD42018091395.
Project description:Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an imaging device that permits non-invasive visualization of cellular morphology and has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopically equivocal cutaneous lesions. The application of double reader concordance evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets in retrospective settings and its potential application to telemedicine evaluation has not been tested in a large study population.To improve diagnostic sensitivity of RCM image diagnosis using a double reader concordance evaluation approach; to reduce mismanagement of equivocal cutaneous lesions in retrospective consultation and telemedicine settings.1000 combined dermoscopy-RCM image sets were evaluated in blind by 10 readers with advanced training and internship in dermoscopy and RCM evaluation. We compared sensitivity and specificity of single reader evaluation versus double reader concordance evaluation as well as the effect of diagnostic confidence on lesion management in a retrospective setting.Single reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 76.3%, with misdiagnosis of 8 melanomas, 4 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas. Combined double reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 65.5%, with misdiagnosis of 1 in-situ melanoma and 2 basal cell carcinomas.Evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets of cutaneous lesions by single reader evaluation in retrospective settings is limited by sensitivity levels that may result in potential mismanagement of malignant lesions. Double reader blind concordance evaluation may improve the sensitivity of diagnosis and management safety. The use of a second check can be implemented in telemedicine settings where expert consultation and second opinions may be required.
Project description:In the 1980s, the increasing incidence of skin cancers prompted the development of noninvasive medical devices to improve skin cancer diagnosis in daily dermatology practice. As a result of the development of these noninvasive techniques, diagnosis is now established earlier and with better accuracy. These advances are of great benefit to high-risk patients, who previously would have had to undergo several excisions. In this review, we focus on the classic technique of dermoscopy and the more recent digital version, as well as on advanced noninvasive imaging techniques, such as reflectance confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography. On the basis of their specific features, these noninvasive medical devices can be used not only to diagnose and monitor melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers but also to choose the best therapy and follow the patient's response to treatment in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a technique which improves melanoma detection. Optical dermoscopy uses a handheld optical device to observe the skin lesions without recording the images. Sequential digital dermoscopy imaging (SDDI) allows storage of the pictures and their comparison over time. Few studies have compared optical dermoscopy and SDDI from an economic perspective. OBJECTIVE: The present observational study focused on patients with one-to-three atypical melanocytic lesions, i.e. lesions considered as suspicious by optical dermoscopy. It aimed to calculate the "extra-costs" related to the process of melanoma detection. These extra-costs were defined as the costs of excision and pathology of benign lesions and/or the costs of follow-up by SDDI. The objective was to compare these extra-costs when using optical dermoscopy exclusively versus optical dermoscopy with selective use of SDDI. METHODS: In a first group of patients, dermatologists were adequately trained in optical dermoscopy but worked without access to SDDI. They excised all suspicious lesions to rule out melanoma. In a second group, the dermatologists were trained in optical and digital dermoscopy. They had the opportunity of choosing between immediate excision or follow-up by SDDI (with delayed excision if significant change was observed). The comparison of extra-costs in both groups was made possible by a decision tree model and by the division of the extra-costs by the number of melanomas diagnosed in each group. Belgian official tariffs and charges were used. RESULTS: The extra-costs in the first and in the second group were respectively €1,613 and €1,052 per melanoma excised. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Using the Belgian official tariffs and charges, we demonstrated that the selective use of SDDI for patients with one-to-three atypical melanocytic lesions resulted in a significant cost reduction.
Project description:Pigmented facial macules on photodamaged skin are a clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic challenge.To clinically and dermoscopically characterize, by means of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), ambiguous pigmented facial macules and establish a correlation between RCM, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings.A prospective study of ambiguous pigmented facial macules on photodamaged skin was conducted in a tertiary referral center for dermatology between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Sixty-one patients with 63 ambiguous pigmented facial macules and 12 control photodamaged facial areas were included in the study. Melanocyte density in 1-mm basal layers was determined in skin biopsy specimens from all lesions stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical markers (melan-A, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, and SRY-related HMG-box gene 10). Dermoscopic, RCM images, and histopathologic preparations were systematically evaluated for the presence of lentigo maligna (LM) criteria. Confocal evaluation was blinded to clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity of RCM for LM diagnosis and ? value to establish correlations between dermoscopy, RCM, and histopathology were performed.Sensitivity and specificity of RCM for LM diagnosis.Of the 61 patients included in the study, 31 (51%) were women; mean (SD) age was 71.8 (13.1) years. Twenty-four of the 63 (38%) lesions were diagnosed as LM or LM melanoma (LMM) and 39 (62%) as benign pigmented lesions. Reflectance confocal microscopy enhanced the diagnosis of pigmented facial macules with 91.7% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Multivariate analysis showed 2 dermoscopic and 2 confocal features associated with LM or LMM: (1) asymmetric follicular pigmentation and targetlike structures, and (2) round, large pagetoid cells and follicular localization of atypical cells, respectively. Continuous proliferation of atypical melanocytes was found in 21 (88%) LM or LMM and in 3 (77%) benign lesions. Asymmetric pigmented follicular openings by dermoscopy correlated with follicular localization of pagetoid cells by RCM (??=?0.499, P?<?.001). The presence of 3 or more atypical cells at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) by RCM correlated with hyperplasia of melanocytes in hematoxylin-eosin sections (??=?0.422, P?<?.001).Reflectance confocal microscopy improves LM diagnosis in photodamaged skin with good histopathologic correlation although false-positive and false-negative cases exist. False-positives obtained with RCM in photodamaged skin are due to the presence of basal melanocyte hyperplasia and intraepidermal Langerhans cells. Histopathologic features of these lesions sometimes are not enough for a definite diagnosis and immunohistochemical studies may be required.
Project description:Dermoscopy is a convenient tool to diagnose melanocytic lesions, especially nevus and melanoma. Various pigmented structures, including pigment network, dots and globules, and streaks, are observed in dermoscopy. Usually, 2D vertical images are used to explain the correlation of dermoscopy and histopathology. However, because the image of dermoscopy is horizontal, it is difficult for the horizontal view of dermoscopy to refer to the vertical view of histopathology. In our study, we digitally reconstructed 2D horizontal top-down view images and 3D aerial images from 50-100 serial 2D vertical sections by using high-speed scanner and 3D software in 6 cases of melanocytic lesion. Our new technology intuitively explained the histopathological structures corresponding to the dermoscopic structures. This technique could be used as a good educational tool for beginners.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The surgical removal of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) is guided by the pathologic examination of margins. However, the preparation of histopathology is time consuming, labour-intensive and requires separate laboratory infrastructure. Furthermore, when histopathology indicates positive margins, patients must return for re-excisions. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) with a new video-mosaicking approach can noninvasively delineate margins directly on patients and potentially guide surgery in real-time, augmenting the traditional approaches of histopathology. OBJECTIVE:To assess a new peri-operative RCM video-mosaicking approach for comprehensive delineation of NMSC margins on patients in vivo. METHODS:Thirty-five patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) in the Mohs surgery unit at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY were included in the study. RCM imaging was performed before and after the first staged excision by acquiring videos along the surgical margins (epidermal, peripheral and deep dermal) of each wound, which were subsequently processed into video-mosaics. Two RCM evaluators read and assessed video-mosaics, and subsequently compared to the corresponding Mohs frozen histopathology. RESULTS:Reflectance confocal microscopy videos and video-mosaics displayed acceptable imaging quality (resolution and contrast), pre-operatively in 32/35 (91%) NMSC lesions and intra-operatively in 29/35 lesions (83%). Pre-operative delineation of margins correlated with the histopathology in 32/35 (91%) lesions. Intra-operative delineation correlated in 10/14 (71%) lesions for the presence of residual tumour and in 18/21 (86%) lesions for absence. Sensitivity/specificity were 71%/86% and 86%/81% for two RCM video-mosaic evaluators, and overall agreement was 80% and 83% with histopathology, with moderate inter-evaluator agreement (k = 0.59, P ? 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS:Peri-operative RCM video-mosaicking of NMSC margins directly on patients may potentially guide surgery in real-time, serve as an adjunct to histopathology, reduce time spent in clinic and reduce the need for re-excisions. Further testing in larger studies is needed.