Untypically mild phenotype of a patient suffering from Sanfilippo syndrome B with the c.638C>T/c.889C>T (p.Pro213Leu/p.Arg297Ter) mutations in the NAGLU gene.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sanfilippo syndrome B (or mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB [MPS IIIB]) is a severe inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the NAGLU gene, encoding ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase. Dysfunction of this enzyme results in impaired degradation of heparan sulfate, one of glycosaminoglycans, and accumulation of this complex carbohydrate in lysosomes. Severe symptoms occurring in this disease are related to progressive neurodegeneration and include extreme hyperactivity, sleeping problems, aggressive-like behavior, reduced fear, and progressive mental and cognitive deterioration. No cure is currently available for Sanfilippo disease. METHODS:Clinical characterization of the patient's symptoms has been performed. Biochemical analyses included glycosaminoglycan level determination and measurement of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. Molecular analyses included exome sequencing and detailed analysis of the NAGLU gene. Psychological tests included assessment of attention, communication and behavior. RESULTS:We describe a patient with an untypically mild phenotype, who was diagnosed at the age of 13 years. Many cognitive, communication, and motoric functions were preserved in this patient, contrary to vast majority of those suffering from MPS IIIB. The patient is a compound heterozygote (c.638C>T/c.889C>T) in the NAGLU gene, and relatively high residual activity (about 25%) of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase was measured in serum (while no activity of this enzyme could be detected in dry blood spot). CONCLUSIONS:We suggest that the mild phenotype might arise from the partially preserved function of the mutant enzyme (p.Pro213Leu), suggesting the genotype-phenotype correlation in this case.
Project description:Sanfilippo syndrome type B, or mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB), is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). Deficiency in NAGLU disrupts the lysosomal turnover of heparan sulfate (HS), which results in the abnormal accumulation of partially degraded HS in cells and tissues. BMN 250 (NAGLU-insulin-like growth factor 2 [IGF2]) is a recombinant fusion protein developed as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IIIB. The IGF2 peptide on BMN 250 promotes enhanced targeting of the enzyme to lysosomes through its interaction with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. The focus of these studies was to further characterize the ability of NAGLU-IGF2 to clear accumulated HS compared to unmodified NAGLU in primary cellular models of MPS IIIB. Here, we establish distinct primary cell models of MPS IIIB with HS accumulation. These cellular models revealed distinct NAGLU uptake characteristics that depend on the duration of exposure. We found that with sustained exposure, NAGLU uptake and HS clearance occurred independent of known lysosomal targeting signals. In contrast, under conditions of limited exposure duration, NAGLU-IGF2 was taken up more rapidly than the unmodified NAGLU into MPS IIIB primary fibroblasts, astrocytes, and cortical neurons, where it efficiently degraded accumulated HS. These studies illustrate the importance of using physiologically relevant conditions in the evaluation of enzyme replacement therapies in cellular models.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by the deficiency of the enzyme ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) required for heparan sulfate (HS) degradation. The defective lysosomal clearance of undigested HS results in dysfunction of multiple tissues and organs. We recently demonstrated that the murine model of MPS IIIB develops cardiac disease, valvular abnormalities, and ultimately heart failure. To address the molecular mechanisms governing cardiac dysfunctions in MPS IIIB, we generated a model of the disease by silencing NAGLU gene expression in H9C2 rat cardiomyoblasts. NAGLU-depleted H9C2 exhibited accumulation of abnormal lysosomes and a hypertrophic phenotype. Furthermore, we found the specific activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and increased phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) in NAGLU-depleted H9C2. The inhibition of either EGFR or ERKs, using the selective inhibitors AG1478 and PD98059, resulted in the reduction of both lysosomal aberration and hypertrophy in NAGLU-depleted H9C2. We also found increased phosphorylation of c-Src and a reduction of the hypertrophic response in NAGLU-depleted H9C2 transfected with a dominant-negative c-Src. However, c-Src phosphorylation remained unaffected by AG1478 treatment, posing c-Src upstream EGFR activation. Finally, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) protein was found overexpressed in our MPS IIIB cellular model, and its silencing reduced the hypertrophic response. These results indicate that both c-Src and HB-EGF contribute to the hypertrophic phenotype of NAGLU-depleted cardiomyoblasts by synergistically activating EGFR and subsequent signaling, thus suggesting that EGFR pathway inhibition could represent an effective therapeutic approach for MPS IIIB cardiac disease.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB; or Sanfilippo syndrome type B) is a lysosomal disease, due to glycosaminoglycan storage caused by mutations on the alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) gene. The disease is characterized by neurological dysfunction but relatively mild somatic manifestations. No effective treatment is available for affected patients. In the present study, we evaluated the role of a lentiviral vector as the transducing agent of NAGLU cDNA in MPS IIIB fibroblasts. The vector expressed high transduction efficiency and high levels of enzymic activity, 20-fold above normal levels, persisting for at least 2 months. PCR experiments confirmed the integration of the viral vector into the target genome. The NAGLU activity restored by virus infection was sufficient to normalize glycosaminoglycan accumulation, which is directly responsible for the disease phenotype. Metabolic labelling experiments on transduced fibroblasts exhibited, in the medium and in cellular lysates, polypeptide forms of 84 and 80 kDa respectively related to the precursor and mature forms of the enzyme. The enzyme secreted by transduced MPS IIIB fibroblasts was endocytosed in deficient cells by the mannose 6-phosphate system. Thus we show that lentiviral vectors may provide a therapeutic approach for the treatment of MPS IIIB disease.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB (Sanfilippo syndrome B; OMIM 252920), is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive neurological signs caused by deficient activity of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU, EC 188.8.131.52). Herein we report the causative variant in the NAGLU gene in Schipperke dogs and a genotyping survey in the breed. All six exons and adjacent regions of the NAGLU gene were sequenced from six healthy appearing and three affected Schipperkes. DNA fragment length and TaqMan assays were used to genotype privately owned Schipperkes. A single variant was found in exon 6 of MPS IIIB affected Schipperkes: an insertion consisting of a 40-70?bp poly-A and an 11?bp duplication of the exonic region preceding the poly-A (XM_548088.6:c.2110_2111ins[A(40_70);2100_2110]) is predicted to insert a stretch of 13 or more lysines followed by either an in-frame insertion of a repeat of the four amino acids preceding the lysines, or a frameshift. The clinically affected Schipperkes were homozygous for this insertion, and the sequenced healthy dogs were either heterozygous or homozygous for the wild-type allele. From 2003-2019, 3219 Schipperkes were genotyped. Of these, 1.5% were homozygous for this insertion and found to be clinically affected, and 23.6% were heterozygous for the insertion and were clinically healthy, the remaining 74.9% were homozygous for the wild-type and were also clinically healthy. The number of dogs homozygous and heterozygous for the insertion declined rapidly after the initial years of genotyping, documenting the benefit of a DNA screening program in a breed with a small gene pool. In conclusion, a causative NAGLU variant in Schipperke dogs with MPS IIIB was identified and was found at high frequency in the breed. Through genotyping and informed breeding practices, the prevalence of canine MPS IIIB has been drastically reduced in the Schipperke population worldwide.
Project description:The accumulation of undegraded molecular material leads to progressive neurodegeneration in a number of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) that are caused by functional deficiencies of lysosomal hydrolases. To determine whether inducing macroautophagy/autophagy via small-molecule therapy would be effective for neuropathic LSDs due to enzyme deficiency, we treated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB), a storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme NAGLU (alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase [Sanfilippo disease IIIB]), with the autophagy-inducing compound trehalose. Treated naglu-/ - mice lived longer, displayed less hyperactivity and anxiety, retained their vision (and retinal photoreceptors), and showed reduced inflammation in the brain and retina. Treated mice also showed improved clearance of autophagic vacuoles in neuronal and glial cells, accompanied by activation of the TFEB transcriptional network that controls lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic flux. Therefore, small-molecule-induced autophagy enhancement can improve the neurological symptoms associated with a lysosomal enzyme deficiency and could provide a viable therapeutic approach to neuropathic LSDs. ABBREVIATIONS:ANOVA: analysis of variance; Atg7: autophagy related 7; AV: autophagic vacuoles; CD68: cd68 antigen; ERG: electroretinogram; ERT: enzyme replacement therapy; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFAP: glial fibrillary acidic protein; GNAT2: guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 2; HSCT: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; INL: inner nuclear layer; LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha; MPS: mucopolysaccharidoses; NAGLU: alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Sanfilippo disease IIIB); ONL: outer nuclear layer; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PRKCA/PKC?: protein kinase C, alpha; S1BF: somatosensory cortex; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TFEB: transcription factor EB; VMP/VPL: ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus.
Project description:Sanfilippo syndrome type B or mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB) is one of a group of lysosomal storage disorders that are characterised by the inability to breakdown heparan sulphate. In MPS IIIB, there is a deficiency in the enzyme alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) and early clinical symptoms include aggressive behaviour and hyperactivity followed by progressive mental retardation. The disease is autosomal recessive and the gene for NAGLU, which is situated on chromosome 17q21, is approximately 8.5 kb in length and contains six exons. Primers were designed to amplify the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries of the NAGLU gene in 10 fragments. The PCR products were analysed for sequence changes using SSCP analysis and fluorescent DNA sequencing technology. Sixteen different putative mutations were detected in DNA from 14 MPS IIIB patients, 12 of which have not been found previously. The mutations include four deletions (219-237del19, 334-358del25, 1335delC, 2099delA), two insertions (1447-1448insT, 1932-1933insGCTAC), two nonsense mutations (R297X, R626X), and eight missense mutations (F48C, Y140C, R234C, W268R, P521L, R565W, L591P, E705K). In this study, the Y140C, R297X, and R626X mutations were all found in more than one patient and together accounted for 25% of mutant alleles.
Project description:Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB [MPS IIIB]) is a lysosomal storage disorder primarily affecting the brain that is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme ?-<i>N</i>-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), leading to intralysosomal accumulation of heparan sulfate. There are currently no treatments for this disorder. Here we report that, <i>ex vivo</i>, lentiviral correction of <i>Naglu</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> neural stem cells derived from <i>Naglu</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> mice (iNSCs) corrected their lysosomal pathology and allowed them to secrete a functional NAGLU enzyme that could be taken up by deficient cells. Following long-term transplantation of these corrected iNSCs into <i>Naglu</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> mice, we detected NAGLU activity in the majority of engrafted animals. Successfully transplanted <i>Naglu</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> mice showed a significant decrease in storage material, a reduction in astrocyte activation, and complete prevention of microglial activation within the area of engrafted cells and neighboring regions, with beneficial effects extending partway along the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. Our results demonstrate long-term engraftment of iNSCs in the brain that are capable of cross-correcting pathology in <i>Naglu</i><sup><i>-/-</i></sup> mice. Our findings suggest that genetically engineered iNSCs could potentially be used to deliver enzymes and treat MPS IIIB.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB, Sanfilippo syndrome type B) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by profound intellectual disability, dementia, and a lifespan of about two decades. The cause is mutation in the gene encoding ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), deficiency of NAGLU, and accumulation of heparan sulfate. Impediments to enzyme replacement therapy are the absence of mannose 6-phosphate on recombinant human NAGLU and the blood-brain barrier. To overcome the first impediment, a fusion protein of recombinant NAGLU and a fragment of insulin-like growth factor II (IGFII) was prepared for endocytosis by the mannose 6-phosphate/IGFII receptor. To bypass the blood-brain barrier, the fusion protein ("enzyme") in artificial cerebrospinal fluid ("vehicle") was administered intracerebroventricularly to the brain of adult MPS IIIB mice, four times over 2 wk. The brains were analyzed 1-28 d later and compared with brains of MPS IIIB mice that received vehicle alone or control (heterozygous) mice that received vehicle. There was marked uptake of the administered enzyme in many parts of the brain, where it persisted with a half-life of approximately 10 d. Heparan sulfate, and especially disease-specific heparan sulfate, was reduced to control level. A number of secondary accumulations in neurons [?-hexosaminidase, LAMP1(lysosome-associated membrane protein 1), SCMAS (subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase), glypican 5, ?-amyloid, P-tau] were reduced almost to control level. CD68, a microglial protein, was reduced halfway. A large amount of enzyme also appeared in liver cells, where it reduced heparan sulfate and ?-hexosaminidase accumulation to control levels. These results suggest the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IIIB.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by abnormalities of the enzyme ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) that is required for degradation of heparan sulfate. The patient in this study was a 4-yr-old boy. He presented with normal height and weight, pectus carinatum, and multiple persistent Mongolian spots on his back. He had mild dysmorphic features with prominent speech developmental delays and, to a lesser extent, motor developmental delays. The cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation test revealed excessive mucopolysacchariduria (657.2 mg glycosaminoglycan/g creatinine; reference range, <175 mg glycosaminoglycan/g creatinine). Thin layer chromatography showed urinary heparan sulfate excretion. NAGLU enzyme activity was significantly decreased in leukocytes (not detected; reference range, 0.9-1.51 nmol/hr/mg protein) as well as in plasma (0.14 nmol/hr/mg protein; reference range, 22.3-60.9 nmol/hr/mg protein). PCR and direct sequencing analysis of the NAGLU gene showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote for 2 mutations: c.200T>C (p.L67P) and c.1444C>T (p.R482W). The c.200T>C mutation was a novel finding. This is the first report of a Korean patient with MPS IIIB who was confirmed by molecular genetic analyses and biochemical investigation.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type III B (MPS IIIB) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the NAGLU gene encoding N-acetylglucosaminidase. Here, we report the generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from dermal fibroblasts of a MPS IIIB patient. The iPSC line has homozygous mutations of G>A transversion at nucleotide 457 of the NAGLU gene (457G>A), resulting in the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at codon 153 (Glu153Lys). This iPSC line allows for the study of disease phenotypes and pathophysiology as well as disease modeling in human cells.