Supine versus prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis [version 3; peer review: 2 approved]
ABSTRACT: Background: The decision for using supine or prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is still debatable. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety profile of the supine and prone position when performing PCNL. Methods: A systematic electronic search was performed using the database from MEDLINE, Cochrane library and Google Scholar from January 2009 to November 2019. The outcomes assessed were stone free rate, major complication rate, length of hospital stay and mean operation time. Results: A total of 11 articles were included in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The efficacy of PCNL in supine position as determined by stone free rate is significantly lower than in prone position (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.66 – 0.83; p<0.00001), However, major complication rate is also lower in the supine group compared with the prone group (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51 – 0.96; p=0.03). There is no statistically significant difference in the length of hospital stay and mean operation time between both groups. Conclusion: Prone position leads to a higher stone free rate, but also a higher rate of major complication. Thus, the decision of using which position during PCNL should be based on the surgeon’s experience and clinical aspects of the patients.
Project description:Endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) with simultaneous retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been proposed as a new surgical treatment to overcome the disadvantage of RIRS and PCNL monotherapies in the treatment of renal stone. One of advantages of ECIRS is that it can increase stone-free rates in complex renal stone within single-session. Intermediate-supine position in real-time simultaneous ECIRS can prevent an anesthesiologic problem, and patient's burden is small even for long-term operation. Thus, we will share the experience and advantages of real-time simultaneous ECIRS and introduce techniques to increase the stone-free rate.
Project description:Introduction:Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position for large renal calculi. However, anesthetic limitations exist with the prone position. Similarly, the supine position is associated with poorer ergonomics due to the awkward downward position of the renal tract, a smaller window for percutaneous puncture, and a higher risk of anterior calyx puncture. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of lateral-PCNL in managing large renal calculi without the disadvantages of prone and supine positions. Methods:Retrospectively, 347 lateral-PCNL cases performed from July 2001 to July 2015 were examined. the patient's thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were positioned over a bridge perpendicular to a "broken" table, creating an extended lumbodorsal space. The procedure was evaluated in terms of stone clearance at 3 months' postprocedure, operative time, and complications. Results:Primary stone clearance was achieved in 82.7% of patients. The mean operating time was 97 min. The average time taken to establish the tract and mean radiation time were 4.5 min and 6.93 min, respectively. In total, 2.3% of patients required postoperative transfusion, and 13.5% of patients had postoperative fever. There was one case of hydrothorax, but no bowel perforation. Conclusions:Our lateral-PCNL technique allows for effective stone clearance due to good stone ergonomics and it should be considered as a safe alternative even in the most routine procedures.
Project description:X-ray-free ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been proven to be safe, feasible, and affordable. Kidney dilatation during X-ray-free ultrasound-guided PCNL is mostly using balloon dilators. This report presents our experience of performing X-ray-free ultrasound-guided PCNL in supine position using Alken metal telescopic dilators in a patient with a large kidney stone. A 50-year-old male presented with right complete staghorn stone sized 46×30×24 mm (stone burden: 50,985 mm3 with sphere formula) and grade II hydronephrosis. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed no right ureteric stone, kinking, or stenosis. Ureteral catheter and guidewire were placed retrogradely under ultrasound guidance during cystoscopy. Normal saline was pumped via the ureteral catheter to make artificial hydronephrosis thus assisting the process. Kidney dilatation was performed with Alken metal telescoping dilators. Urine flow from the dilators confirmed that our dilator had reached the collecting system. The stone was identified and fragmented with combination of both pneumatic and shock pulse lithotripter. Double J stent and nephrostomy tubes were inserted at the end of the procedure. All of the steps were performed purely under ultrasound guidance. There was no residual stone after the procedure, confirmed by ultrasound, nephroscope, and postoperative X-ray. There was no significant complication during or after the procedure. The patient was discharged on postoperative day two. X-ray-free ultrasound-guided PCNL in supine position using Alken metal telescoping dilators seems to be a feasible, safe, and cost-effective approach in managing kidney stones, including staghorn and large stones.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and minimally invasive PCNL are currently therapeutic options for lower-pole renal stones (LPS). However, the optimal treatment for LPS remains unclear. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of each intervention is needed to inform clinical decision-making. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of different interventions for LPS.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to December 6th 2018. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including the patients treated for LPS were included. The frequentist models of network meta-analysis were used to compare the effect sizes. The primary outcome was stone free rate, and the secondary outcomes were overall complication rate, major complication rate, retreatment rate, and auxiliary procedure rate.<h4>Results</h4>This study included 13 RCTs comprising 1832 participants undergoing 6 different interventions, including RIRS, PCNL, Mini-PCNL, Micro-PCNL, SWL, and conservative observation. PCNL had the best stone free rate (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.30-9.12), followed by Mini-PCNL (OR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.13-7.46). Meta-regression did not find any association of the treatment effect with age, sex, and stone size. Although PCNL tended to exhibit a higher complication rate, the difference of complication rate among various interventions did not achieve a statistical significance. SWL was the less effective and associated with higher retreatment rate compared with PCNL, Mini-PNCL, and RIRS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>PCNL was associated with the best stone free rate for LPS regardless of age, sex, and stone size. Each treatment achieved a similar complication rate compared with the others. Future large-scale RCTs are warranted to identify the most beneficial management for renal stones at a more complicated location.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the feasibility, safety, applied value and efficacy of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) for PCNL for the treatment of renal calculi. Although the ERAS is applied for many urological diseases, its application in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) is still limited. METHODS:This was a prospective study of patients admitted to hospital January and December 2018 and who were only diagnosed with renal calculi and excepted for serious or uncontrollable basic diseases and patients with multiple operation history and medication history. Patients were randomized 1:1 to the ERAS and traditional operation groups starting on the day before operation and end on the day of discharge. Each group was 118 cases. The stone clearance rate, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, the occurrence of perirenal hematoma and effusion, the incidence of extravasation of urine, the incidence of fever, bleeding and blood transfusion, and postoperative hospital stay were observed. RESULTS:The stone clearance rates were similar between the two groups (ERAS: 93.2% (109/117) vs. traditional: 89.8% (106/118), P?=?0.800). The operation time was similar in the two groups (ERAS: 54?±?12 vs. traditional: 58?±?11 min, P?=?0.656). VAS pain score that was 0.79?±?0.76 in the ERAS group at 4 h after surgery and was significantly lower than 2.79?±?0.98 in the traditional group (P?<?0.0001). The total complication rate was 15 cases in the ERAS group and 22 cases in the traditional group (P?=?0.573). There were no difference in costs (21,348?±?2404 vs. 21,597?±?2293 RMB, P?=?0.529). CONCLUSIONS:ERAS perioperative management in PCNL was feasible, was without additional complications, and had well economic and social benefits. It is worth of clinical promotion and application.
Project description:Introduction: American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for total stone burden greater than 20?mm, yet it is unclear if the number of stones affects adherence to this guideline. We aim to assess the impact of stone multiplicity on the choice of ureteroscopy (URS) vs PCNL as a first-line therapy for patients with high burden (>20?mm), and examine whether the AUA guideline-discordant care impacts patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU) database, a prospectively collected registry of patients with stone disease. Multivariate logistic regression (MLR) was used to estimate the association between stone multiplicity and the decision to perform URS for high stone burden (>20?mm) patients. MLR was further used to estimate the association between performing URS and the following outcomes: stone-free rate, need for a second operation, and complications. Postoperative hospital stay was compared between patients receiving URS vs PCNL using Student's t-test. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients were included in this analysis. For patients with total stone burden exceeding 20?mm, those with more than three stones had roughly nine times the likelihood of undergoing URS over PCNL compared with patients with a single stone (adjusted odds ratio 9.21, confidence interval [95% CI] 2.55-40.58, p?=?0.001). Stone-free rates, Clavien-Dindo scores, and frequency of second-look operations did not differ significantly between URS and PCNL patients. URS patients were discharged an average of 1.26 days earlier than patients who received PCNL (95% CI 0.72-1.81, p?<?0.001). Discussion: Stone multiplicity strongly predicts which patients with stone burden >20?mm will undergo URS and who will undergo PCNL. These deviations from AUA guidelines do not appear to worsen patient outcomes. These results suggest that careful consideration of each patient may warrant deviation from guidelines.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Ultrasound guidance for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has gained acceptance amongst urologists given its numerous advantages over fluoroscopy. While traditionally performed in the prone position, this video demonstrates a step-by-step approach to performing PCNL in the supine position, solely under ultrasound guidance.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Once in the modified supine (Galdakao-modified Valdivia) position, important anatomic landmarks are identified. It is important to first orient the ultrasound probe such that its cranial side corresponds to the left of the ultrasound screen. After optimizing a target calyx, keeping the needle in the imaging plane of the probe facilitates renal access. Tract dilation under ultrasound guidance is then achieved by keeping the wire and dilators in the same imaging plane.<h4>Results</h4>The 11th and 12th ribs, paraspinous muscle, iliac crest, midaxillary line, and costal margin are the anatomic landmarks that orient the probe to the location of the kidney. Placing the ultrasound probe in the midaxillary line, parallel to the 11th rib allows the operator to identify key renal landmarks: the renal cortex, peri-pelvic fat, collecting system, kidney stone with its associated postacoustic shadow, and the intended target calyx. Controlling the needle is easiest in the longitudinal view, as the needle can be visualized from skin to target. Dilation under ultrasound relies on keeping the wire in view. The tip of the 10-French dilator is based on the location where the wire image disappears as the dilator advances. The balloon dilator tip is visualized on ultrasound reaching the appropriate depth just inside the collecting system, at which time balloon inflation results in complete dilation of the tract.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This video provides a step-by-step approach demonstrating that PCNL can be performed in the supine position using only ultrasound-guidance. This approach facilitates renal access in this position and obviates the need for radiation exposure.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The miniaturization of instruments has had an impact on stone management. The aims of this study were to highlight surgeon preferences among Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery (RIRS), Regular, Mini-, UltraMini- and Micro- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for urolithiasis and to compare the effectiveness and safety of these techniques in a real-life setting.<h4>Methods</h4>A 12-item survey regarding endourological techniques was conducted through Survey Monkey among attendees of the 2013 European Association of Urology Section of Urolithiasis meeting. We asked responders to share data from the last 5 cases they performed for each technique. Procedures were stratified according to stone size and the centres' surgical volume. Techniques were compared in terms of effectiveness and safety. Analyses were performed on the overall group and a subgroup of 1-2 cm stones.<h4>Results</h4>We collected data from a total of 420 procedures by 30, out of 78, urologists who received the survey (response rate 38%): 140 RIRS, 141 Regular-PCNL (>20 Ch), 67 Mini-PCNL (14-20 Ch), 28 UltraMini-PCNL (11-13 Ch) and 44 Micro-PCNL (4,8-8 Ch). Techniques choice was influenced by stone size and the centre's surgical volume. Effectiveness and safety outcomes were influenced by stone size, independently of the technique. The stone-free rate was significantly lower in Micro-PCNL compared to Regular-PCNL. This was not confirmed for 1-2 cm stones. All techniques presented a lower complication rate than Regular-PCNL, with Mini-PCNL being the most protective technique compared to Regular-PCNL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Stone size seems to drive treatment choice. Miniaturized PCNL techniques are widely employed for 1-2 cm stones, in particular in higher surgical volume centres. Mini-PCNL and RIRS are growing in popularity for stones > 2 cm. Mini-PCNL seems to be a good compromise, being the most effective and safe procedure among PCNL techniques. RIRS is characterized by satisfactory stone-free and low complication rates.
Project description:Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are widely used for pediatric upper tract stones; however, comparisons of their clinical efficacies are needed.Literature searches for relevant articles were performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and the China CNKI database. Study quality was assessed by Jadad and Newcastle-Ottawa Scales. Standard mean differences (SMDs) or odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidential intervals (95% CIs) were pooled for meta-analysis. In addition, data was evaluated the quality of the body of evidence by means of grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE).Data from 4 studies (231 PCNL, 212 RIRS cases) were analyzed. There was no significant difference in operation time (SMD: 1.39; 95% CIs: -0.049 to 2.82; P?=?.058), overall stone-free rate (OR: 3.72; 95% CIs: 0.55-25.22; P?=?.18), or complication rate (OR: 1.92; 95% CIs: 0.90-4.07; P?=?.091). PCNL cases had longer hospital stays (SMD: 1.22; 95% CIs: 0.95-1.50; P?<?.001), but showed a higher stone-free rate for stones greater than 20 mm (OR: 6.38; 95% CIs: 1.83-22.22; P?=?.004). For stones less than 20 mm, however, no significant difference between PCNL and RIRS was found (OR: 0.92; 95% CIs: 0.33-2.55; P?=?.87). The quality of evidence based on the GRADE system was low.Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that, for the treatment of larger kidney stones (>20 mm) in pediatric patients, PCNL is a better option due to its higher stone-free rate, although RIRS may be associated with shorter hospital stays. A large-scale clinical trial is necessary to validate our findings.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to systematically review the outcomes of the use of one-shot dilation (OSD) and serial tract dilation for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. The randomised controlled trials (RCTs) included in the study were identified from EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The last search was performed on 30 April 2018. Summary effects were calculated as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs or mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. The endpoints included access time, fluoroscopy time, successful dilation rate, stone-free rate, postoperative decrease in haemoglobin levels, transfusion rate, complication rate and length of postoperative hospital stay. RESULTS:A total of seven RCTs were included in the study, with clinical data reported for 697 patients. The overall access time was approximately 110?s shorter in the OSD group than in the serial dilation group (MD, -110.14; 95%?CI -161.99 to -58.30; p<0.0001). The fluoroscopy time was shorter with OSD in all RCTs. In addition, the decrease in postoperative haemoglobin levels was approximately 2.3g/L less in patients in the OSD group than in those in the serial dilation group (MD, -0.23; 95%?CI-0.39 to -0.07; p=0.004). No relationship was found between the successful dilation rate, stone-free rate, transfusion rate, or complication rate and the method of tract dilation. CONCLUSION:OSD is a safe and efficacious tract dilation technique that can reduce the access time, fluoroscopy time and postoperative decrease in haemoglobin level. No difference was found in the successful dilation rate, stone-free rate, transfusion rate or rate of complications between the OSD and serial dilation groups. The difference in the length of postoperative hospital stay was uncertain. OSD may be a better method of tract creation for PCNL.