Limitations of Ribotyping as Genotyping Method for Corynebacterium ulcerans.
ABSTRACT: We conducted molecular typing of a Corynebacterium ulcerans isolate from a woman who died in Japan in 2016. Genomic DNA modification might have affected the isolate's ribotyping profile. Multilocus sequence typing results (sequence type 337) were more accurate. Whole-genome sequencing had greater ability to discriminate lineages at high resolution.
Project description:In the United Kingdom there has been a marked increase in the number of human infections caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans. During 2002 and 2003 the organism was also isolated from several domestic cats with bilateral nasal discharge. As C. ulcerans has never previously been isolated from cats, the 16S rRNA gene from three cat isolates was sequenced to confirm their species identities. Fifty clinical isolates from the United Kingdom isolated from 1986 to 2003 and seven cat isolates were characterized by ribotyping to determine whether the ribotypes of the cat isolates were genotypically related to those found for human clinical isolates. For comparison, the genotypes of 11 overseas isolates and 13 isolates from H. R. Carne's collection isolated between 1933 and 1979 were also determined. Strains isolated from domestic cats were found to exhibit the predominant ribotypes observed among human clinical isolates, suggesting that C. ulcerans isolated from cats could be a potential reservoir for human infection.
Project description:The zoonotic bacterium Corynebacterium ulcerans may be pathogenic both in humans and animals: toxigenic strains can cause diphtheria or diphtheria-like disease in humans via diphtheria toxin, while strains producing the dermonecrotic exotoxin phospholipase D may lead to caseous lymphadenitis primarily in wild animals. Diphtheria toxin-positive Corynebacterium ulcerans strains have been isolated mainly from cattle, dogs and cats.Here, we report a series of ten isolations of Corynebacterium ulcerans from a group of water rats (Hydromys chrysogaster) with ulcerative skin lesions, which were kept in a zoo. The isolates were clearly assigned to species level by biochemical identification systems, Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and partial rpoB sequencing, respectively. All ten isolates turned out to represent the same sequence type, strongly indicating a cluster of infections by clonally-related isolates as could be demonstrated for the first time for this species using multilocus sequence typing. Unequivocal demonstration of high relatedness of the isolates could also be demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy. All isolates were lacking the diphtheria toxin encoding tox-gene, but were phospholipase D-positive.Our results indicate that water rats represent a suitable new host species that is prone to infection and must be regarded as a reservoir for potentially zoonotic Corynebacterium ulcerans. Furthermore, the applied methods demonstrated persistent infection as well as a very close relationship between all ten isolates.
Project description:Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans are rarely isolated from clinical samples in Belgium. A case of toxigenic C. ulcerans in a woman is described, which confirms that this pathogen is still present. During investigation of the patient's cats, only a non-toxigenic toxin-bearing C. diphtheriae strain was detected.
Project description:Corynebacterium ulcerans, an emerging pathogen related to C. diphtheriae and C. pseudotuberculosis, is able to cause disease in both human and animal hosts. C. ulcerans may harbor acquired virulence factors such as dermonecrotic exotoxin phospholipase D (PLD) and the prophage-encoded diphtheria toxin (DT). Infections typically occur in persons reporting close contact with animals. In pets, C. ulcerans has been isolated from both asymptomatic carriers and clinically affected dogs and cats. We describe the isolation and characterization of C. ulcerans strains from 2 pet dogs with ulcerative lesions in Italy. The 2 isolates tested negative for both DT genes, but were PLD-producers and belonged to sequence types (STs) 325 and 339. These 2 cases highlight that C. ulcerans cutaneous infections might be underestimated in pets, given that many veterinary laboratories do not routinely consider and/or identify Corynebacterium species from cutaneous samples. Early detection and molecular typing of C. ulcerans is essential in order to implement effective treatment and to prevent diffusion and possible zoonotic transmission of certain STs.
Project description:Human-to-human-transmitted Corynebacterium diphtheriae was historically the main pathogen causing diphtheria and has therefore been studied extensively in the past. More recently, diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is an emerging disease in several industrial countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Germany. However, toxigenic C. ulcerans has so far been almost neglected in the development of epidemiologic tools. One of the most important tools in modern epidemiology to understand transmission pathways is sequence typing of pathogens. Here, we provide a protocol for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to type C. ulcerans strains rapidly and relatively cost-effectively. Applying MLST to C. ulcerans for the first time, we show that related sequence types (STs) might be associated with the presence of the diphtheria toxin gene, which encodes diphtheria toxin (DT), the most important diphtheria-causing virulence factor. Interestingly, we found only two very closely related STs in the isolates derived from six dogs. Additionally, our data show that all STs derived from animals which were at least twice present in our analysis were found in humans as well. This finding is congruent with zoonotic transmission of C. ulcerans.
Project description:Corynebacterium ulcerans may cause diphtheria in humans and caseous lymphadenitis in animals. We isolated nontoxigenic tox-bearing C. ulcerans from 13 game animals in Germany. Our results indicate a role for game animals as reservoirs for zoonotic C. ulcerans.
Project description:Introduction.Corynebacterium ulcerans (C. ulcerans) is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes diphtheria-like symptoms in humans. Cases of C. ulcerans infection have been increasing in recent years, and C. ulcerans has been recognized as an emerging pathogen. Case presentation. Here we report a case of asphyxia death due to pseudomembrane caused by diphtheria toxin (DT)-producing C. ulcerans. This is, to our knowledge, the first fatal case of C. ulcerans infection in Japan. A strain of C. ulcerans was obtained from the patient's pet cat and was confirmed to be identical to the patient's isolate by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the DT gene, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by ribotyping. In the same way, it was revealed that the isolate in this case belonged to the same molecular type as the C. ulcerans 0102 isolated from the first case in Japan in a distant prefecture 15 years earlier, in 2001. Conclusion. DT-producing C. ulcerans can be contracted from a companion animal and causes human death if the appropriate treatment is delayed. The finding indicates that this molecular type of virulent C. ulcerans is currently widespread in Japan.
Project description:Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans may cause both respiratory and cutaneous diphtheria in humans. As a zoonotic emerging pathogen it has been isolated from a wide variety of animals living in captivity, such as livestock, pet, zoo and research animals and additionally in a large number of different wild animals. Here we report the isolation of tox-positive C. ulcerans in four hedgehogs with cutaneous diphtheria and pneumonia, respectively.
Project description:The systemic symptoms of diphtheria are caused by the tox-encoded diphtheria toxin (DT) which is produced by toxigenic Corynebacterium spp. Besides the classical agent C. diphtheriae, the zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans has increasingly been reported as an emerging pathogen for diphtheria. The reliable detection of toxigenic Corynebacterium spp. is of substantial importance for both diphtheria surveillance in the public health sector and the clinical workup of a patient with diphtherialike symptoms. Since the respective tox genes of C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans differ from each other in both DNA and amino acid sequence, both tox genes should be covered by novel real-time PCR methods. We describe the development and validation of a LightCycler PCR assay which reliably recognizes tox genes from both C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans and differentiates the respective target genes by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) hybridization probe melting curve analysis.
Project description:Here, we present the genome sequence of Corynebacterium ulcerans strain FRC11. The genome includes one circular chromosome of 2,442,826 bp (53.35% G+C content), and 2,210 genes were predicted, 2,146 of which are putative protein-coding genes, with 12 rRNAs and 51 tRNAs; 1 pseudogene was also identified.