Root Exudates Metabolic Profiling Suggests Distinct Defense Mechanisms Between Resistant and Susceptible Tobacco Cultivars Against Black Shank Disease.
ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that root exudates play important roles in plant disease resistance. Black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae, is a destructive soil-borne disease in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity and composition of the root exudates from resistant and susceptible tobacco cultivars. The root exudates of the resistant cultivar Gexin 3 showed inhibitory activity against P. nicotianae, while the exudates of susceptible cultivar Xiaohuangjin 1025 stimulated the colony growth but had no effect on spore germination. Metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry depicted differing metabolic patterns of root exudates between Gexin 3 and Xiaohuangjin 1025. The activity and composition of root exudates was altered by P. nicotianae inoculation. Multivariate analysis showed that root exudates (including organic acids, alkaloids, fatty acids, and esters) were different between the two varieties. The defense substances in root exudates, such as tartaric acid, ferulic acid, and lauric acid, may represent a pre-infection prevention strategy for tobacco. Phenylpropanoids as well as inducers of salicylic acid, fatty acids, 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, and hydrojasmonate may be involved in tobacco defense responses. Compared to the susceptible cultivar, the roots of the resistant cultivar exhibited high enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, which may prompt the synthesis and secretion of phenylpropanoids. Our results indicated that the root exudates not only provide a pre-infection prevention strategy by exuding antimicrobial substances, but also increase tobacco disease resistance by eliciting plant defense responses. In addition, some defense compounds as well as compounds that play a role in inducing plant defense responses, showed potential for disease control application. This study provides an insight into possible disease resistance mechanisms of root exudates, and attempts the beneficial utilization of these secondary metabolites of plants.
Project description:Zoospore exudates play important roles in promoting zoospore communication, homing and germination during plant infection by Phytophthora. However, it is not clear whether exudates affect plant immunity. Zoospore-free fluid (ZFF) and zoospores of P. nicotianae were investigated comparatively for effects on resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and mutants that affect signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA): eds16 (enhanced disease susceptibility16), pad4 (phytoalexin deficient4), and npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1). Col-0 attracted more zoospores and had severe tissue damage when flooded with a zoospore suspension in ZFF. Mutants treated with ZFF alone developed disease symptoms similar to those inoculated with zoospores and requirements of EDS16 and PAD4 for plant responses to zoospores and the exudates was apparent. Zoospore and ZFFs also induced expression of the PR1 and PDF1.2 marker genes for defense regulated by SA and JA, respectively. However, ZFF affected more JA defense signaling, down regulating PR1 when SA signaling or synthesis is deficient, which may be responsible for Arabidopsis mutant plants more susceptible to infection by high concentration of P. nicotianae zoospores. These results suggest that zoospore exudates can function as virulence factors and inducers of plant immune responses during plant infection by Phytophthora.
Project description:Black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae (P. nicotianae), is a serious disease of cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) worldwide. The interactions between tobacco and P. nicotianae are complex and the outcomes of the interactions depend on the tobacco genotype, P. nicotianae strain, and environmental conditions. In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to investigate and compare transcriptional changes in the stems of tobacco upon inoculation with P. nicotianae strain race 0. We used two tobacco varieties: RBST (named from resistance to black shank and tobacco mosaic virus), which was resistant to the P. nicotianae strain race 0, and Honghuadajinyuan (HD), which was susceptible to P. nicotianae race 0. Samples were collected 12 and 72-hour post inoculation (hpi). Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and significantly enriched GO terms indicated that several basic defense mechanisms were suppressed in both varieties, which included response to wounding (GO: 0009611), and defense response to fungus (GO: 0050832). We also found some genes that may especially be related to mechanisms of resistance in RBST, such as the one encoding a chitinase. These results will provide a valuable resource for understanding the interactions between P. nicotianae and tobacco plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cotton Verticillium wilt is one of the most devastating diseases for cotton production in the world. Although this diseases have been widely studied at the molecular level from pathogens, the molecular basis of V. dahliae interacted with cotton has not been well examined. RESULTS:In this study, RNA-seq analysis was carried out on V. dahliae samples cultured by different root exudates from three cotton cultivars (a susceptible upland cotton cultivar, a tolerant upland cotton cultivar and a resistant island cotton cultivar) and water for 0?h, 6?h, 12?h, 24?h and 48?h. Statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that V. dahliae responded to all kinds of root exudates but more strongly to susceptible cultivar than to tolerant and resistant cultivars. Go analysis indicated that 'hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds' related genes were highly enriched in V. dahliae cultured by root exudates from susceptible cotton at early stage of interaction, suggesting genes related to this term were closely related to the pathogenicity of V. dahliae. Additionally, 'transmembrane transport', 'coenzyme binding', 'NADP binding', 'cofactor binding', 'oxidoreductase activity', 'flavin adenine dinucleotide binding', 'extracellular region' were commonly enriched in V. dahliae cultured by all kinds of root exudates at early stage of interaction (6?h and 12?h), suggesting that genes related to these terms were required for the initial steps of the roots infections. CONCLUSIONS:Based on the GO analysis results, the early stage of interaction (6?h and 12?h) were considered as the critical stage of V. dahliae-cotton interaction. Comparative transcriptomic analysis detected that 31 candidate genes response to root exudates from cotton cultivars with different level of V. dahliae resistance, 68 response to only susceptible cotton cultivar, and 26 genes required for development of V. dahliae. Collectively, these expression data have advanced our understanding of key molecular events in the V. dahliae interacted with cotton, and provided a framework for further functional studies of candidate genes to develop better control strategies for the cotton wilt disease.
Project description:In source leaves of resistant tobacco, oxidative burst and subsequent formation of hypersensitive lesions after infection with Phytophthora nicotianae was prevented by inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) or NADPH oxidases. This observation indicated that plant defense could benefit from improved NADPH availability due to increased G6PDH activity in the cytosol. A plastidic isoform of the G6PDH-encoding gene, G6PD, displaying high NADPH tolerance was engineered for cytosolic expression (cP2), and introduced into a susceptible cultivar. After infection, transgenic (previously susceptible) lines overexpressing cP2 showed early oxidative bursts, callose deposition, and changes in metabolic parameters. These responses resulted in timely formation of hypersensitive lesions similar to resistant plants, although their extent varied considerably between different transgenic lines. Additional RNAi suppression of endogenous cytosolic G6PD isoforms resulted in highly uniform defense responses and also enhanced drought tolerance and flowering. Cytosolic G6PDH seems to be a crucial factor for the outcome of plant defense responses; thus, representing an important target for modulation of stress resistance. Because isoenzyme replacement of G6PDH in the cytosol was beneficial under various kinds of cues, we propose this strategy as a tool to enhance stress tolerance in general.
Project description:Nicotiana tabacum 46-8 cultivar displays an incompatible interaction with race 0 of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn), a fungal pathogen of most tobacco cultivars. At the plant level, incompatibility is characterized by the induction of lipoxygenase (LOX, EC = 184.108.40.206) activity and localized hypersensitive cell death before defense gene activation. To evaluate the involvement of LOX in the onset of plant defense, tobacco 46-8 plants were genetically engineered using full-length or partial-length antisense (AS) tobacco LOX cDNA constructs. AS expression strongly reduced elicitor- and pathogen-induced LOX activity. Eight independent AS-LOX lines were selected and assayed for their response to Ppn. After root or stem inoculation with race 0, all AS-LOX lines but one displayed a compatible phenotype whereas control transformed plants, not containing the AS-LOX cassette, showed the typical incompatible reaction. The presence of the fungus in transgenic lines was demonstrated by PCR amplification of a Ppn-specific genomic sequence. A linear relationship was found between the extent of LOX suppression and the size of the lesion caused by the fungus. The AS-LOX plants also showed enhanced susceptibility toward the compatible fungus Rhizoctonia solani. The results demonstrate the strong involvement of LOX in the establishment of incompatibility in plant-microorganism interactions, consistent with its role in the defense of host plants.
Project description:Aspergillus tubingensis is an important pathogen of economically important crops. Different biotic stresses strongly influence the balance of metabolites in plants. The aim of this study was to understand the function and response of resistance associated metabolites which, in turn are involved in many secondary metabolomics pathways to influence defense mechanism of cotton plant. Analysis of non-targeted metabolomics using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) revealed abundant accumulation of key metabolites including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, fatty acids and carbohydrates, in response to leaf spot of cotton. The principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots illustrated the evidences of variation between two varieties of cotton under mock and pathogen inoculated treatments. Primary metabolism was affected by the up regulation of pyruvate and malate and by the accumulation of carbohydrates like cellobiose and inulobiose. Among 241 resistance related (RR) metabolites, 18 were identified as resistance related constitutive (RRC) and 223 as resistance related induced (RRI) metabolites. Several RRI metabolites, identified in the present study were the precursors for many secondary metabolic pathways. These included phenylpropanoids (stilbenes and furanocoumarin), flavonoids (phlorizin and kaempferol), alkaloids (indolizine and acetylcorynoline) and terpenoids (azelaic acid and oleanolic acid). Our results demonstrated that secondary metabolism, primary metabolism and energy metabolism were more active in resistant cultivar, as compared to sensitive cultivar. Differential protein and fatty acid metabolism was also depicted in both cultivars. Accumulation of these defense related metabolites in resistant cotton cultivar and their suppression in susceptible cotton cultivar revealed the reason of their respective tolerance and susceptibility against A. tubingensis.
Project description:Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased ?-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.
Project description:Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR), RS2 (moderately resistant, MR) and L-402 (highly susceptible, T). The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2) were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains) suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in the other compounds. Each of the four compounds were correlated with a reduction in disease index in the susceptible cultivar, T, and tomato seedlings irrigated with L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate at 2 mmol·L-1 showed the best resistance to M. incognita. Taken together, this study provided a valuable contribution to understanding the underlying mechanism of nematode resistance in tomato cultivars.
Project description:Black shank caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is one of the most devastating diseases in tobacco production. In this study, we characterized a novel cytochromic resistance gene, SoCYP85A1, from spinach, which was upregulated in response to P. nicotianae infection. Overexpression of SoCYP85A1 in tobacco resulted in remarkable resistance to pathogen inoculation, with diverse resistance levels in different transgenic lines. Meanwhile, a significant accumulation of castasterone (CS) was detected in transgenic plants when challenged with the pathogen. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by SoCYP85A1 in the transgenic lines as compared to those in the wild types inoculated with P. nicotianae. In addition, the alteration of CS content resulted in interference of phytohormone homeostasis. Overall, these results demonstrate that SoCYP85A1 can participate in the defense response to P. nicotianae through the involvement of defense enzymes and by interaction with certain phytohormones. Our findings suggest that SoCYP85A1 could be used as a potential candidate gene for improving resistance to black shank disease in tobacco and other economic crops.
Project description:Background:Allelopathic rice releases allelochemicals through its root systems, thereby exerting a negative effect on paddy weeds. This research aimed to evaluate the relationship between fine-root traits and the rice allelopathic potential at the seedling stage. Methods:Two allelopathic rice cultivars, 'PI312777' and 'Taichung Native1,' and one non-allelopathic rice cultivar, 'Lemont,' were grown to the 3-6 leaf stage in a hydroponic system. Their fine roots were collected for morphological trait (root length, root surface area, root volume, and root tips number) in smaller diameter cutoffs and proliferative trait (root biomass) analysis. Their root-exudates were used for quantitative analysis of phenolic acids contents and an evaluation of allelopathic potential. Correlation analysis was also used to assess whether any linear relationships existed. Results:Our results showed that allelopathic rice cultivars had significantly higher fine-root length having diameters <0.2 mm, more root tips number, and greater root biomass, coupled with higher allelopathic potential and phenolic acid contents of their root exudates, comparing with non-allelopathic rice cultivar. These fine-root traits were significantly-positively correlated to allelopathic inhibition and total phenolic contents in rice root-exudates. However, there were not significant correlations among the rice allelopathic potential and total phenolic acid contents of rice root-exudates with the root length, root surface area, and root volume of fine root in diameter >0.2 mm. Discussion:Our results implied that fine-root traits appears to be important in understanding rice allelopathy at the seedling stage. The high allelopathic potential of rice cultivars might be attributed to their higher length of fine roots <0.2 mm in diameter and more number of root tips of fine root, which could accumulate and release more allelochemicals to solutions, thereby resulting in high inhibition on target plants. The mechanisms regulating this process need to be further studied.