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Potential Role of Gene Regulator NFAT5 in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus

ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a Rel/nuclear factor- (NF-) ?B family member, is the only known gene regulator of the mammalian adaptive response to osmotic stress. Exposure to elevated glucose increases the expression and nuclear translocation of NFAT5, as well as NFAT5-driven transcriptional activity in vivo and in vitro. Increased expression of NFAT5 is closely correlated with the progression of diabetes in patients. The distinct structure of NFAT5 governs its physiological and pathogenic roles, indicating its opposing functions. The ability of NFAT5 to maintain cell homeostasis and proliferation is impaired in patients with diabetes. NFAT5 promotes the formation of aldose reductase, pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, and insulin resistance. Additionally, NFAT5 activates inflammation at a very early stage of diabetes and induces persistent inflammation. Recent studies revealed that NFAT5 is an effective therapeutic target for diabetes. Here, we describe the current knowledge about NFAT5 and its relationship with diabetes, focusing on its diverse regulatory functions, and highlight the importance of this protein as a potential therapeutic target in patients with diabetes.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7512074 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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