ABSTRACT: Objective: Assessing the effects of caffeine withdrawal on migraine. Background: The effects of caffeine withdrawal on migraineurs are at large unknown. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study (NCT03022838), designed to enroll 80 adults with episodic migraine and a daily consumption of 300-800 mg caffeine. Participants substituted their estimated dietary caffeine with either placebo capsules or capsulated caffeine tablets for 5 weeks before switching the comparators for 5 more weeks. Results: The study was terminated due to low recruitment. Ten subjects with a mean age of 46.3 ± 9.9 years, BMI of 24.9 ± 3.7, and a mean blood pressure of 134/83 ± 17/12 mmHg were enrolled. The average consumption of caffeine per day was 539 ± 196.3 mg. The average monthly headache days and migraine attack frequency at baseline was 11.5 ± 4.9 and 5.2 ± 1.2, respectively. At baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was 5.8 ± 2.5 and HIT-6 was 62.8 ± 3.9. There were no differences in these or in parameters from actigraphy during the caffeine period compared with the placebo period. One subject withdrew just after entering the study. In the remaining nine, withdrawal triggered severe migraine attacks in seven, causing one more drop-out, and a typical caffeine withdrawal syndrome in two. Caffeine continuation did not trigger migraines, but one attack occurred in the wake of caffeine reintroduction. Conclusions: The study failed to answer how caffeine withdrawal affects migraineurs over time, but showed that abrupt withdrawal of caffeine is a potent trigger for migraine attacks.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess 1) the incidence and duration of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) in migraineurs and healthy subjects; 2) the associated risk factors; and 3) the risk of getting a migraine attack shortly before or after lumbar puncture (LP). METHODS: As part of an extensive biochemical migraine research program, we assessed the occurrence, duration, and characteristics of PDPH in 160 migraineurs and 53 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In addition, we evaluated potential risk factors for PDPH as well as the risk of developing a migraine attack before or after LP. RESULTS: In total, 64 of 199 subjects (32.2%) developed PDPH. Young age, low body mass index, severe headache immediately after LP, and sitting sampling position, but not being a migraineur, increased the risk of PDPH (all p < 0.05). Duration of PDPH was prolonged by history of depression, sitting sampling position, high perceived stress during the LP procedure, and multiple LP efforts (all p < 0.05). Migraine attacks were less likely to occur before or shortly after LP. CONCLUSIONS: Migraineurs are not at increased risk of developing PDPH. PDPH duration is similar in migraineurs and age- and sex-matched controls. LP does not trigger migraine attacks, and the stress of an upcoming LP might even have a protective effect against onset of migraine attacks.
Project description:Background It has been suggested that migraine attacks strike according to circadian patterns and that this might be related to individual chronotype. Here we evaluated and correlated individual chronotypes, stability of the circadian rhythm, and circadian attack timing in a large and well-characterised migraine population. Methods In 2875 migraine patients and 200 non-headache controls we assessed differences in: (i) distribution of chronotypes (Münich Chronotype Questionnaire); (ii) the circadian rhythm's amplitude and stability (Circadian Type Inventory); and (iii) circadian timing of migraine attacks. Data were analysed using multinomial and linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, sleep quality and depression. Results Migraineurs more often showed an early chronotype compared with controls (48.9% versus 38.6%; adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.58-3.69; p?<?0.001); as well as a late chronotypes (37.7% versus 38.1%; adjusted OR?=?1.69; 95% CI?=?1.10-2.61; p?=?0.016). Migraineurs, particularly those with high attack frequency, were more tired after changes in circadian rhythm (i.e. more languid; p?<?0.001) and coped less well with being active at unusual hours (i.e. more rigid; p?<?0.001) than controls. Of 2389 migraineurs, 961 (40.2%) reported early morning attack onset. Conclusion Migraine patients are less prone to be of a normal chronotype than controls. They are more languid and more rigid when changes in circadian rhythm occur. Most migraine attacks begin in the early morning. These data suggest that chronobiological mechanisms play a role in migraine pathophysiology.
Project description:The brainstem contains descending circuitry that can modulate nociceptive processing (neural signals associated with pain) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the medullary dorsal horn. In migraineurs, abnormal brainstem function during attacks suggest that dysfunction of descending modulation may facilitate migraine attacks, either by reducing descending inhibition or increasing facilitation. To determine whether a brainstem dysfunction could play a role in facilitating migraine attacks, we measured brainstem function in migraineurs when they were not having an attack (i.e. the interictal phase).Using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), we mapped brainstem activity to heat stimuli in 12 episodic migraine patients during the interictal phase. Separate scans were collected to measure responses to 41 degrees C and noxious heat (pain threshold+1 degrees C). Stimuli were either applied to the forehead on the affected side (as reported during an attack) or the dorsum of the hand. This was repeated in 12 age-gender-matched control subjects, and the side tested corresponded to that in the matched migraine patients. Nucleus cuneiformis (NCF), a component of brainstem pain modulatory circuits, appears to be hypofunctional in migraineurs. 3 out of the 4 thermal stimulus conditions showed significantly greater NCF activation in control subjects than the migraine patients.Altered descending modulation has been postulated to contribute to migraine, leading to loss of inhibition or enhanced facilitation resulting in hyperexcitability of trigeminovascular neurons. NCF function could potentially serve as a diagnostic measure in migraine patients, even when not experiencing an attack. This has important implications for the evaluation of therapies for migraine.
Project description:To compare the efficacy of ketorolac nasal spray (NS) vs. placebo and sumatriptan NS for the acute treatment of migraine.This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo and active-comparator, crossover study. Adult migraineurs were randomized to ketorolac NS 31.5 mg, sumatriptan NS 20 mg, or placebo to treat three moderate to severe migraine attacks and switched treatments with each attack. Patients seeking headache care at a headache center or in response to community advertisement were recruited. Adult participants with episodic migraine who experienced ?2 migraine attacks per month were eligible for the Ketorolac vs. Sumatriptan vs. Placebo Nasal Spray migraine study. Participants were randomized to treatment arms by a research pharmacist, in a 1:1:1 ratio using computer-generated lists. The primary outcome was 2-hour pain relief. Secondary outcomes included 2-hour pain freedom and absence of migraine associated symptoms, and 24-hour sustained pain relief and pain freedom.Of the 72 randomized participants, 54 (75%) treated at least one attack and 49 (68%) completed all three treatments, for a total of 152 treated migraine attacks. Both ketorolac NS (72.5%, P?<?.001) and sumatriptan NS (69.4%, P?=?.001) were more effective than placebo (38.3%) for 2-hour pain relief and 2-hour pain freedom (ketorolac: 43.1%, P?=?.004; sumatriptan: 36.7%, P?=?.046; placebo: 18.4%). Ketorolac NS, but not sumatriptan NS, was more effective than placebo in 2-hour absence of nausea. Both ketorolac NS and sumatriptan NS were more effective than placebo for 24-hour sustained pain relief (ketorolac: 49%, P?<?.001; sumatriptan: 31%, P?=?.01, placebo: 20%). Only ketorolac NS was superior to placebo for 24-hour (ketorolac: 35.3%, P?=?.003; sumatriptan: 22.4%, P?=?.18, placebo: 12.2%) sustained pain freedom. Nasal burning and dysgeusia were the most common adverse effects for active treatments.This study supports that ketorolac NS is superior to placebo and that it is non-inferior to sumatriptan NS for the acute abortive treatment of migraine.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate in vivo the dynamics of endogenous dopamine (DA) neurotransmission during migraine ictus with allodynia.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined 8 episodic migraineurs and 8 healthy controls (HC) using PET with [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride. The uptake measure of [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride, nondisplaceable binding potential (BP<sub>ND</sub>), would increase when there was a reduction in endogenous DA release. The opposite is true for a decrease in [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride BP<sub>ND</sub>. Patients were scanned twice: one PET session was during a spontaneous migraine ictus at rest, followed by a sustained thermal pain threshold (STPT) challenge on the trigeminal region, eliciting an allodynia experience; another was during interictal phase.<h4>Results</h4>Striatal BP<sub>ND</sub> of [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride in migraineurs did not differ from HC. We found a significant increase in [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride BP<sub>ND</sub> in the striatum region of migraineurs during both headache attack and allodynia relative to interictal phase. However, when compared to the migraine attack at rest, migraineurs during the STPT challenge had a significant sudden reduction in [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride BP<sub>ND</sub> in the insula. Such directional change was also observed in the caudate of HC relative to the interictal phase during challenge. Furthermore, ictal changes in [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride BP<sub>ND</sub> in migraineurs at rest were positively correlated with the chronicity of migraine attacks, and negatively correlated with the frequency during challenge.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate that there is an imbalanced uptake of [<sup>11</sup>C]raclopride during the headache attack and ictal allodynia, which indicates reduction and fluctuation in ictal endogenous DA release in migraineurs. Moreover, the longer the history and recurrence of migraine attacks, the lower the ictal endogenous DA release.
Project description:Data on the association of the MTHFR 677C→T and ACE D/I polymorphisms with migraine severity, measured by attack frequency, are scarce. We performed an association study among 24 961 women participating in the Women's Health Study. Migraine, aura status and attack frequency were self-reported. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the genotype-migraine association. Among the 3186 migraineurs with complete genotype and attack frequency data, 1270 reported migraine with aura (MA) (attack frequency 76 ≥ weekly; 219 monthly; 123 every other month; 852 fewer than six times/year) and 1916 migraine without aura (MoA) (attack frequency: 85 ≥ weekly; 414 monthly; 208 every other month; 1209 fewer than six times/year). The MTHFR 677TT genotype was associated with a reduced risk for MA, which only appeared for attacks fewer than six times/year (age-adjusted odds ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.99). We did not find a specific pattern of association of the ACE D/I polymorphism with attack frequency for MA or MoA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unknown whether clinical parameters differ between migraineurs with and without first-degree family members with migraine. OBJECTIVES:The present cross-sectional study describes differences between familial and sporadic migraine with a focus on migraine characteristics, migraine severity, comorbidities, and treatment. METHOD:From the Danish Headache Center we recruited 358 patients with familial migraine and 1727 patients with sporadic migraine. Each participant was assessed using a validated semi-structured interview. RESULTS:No differences in age (Mean = 44 and 44 [SD = 12.28 and 12.58] for familial and sporadic migraineurs, respectively; P = .900) or sex (295/358 (82.4%) and 1413/1727 (81.8%) women in familial and sporadic migraineurs, respectively; P = .853) were found. Familial migraineurs had more aphasic aura than sporadic migraineurs (41% vs 27%, P = .001). Sporadic migraineurs had more lifetime attacks ie, >100 attacks (45% vs 70%, P < .001) and prolonged attacks ie, lasting >72 hours (5% vs 12%, P < .001) than familial migraineurs. Further, sporadic migraineurs had a higher incidence of concussions (37% vs 41%, P = .001) compared to familial migraineurs. In agreement with a previous study, there was no difference between familial and sporadic migraine regarding triptan response (84% vs 81%, P = .440). CONCLUSION:Headache characteristics, triptan response, and comorbidities where similar in individulas with and without inherited migraine, suggesting that migraine are to be considered a hmogenoues disease. The difference in the clinical presentation of migraine with aura symptoms among patients with familial migraine should be considered in future studies. Further, more severe migraine among patients with sporadic migraine with aura could suggest that sporadic migraineurs have been exposed to stronger or multiple environmental factors and indicate that an early intervention in migraine treatment could lessen the severity of migraine.
Project description:The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), a known modulator of somatic pain transmission, shows evidence of interictal functional and structural abnormalities in migraineurs, which may contribute to hyperexcitability along spinal and trigeminal nociceptive pathways, and lead to the migraine attack. The aim of this study was to examine functional connectivity of the PAG in migraine.Using resting-state functional MRI, we compared functional connectivity between PAG and a subset of brain areas involved in nociceptive/somatosensory processing and pain modulation in 17 subjects with migraine, during a pain-free state, versus 17 gender- and age-matched controls. We also assessed the relation between intrinsic resting-state correlations within PAG networks and the average monthly frequency of migraine attacks, as well as allodynia.Our findings show stronger connectivity between the PAG and several brain areas within nociceptive and somatosensory processing pathways in migraineurs versus controls. In addition, as the monthly frequency of migraine attacks worsens, the strength of the connectivity in some areas within these pathways increases, whereas a significant decrease in functional resting-state connectivity between the PAG and brain regions with a predominant role in pain modulation (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, amygdala) can be evidenced. Finally, migraineurs with a history of allodynia exhibit significantly reduced connectivity between PAG, prefrontal regions, and anterior cingulate compared to migraineurs without allodynia.These data reveal interictal dysfunctional dynamics within pain pathways in migraine manifested as an impairment of the descending pain modulatory circuits, likely leading to loss of pain inhibition, and hyperexcitability primarily in nociceptive areas.
Project description:Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by attacks of moderate or severe headache accompanying functionally and structurally maladaptive changes in brain. As the headache days/month is often measured by patient self-report and tends to be overestimated than actually experienced, the possibility of using neuroimaging data to predict migraine attack frequency is of great interest. To identify neuroimaging features that could objectively evaluate patients' headache days, a total of 179 migraineurs were recruited from two data center with one dataset used as the training/test cohort and the other used as the validating cohort. The guidelines for controlled trials of prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine in adults were used to identify the frequency of attacks and migraineurs were divided into low (MOl) and high (MOh) subgroups. Whole-brain functional connectivity was used to build multivariate logistic regression models with model iteration optimization to identify MOl and MOh. The best model accurately discriminated MOh from MOl with AUC of 0.91 (95%CI [0.86, 0.95]) in the training/test cohort and 0.79 in the validating cohort. The discriminative features were mainly located within the limbic lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. Permutation tests analysis demonstrated that the classification performance of these features was significantly better than chance. Furthermore, the indicator of functional connectivity had a higher odds ratio than behavioral variables with implementing a holistic regression analysis. The current findings suggested that the migraine attack frequency could be distinguished by using machine-learning algorithms, and highlighted the role of brain functional connectivity in revealing underlying migraine-related neurobiology.
Project description:Migraineurs show hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli at various stages throughout the migraine cycle. A number of putative processes have been implicated including a dysfunction in the descending pain modulatory system in which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) is considered to play a crucial role. Recurring migraine attacks could progressively perturb this system, lowering the threshold for future attacks, and contribute to disease chronification. Here, we investigated PAG connectivity with other brain regions during a noxious thermal stimulus to determine changes in migraineurs, and associations with migraine frequency. 21 episodic migraine patients and 22 matched controls were included in the study. During functional MRI, a thermode was placed on the subjects' temple delivering noxious and non-noxious heat stimuli. A psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was carried out to examine pain-induced connectivity of the PAG with other brain regions. The PPI analysis showed increased PAG connectivity with the S1 face representation area and the supplementary motor area, an area involved with pain expectancy, in patients with higher frequency of migraine attacks. PAG connectivity with regions involved with the descending pain modulatory system (i.e., prefrontal cortex) was decreased in the migraineurs versus healthy individuals. Our results suggest that high frequency migraineurs may have diminished resistance to cephalic pain and a less efficient inhibitory pain modulatory response to external stressor (i.e., noxious heat). The findings support the notion that in migraine there is less effective pain modulation (<i>viz</i>., decreased pain inhibition or increased pain facilitation), potentially contributing to increased occurrence of attacks/chronification of migraine.