Analysis of real-world PD-L1 IHC 28-8 and 22C3 pharmDx assay utilisation, turnaround times and analytical concordance across multiple tumour types.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:Programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitor therapy is accompanied by companion or complementary PD-L1 testing in some tumour types. We investigated utilisation of the Dako PD-L1 IHC 28-8 and 22C3 pharmDx assays and the Ventana PD-L1 (SP142) assay and evaluated concordance between the 28-8 and 22C3 assays in a real-world cohort of patients tested at a single US national reference laboratory. METHODS:NeoGenomics Laboratories performed PD-L1 testing on tumour samples between October 2015 and March 2018. PD-L1 test results were matched with patient characteristics using unique identifiers. Concordance between the 28-8 and 22C3 assays was evaluated in matched tumour samples. Data were evaluated across multiple tumour types and in subgroups of patients with lung cancer, melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and urothelial carcinoma. RESULTS:62 180 individual PD-L1 tests were conducted on samples from 55 652 patients. PD-L1 test volume increased ~10-fold over the period evaluated. Test failure rates were typically low, and test turnaround time (TAT) ranged between 2 and 4 days. Concordance between the 28-8 and 22C3 assays was strong in the overall population and across tumour type subgroups (Kendall's tau correlations of 0.94 and 0.92-0.98, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Test failure rates for PD-L1 tests were low and TAT remained reasonable despite marked increases in test volume. Concordance was high between the 28-8 and 22C3 assays across a range of tumour types and biopsy locations. These findings add to the literature showing high concordance between the 28-8 and 22C3 assays.
Project description:Background:The Dako PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 22C3 pharmDx and the Dako 28-8 IHC pharmDx assays were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, as a companion diagnostic test for pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merk, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) and a complementary diagnostic test for nivolumab (Opdivo, Bristol Meyer Squibb, New York, NY, USA) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), respectively. Increased PD-L1 expression levels can be associated with greater therapeutic efficacy of pembrolizumab relative to other anti-PD-1 agents. However, in treatment decision making, little is known about which tissue (primary or metastatic lesion) should be stained by 22C3 antibody. We investigated the relationship between PD-L1 expression in primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes using the 22C3 assay, and evaluated the concordance between the 22C3 and 28-8 assays. Methods:PD-L1 expression was evaluated in cells from primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes using the 22C3 and 28-8 IHC assays. Total 35 patients with primary tumor and paired metastatic lymph node were enrolled into this study, and all samples were surgically resected, formalin-fixed, and paraffin-embedded NSCLC tissues. Tumor cells exhibiting complete or partial membrane staining, were considered as PD-L1 positive. On the basis of tumor proportion score (TPS), all samples were classified as no expression (TPS: <1%), low expression (TPS: 1-49%), or high expression (TPS: ?50%). Results:TPS distribution was markedly different between primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes. In 22C3 IHC assay, TPS similar to that of metastatic lymph nodes was demonstrated in 10 primary tumors, and concordance rate between them was 28.6%. Concurrently, in 28-8 IHC assay, 11 primary tumors had TPS similar to that of metastatic lymph nodes, with a concordance rate of 31.4%. Conclusions:TPS concordance rates (for both 22C3 and 28-8 antibodies) between primary tumors and paired lymph nodes were low. Inter-tumor heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression is an important issue for clinical oncologists during treatment planning.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibodies targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint have shown promising clinical activity in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). Expression of PD-L1 in UC tumors has been investigated using different antibody clones, staining protocols, and scoring algorithms. The aim was to establish the extent of concordance among PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. METHODS:Tumor biopsy samples (N = 335) were assessed using four commercially available PD-L1 assays: VENTANA SP263, VENTANA SP142, PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx, and PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx. PD-L1 analytical staining and classification concordance, including agreement between clinically relevant scoring algorithms, were investigated using overall/positive/negative percentage agreement (OPA/PPA/NPA). RESULTS:Good analytical correlation was observed among the VENTANA SP263, PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx, and PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx assays for tumor cell (TC) and immune cell (IC) PD-L1 staining with Spearman rank coefficients of 0.92-0.93 for TCs and 0.88-0.91 for ICs. However, concordance (preset criterion: ≥85%) between patient PD-L1 status when applying the TC or ICICArea ≥ 25% (VENTANA SP263) cutoff was only achieved for PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx versus VENTANA SP263 (OPA 92.2%, PPA 86.4%, NPA 95.4%). Differences were observed between patient populations with UC tumors classified as PD-L1 high versus PD-L1 low/negative using combined positive score (CPS) ≥1, CPS ≥10, IC ≥5%, and TC/IC ≥25%. CONCLUSIONS:The VENTANA SP263 and PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx assays are analytically similar in UC. When the different PD-L1 assays were combined with their specified clinical scoring algorithms, differences were seen in patient classification driven by substantial differences in scoring approaches.
Project description:Importance:Four assays registered with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detect programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to enrich for patient response to anti-programmed cell death 1 and anti-PD-L1 therapies. The tests use 4 separate PD-L1 antibodies on 2 separate staining platforms and have their own scoring systems, which raises questions about their similarity and the potential interchangeability of the tests. Objective:To compare the performance of 4 PD-L1 platforms, including 2 FDA-cleared assays, 1 test for investigational use only, and 1 laboratory-developed test. Design, Setting, and Participants:Four serial histologic sections from 90 archival non-small cell lung cancers from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010, were distributed to 3 sites that performed the following immunohistochemical assays: 28-8 antibody on the Dako Link 48 platform, 22c3 antibody on the Dako Link 48 platform, SP142 antibody on the Ventana Benchmark platform, and E1L3N antibody on the Leica Bond platform. The slides were scanned and scored by 13 pathologists who estimated the percentage of malignant and immune cells expressing PD-L1. Statistical analyses were performed from December 1, 2015, to August 30, 2016, to compare antibodies and pathologists' scoring of tumor and immune cells. Main Outcomes and Measures:Percentages of malignant and immune cells expressing PD-L1. Results:Among the 90 samples, the SP142 assay was an outlier, with a significantly lower mean score of PD-L1 expression in both tumor and immune cells (tumor cells: 22c3, 2.96; 28-8, 3.26; SP142, 1.99; E1L3N, 3.20; overall mean, 2.85; and immune cells: 22c3, 2.15; 28-8, 2.28; SP142, 1.62; E1L3N, 2.28; overall mean, 2.08). Pairwise comparisons showed that the scores from the 28-8 and E1L3N tests were not significantly different but that the 22c3 test showed a slight (mean difference, 0.24-0.30) but statistically significant reduction in labeling of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells. Evaluation of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between antibodies to quantify interassay variability for PD-L1 expression in tumor cells showed high concordance between antibodies for tumor cell scoring (0.813; 95% CI, 0.815-0.839) and lower levels of concordance for immune cell scoring (0.277; 95% CI, 0.222-0.334). When examining variability between pathologists for any single assay, the concordance between pathologists' scoring for PD-L1 expression in tumor cells ranged from ICCs of 0.832 (95% CI, 0.820-0.844) to 0.882 (95% CI, 0.873-0.891) for each assay, while the ICCs from immune cells for each assay ranged from 0.172 (95% CI, 0.156-0.189) to 0.229 (95% CI, 0.211-0.248). Conclusions and Relevance:The assay using the SP142 antibody is an outlier that detected significantly less PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and immune cells. The assay for antibody 22c3 showed slight yet statistically significantly lower staining than either 28-8 or E1L3N, but this significance was detected only when using the mean of 13 pathologists' scores. The pathologists showed excellent concordance when scoring tumor cells stained with any antibody but poor concordance for scoring immune cells stained with any antibody. Thus, for tumor cell assessment of PD-L1, 3 of the 4 tests are concordant and reproducible as read by pathologists.
Project description:Tumor programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression is a key biomarker to identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer who may have an enhanced response to anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 treatment. Such treatments are used in conjunction with PD-L1 diagnostic immunohistochemistry assays. We developed a computer-aided automated image analysis with customized PD-L1 scoring algorithm that was evaluated via correlation with manual pathologist scores and used to determine comparability across PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays. The image analysis scoring algorithm was developed to quantify the percentage of PD-L1 positive tumor cells on scans of whole-slide images of archival tumor samples from commercially available non-small cell lung cancer cases, stained with four immunohistochemistry PD-L1 assays (Ventana SP263 and SP142 and Dako 22C3 and 28-8). The scans were co-registered and tumor and exclusion annotations aligned to ensure that analysis of each case was restricted to comparable tissue areas. Reference pathologist scores were available from previous studies. F1, a statistical measure of precision and recall, and overall percentage agreement scores were used to assess concordance between pathologist and image analysis scores and between immunohistochemistry assays. In total, 471 PD-L1-evalulable samples were amenable to image analysis scoring. Image analysis and pathologist scores were highly concordant, with F1 scores ranging from 0.8 to 0.9 across varying matched PD-L1 cutoffs. Based on F1 and overall percentage agreement scores (both manual and image analysis scoring), the Ventana SP263 and Dako 28-8 and 22C3 assays were concordant across a broad range of cutoffs; however, the Ventana SP142 assay showed very different characteristics. In summary, a novel automated image analysis scoring algorithm was developed that was highly correlated with pathologist scores. The algorithm permitted quantitative comparison of existing PD-L1 diagnostic assays, confirming previous findings that indicate a high concordance between the Ventana SP263 and Dako 22C3 and 28-8 PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays.
Project description:Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry is used to determine which patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond best to treatment with PD-L1 inhibitors. For each inhibitor, a unique immunohistochemical assay was developed. This systematic review gives an up-to-date insight into the comparability of standardised immunohistochemical assays and laboratory-developed tests (LDTs), focusing specifically on tumour cell (TC) staining and scoring. A systematic search was performed identifying publications that assessed interassay, interobserver and/or interlaboratory concordance of PD-L1 assays and LDTs in tissue of NSCLC patients. Of 4294 publications identified through the systematic search, 27 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were of sufficient methodological quality. Studies assessing interassay concordance found high agreement between assays 22C3, 28-8 and SP263 and properly validated LDTs, and lower concordance for comparisons involving SP142. A decrease in concordance, however, is seen with use of cut-offs, which hampers interchangeability of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays and LDTs. Studies assessing interobserver concordance found high agreement for all assays and LDTs, but lower agreement with use of a 1% cut-off. This may be problematic in clinical practice, as discordance between pathologists at this cut-off may result in some patients being denied valuable treatment options. Finally, five studies assessed interlaboratory concordance and found moderate to high agreement levels for various assays and LDTs. However, to assess the actual existence of interlaboratory variation in PD-L1 testing and PD-L1 positivity in clinical practice, studies using real-world clinical pathology data are needed.
Project description:For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treatment with pembrolizumab is limited to patients with tumours expressing PD-L1 assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx (Dako, Inc.) companion diagnostic test, on the Dako Autostainer Link 48 (ASL48) platform. Optimised protocols are urgently needed for use of the 22C3 antibody concentrate to test PD-L1 expression on more widely available IHC autostainers.We evaluated PD-L1 expression using the 22C3 antibody concentrate in the three main commercially available autostainers Dako ASL48, BenchMark ULTRA (Ventana Medical Systems, Inc.), and Bond-III (Leica Biosystems) and compared the staining results with the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx kit on the Dako ASL48 platform. Several technical conditions for laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) were evaluated in tonsil specimens and a training set of three NSCLC samples. Optimised protocols were then validated in 120 NSCLC specimens.Optimised protocols were obtained on both the VENTANA BenchMark ULTRA and Dako ASL48 platforms. Significant expression of PD-L1 was obtained on tissue controls with the Leica Bond-III autostainer when high concentrations of the 22C3 antibody were used. It therefore was not tested on the 120 NSCLC specimens. An almost 100% concordance rate for dichotomized tumour proportion score (TPS) results was observed between TPS ratings using the 22C3 antibody concentrate on the Dako ASL48 and VENTANA BenchMark ULTRA platforms relative to the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx kit on the Dako ASL48 platform. Interpathologist agreement was high on both LDTs and the PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx kit on the Dako ASL48 platform.Availability of standardized protocols for determining PD-L1 expression using the 22C3 antibody concentrate on the widely available Dako ASL48 and VENTANA BenchMark ULTRA IHC platforms will expand the number of laboratories able to determine eligibility of patients with NSCLC for treatment with pembrolizumab in a reliable and concordant manner.
Project description:Purpose:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a major clinical challenge due to its aggressive and metastatic behavior and the lack of available targeted therapies. Therefore, therapeutic strategies are needed to improve TNBC patient management. Recently, atezolizumab and nab-paclitaxel chemotherapy has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the first-line treatment of patients with locally advanced and metastatic TNBC. The programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemical SP142 assay was also approved as a companion diagnostic device for selecting TNBC patients for atezolizumab treatment. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the analytical performance of the PD-L1 22C3/SP263 assays in comparison with the SP142 assay for ? 1% immune cells (ICs). Methods:Immunohistochemical expression for the PD-L1 22C3/SP263 assays, in comparison with the SP142 assay, was analyzed for the ? 1% ICs in 95 TNBCs. Results:At the 1% cut-off value, the proportions of positive cases were 52.6% for the SP142 assay in infiltrating ICs and 50.5% and 52.6% for the 22C3 and SP263 assays in tumor cells, respectively. The PD-L1 SP263 assay had the highest while the PD-L1 22C3 assay had the lowest total positive expression rate at all cut-off values. The concordance rate between the assays was highest at a 1% cut-off value and decreased when the cut-off value increased. The concordance rate between the SP142 and SP263 assays at 1% cut-off was high, while in comparison, the concordance rate between the SP142 and 22C3 assays at 1% cut-off was relatively lower. Conclusion:This study demonstrates that although the 22C3 assay at a 1% cut-off value compared with the PD-L1 SP142 assay at the clinically relevant cut-off shows comparable but not interchangeable analytical performance, the analytical performance of the SP263 assay at a 1% cut-off value shows interchangeable performance with the PD-L1 SP142 assay at the clinically relevant cut-off.
Project description:Our study was to evaluate the concordance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression between 22C3 and SP263 assay and explore the association of clinicopathologic features with expression of PD-L1 on both tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC). We retrospectively assessed the PD-L1 expression in 305 patients with lung adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma by 22C3 and SP263 assay. The association of PD-L1 expression by 22C3 assay with clinicopathologic features was also analyzed. The prevalence of PD-L1 expression by 22C3 assay was 20.7% with a ?50% cutoff and 46.6% with a ?1% cutoff. The concordance rates between 2 PD-L1 assays while using 1%, 5%, 25%, and 50% positive TC as the cutoffs were 91.8%, 93.1%, 95.1% and 99.0%, respectively. For PD-L1 expression on IC, the concordance rate was 93.4% using a 1% cutoff. According to the results of 22C3 assay, high PD-L1 expression (using a ?50% cutoff) on TC was significantly associated with smoking, advanced stage disease, and KRAS mutation. PD-L1 expression on IC was significantly associated with smoking and KRAS mutation. PD-L1 expression on TC and IC were both significantly associated with average number of cigarettes smoked ?20 per day. The 22C3 and SP263 assays were highly concordant for assessment of PD-L1 expression on TC and IC. Patients with KRAS mutation and smoking history, particularly those having a large number of cigarettes smoked per day, were more likely to have PD-L1 expression on both TC and IC.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
Project description:Currently, four immunohistochemical assays are registered with the US Food and Drug Administration to detect the expression of PD-L1. We investigated the PD-L1 expression in thymic carcinomas using these four diagnostic assays. The cases of 53 patients were reviewed and their specimens were subjected to four PD-L1 assays with different antibodies (SP142, SP263, 22C3, and 28-8). The PD-L1 expression in tumor cells (TCs) and immune cells (ICs) was evaluated. In TCs, the four assays showed similar scores in each case. Histopathologically, high TC scores were observed in squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs). Meanwhile, there were no significant relationships among the IC scores in the four assays. In SqCCs, the high expression of PD-L1 (defined as ?50% TC score) in TCs tended to be associated with early stage cancer. The patients with high expression levels of PD-L1 tended to show longer overall survival in the 22C3 assays (p=0.0200). In thymic carcinomas, the staining pattern showed high concordance among the four assays when TCs - rather than ICs - were stained. High PD-L1 positivity in TCs, especially in SqCCs, indicated that PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapy may be a promising therapeutic approach.
Project description:Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays are widely used for complementary or companion diagnostic purposes during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, limited information is available on the clinical reliability of the PD-L1 IHC assay using small biopsy samples.Participants included 46 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer who underwent PD-L1 testing using 3 PD-L1 IHC assays (22C3, SP142, and SP263) for both small biopsy samples and surgical specimens from November 2017 to June 2018. The PD-L1 IHC assay results were analyzed with cut-off values of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 50%. The PD-L1 IHC results obtained from the surgical specimens were regarded as the reference values.The 22C3, SP142, and SP263 PD-L1 IHC assays were performed in 26 (57%), 20 (43%), and 46 (100%) patients, respectively. Biopsy methods included radial probe endobronchial ultrasound using a guide sheath, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, bronchoscopic biopsy, and percutaneous needle aspiration in 26 (57%), 4 (9%), 12 (25%), and 4 (9%) patients, respectively. The 22C3, SP142, and SP263 PD-L1 assays had concordance rates of 73-96, 65-80, and 72%-91%, respectively, compared with the reference values.PD-L1 testing with 3 commercial PD-L1 IHC assays using small biopsy samples is reliable in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer.