Targeted Isolation of Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactones from Eupatorium fortunei by the NMR Annotation Tool, SMART 2.0.
ABSTRACT: Small Molecular Accurate Recognition Technology (SMART 2.0) has recently been introduced as a NMR-based machine learning tool for the discovery and characterization of natural products. We attempted targeted isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Eupatorium fortunei with the aid of structural annotation by SMART 2.0 and chemical profiling. Eight germacrene-type (1-7 and 10) and two eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones (8 and 9) were isolated from the whole plant of Eupatorium fortunei. With the guidance of the results of the subfractions from E. fortunei obtained by SMART 2.0, their cytotoxic activities were evaluated against five cancer cells (SKOV3, A549, PC3, HEp-2, and MCF-7). Compounds 4 and 8 exhibited IC50 values of 3.9 ± 1.2 and 3.9 ± 0.6 ?M against prostate cancer cells, PC3, respectively. Compound 7 showed good cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 5.8 ± 0.1 ?M against breast cancer cells, MCF-7. In the present study, the rapid annotation of the mixture of compounds in a fraction by the NMR-based machine learning tool helped the targeted isolation of bioactive compounds from natural products.
Project description:Vegetables are important sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds; however, their consumption is often insufficient, partly because of unpleasant taste characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying bitter taste reception and to develop methods to suppress bitterness. We focused on sesquiterpene lactones found in edible Asteraceae species. HEK293T cells that heterologously expressed human bitter taste receptors (including TAS2R46) together with a chimeric G protein were analyzed using calcium imaging, and cellular responses to four sesquiterpene lactones contained in lettuce were examined. We found that TAS2R46-expressing cells responded most strongly to bitter compounds. The EC<sub>50</sub> value of 11?,13-dihydrolactucopicrin was 2.0 ± 0.6 ?M, in agreement with the previously reported bitterness threshold of the compound. Adjustment of pH from neutral to weak acidic conditions reduced the response of TAS2R46-expressing cells to sesquiterpene lactones. We demonstrate the possibility of regulating the bitterness of Asteraceae species by controlling the pH.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Stereochemical variation is widely known to influence the bioactivity of compounds in the context of pharmacology and pesticide science, but our understanding of its importance in mediating plant-herbivore interactions is limited, particularly in field settings. Similarly, sesquiterpene lactones are a broadly distributed class of putative defensive compounds, but little is known about their activities in the field. METHODS:Natural variation in sesquiterpene lactones of the common cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae), was used in conjunction with a series of common garden experiments to examine relationships between stereochemical variation, herbivore damage and plant fitness. KEY RESULTS:The stereochemistry of sesquiterpene lactone ring junctions helped to explain variation in plant herbivore resistance. Plants producing cis-fused sesquiterpene lactones experienced significantly higher damage than plants producing trans-fused sesquiterpene lactones. Experiments manipulating herbivore damage above and below ambient levels found that herbivore damage was negatively correlated with plant fitness. This pattern translated into significant fitness differences between chemotypes under ambient levels of herbivore attack, but not when attack was experimentally reduced via pesticide. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this work represents only the second study to examine sesquiterpene lactones as defensive compounds in the field, the first to document herbivore-mediated natural selection on sesquiterpene lactone variation and the first to investigate the ecological significance of the stereochemistry of the lactone ring junction. The results indicate that subtle differences in stereochemistry may be a major determinant of the protective role of secondary metabolites and thus of plant fitness. As stereochemical variation is widespread in many groups of secondary metabolites, these findings suggest the possibility of dynamic evolutionary histories within the Asteraceae and other plant families showing extensive stereochemical variation.
Project description:Six new (1-6) and eight known germacranolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, along with several known phenylpropanol coumarates and methylated flavonoids, were isolated from the leaves of Piptocoma rufescens, collected in the Dominican Republic. The new compounds were identified by analysis of their spectroscopic data, with the molecular structure of 3 being established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The absolute configurations of the sesquiterpene lactones isolated were determined from their CD and NOESY NMR spectra, together with the analysis of Mosher ester reactions. Bioassay screening results showed the majority of the sesquiterpene lactones isolated (1-13) to be highly cytotoxic toward the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line, with the most potent compound being 15-deoxygoyazensolide (10, IC(50), 0.26 µM). In addition, several of the sesquiterpene lactones exhibited NF-?B (p65) inhibitory activity.
Project description:Artichoke is a relevant source of health-promoting compounds such as polyphenols and sesquiterpene lactones. In this study, the bioaccessibility and gut bioavailability of artichoke constituents were evaluated by combining in vitro digestion and large intestine fermentation, metabolomics, and Caco-2 human intestinal cells model. Moreover, the ability of artichoke polyphenols to modulate the in vitro starch digestibility was also explored. An untargeted metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight (UHPLC/QTOF) mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate statistics was used to comprehensively screen the phytochemical composition of raw, digested, and fermented artichoke. Overall, a large abundance of phenolic acids and sesquiterpene lactones was detected, being 13.77 and 11.99 mg·g-1, respectively. After 20 h of in vitro large intestine fermentation, a decrease in polyphenols and sesquiterpene lactones content was observed. The most abundant compounds characterizing the raw material (i.e., chlorogenic acid and cynaropicrin equivalents) showed an average % bioaccessibility of 1.6%. The highest % bioaccessibility values were recorded for flavonoids such as anthocyanin and flavone equivalents (on average, 13.6%). However, the relatively high bioavailability values recorded for flavonols, phenolic acids, and sesquiterpene lactones (from 71.6% up to 82.4%) demonstrated that these compounds are able to be transported through the Caco-2 monolayer. The phenolic compounds having the highest permeation rates through the Caco-2 model included low molecular weight phenolics such as tyrosol and 4-ethylcatechol; the isoflavonoids 3'-O-methylviolanone, equol 4'-O-glucuronide, and hydroxyisoflavone; together with the methyl and acetyl derivatives of glycosylated anthocyanins. Therefore, although human in vivo confirmatory trials are deemed possible, current findings provide insights into the mechanistic effects underlying artichoke polyphenols and sesquiterpenoids bioavailability following gastrointestinal and large intestine processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a majority of acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients, but resistance of leukaemic cells to ATRA and its toxicity, such as hypercalcaemia, lead to a limitation of treatment. Therefore, combination therapies with differentiation-enhancing agents at non-toxic concentrations of ATRA may overcome its side effects. Here, we investigated the effect of plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone compounds and their underlying mechanisms in ATRA-induced differentiation of human leukaemia HL-60 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: HL-60 cells were treated with four sesquiterpene lactones (helenalin, costunolide, parthenolide and sclareolide) and cell differentiation was determined by NBT reduction, Giemsa and cytofluorometric analyses. Signalling pathways were assessed by western blotting, gel-shift assay and kinase activity determinations and intracellular calcium levels were determined using a calcium-specific fluorescent probe. KEY RESULTS: Helenalin, costunolide and parthenolide, but not sclareolide, increased ATRA-induced HL-60 cell differentiation into a granulocytic lineage. Signalling kinases PKC and ERK were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by all of the effective sesquiterpene lactones, but JNK and PI3-K were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by costunolide and parthenolide. Enhancement of cell differentiation closely correlated with inhibition of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity by all three effective compounds. Importantly, enhancement of differentiation induced by 50 nM ATRA by the sesquiterpene lactones was not accompanied by elevation of basal intracellular calcium concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results indicate that plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones may enhance ATRA-mediated cell differentiation through distinct pathways.
Project description:The daisy-like flowers of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) are used to extract pyrethrins, a botanical insecticide with a long history of safe and effective use. Pyrethrum flowers also contain other potential defense compounds, particularly sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which represent problematic allergenic residues in the extracts that are removed by the pyrethrum industry. The STLs are stored in glandular trichomes present on the pyrethrum achenes, and have been shown to be active against herbivores, micro-organisms and in the below-ground competition with other plants. Despite these reported bioactivities and industrial significance, the biosynthetic origin of pyrethrum sesquiterpene lactones remains unknown. In the present study, we show that germacratrien-12-oic acid is most likely the central precursor for all sesquiterpene lactones present in pyrethrum. The formation of the lactone ring depends on the regio- (C6 or C8) and stereo-selective (? or ?) hydroxylation of germacratrien-12-oic acid. Candidate genes implicated in three committed steps leading from farnesyl diphosphate to STL and other oxygenated derivatives of germacratrien-12-oic acid were retrieved from a pyrethrum trichome EST library, cloned, and characterized in yeast and in planta. The diversity and distribution of sesquiterpene lactones in different tissues and the correlation with the expression of these genes are shown and discussed.
Project description:Investigation of the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Ainsliaea yunnanensis led to the isolation of four new dimeric sesquiterpene lactones, ainsliadimer F-I (1-4), together with seven known dimeric sesquiterpene lactones (5-11) and ten sesquiterpenes (12-21). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The relative stereochemistry of ainsliadimer F was further confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-21 were tested for the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in the 293-NF-?B-luciferase reporter cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Compounds 5, 18, 20 and 21 were further tested for the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-10 in RAW 264.7 macrophages induced by LPS. Compounds 5, 18, 20 and 21 exhibited significant activity in anti-inflammatory activity assays.
Project description:The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. Scolymus (L.) Hegi) is a multi-year species rich in various classes of phytochemicals with known nutritional and pharmacological properties, such as polyphenols, sesquiterpene lactones, and terpenoids. Over the last decade, hybrids cultivars are transforming the artichoke market for their higher uniformity and stability over the traditional landraces, further increasing the potential of the artichoke as a source of commercial extracts and bioactive molecules. Our aim was to investigate the mineral and phytochemical profiles of leaves from seven seed-propagated hybrids by using an untargeted metabolomic approach based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Metabolomics identified several compounds in the tested varieties, namely 98 polyphenols, 123 sesquiterpene lactones, and 221 other metabolites. The phenolic content ranged from 3.01 mg Eq./g fw (for 'Opera') to 4.71 mg Eq./g fw (for 'Opal'). Sesquiterpene lactones were, on average, 2.11 mg Eq./g fw. Multivariate statistics (HCA, PCA and OPLS-DA) highlighted the main metabolomics differences among cultivars, which weakly correlated with their agronomic classification. The seven cultivars showed distinctive metabolomics profiles, with 'Opal' and 'Istar' being the most valuable hybrids. The 3-hydroxyphenyl-valeric acid (a medium-chain fatty acid) and the 6-Gingesulfonic acid (a methoxyphenol) were the most discriminant markers. Our findings illustrated the quantitative and qualitative variation of several classes of phytochemicals in seed-propagated artichoke cultivars and allowed identifying distinctive metabolic signatures for both phenolic compounds and sesquiterpene lactones. This work supports the exploitation of the artichoke leaves from hybrid cultivars as a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals.
Project description:Sesquiterpene lactones are naturally occurring compounds mainly found in the Asteraceae family. These types of plant metabolites display a wide range of biological activities, including antiprotozoal activity and are considered interesting structures for drug discovery. Four derivatives were synthesized from estafietin (1), isolated from Stevia alpina (Asteraceae): 11βH,13-dihydroestafietin (2), epoxyestafietin (3a and 3b), 11βH,13-methoxyestafietin, (4) and 11βH,13-cianoestafietin. The antiprotozoal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania braziliensis of these compounds was evaluated. Epoxyestafietin was the most active compound against T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes (IC50 values of 18.7 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively). Estafietin (1) and 11βH,13-dihydroestafietin (2) were the most active and selective compounds on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50 values of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively). The antiparasitic activity demonstrated by estafietin and some of its derivatives make them promising candidates for the development of effective compounds for the treatment of Chagas disease and leihsmaniasis.
Project description:Vernonanthura nebularum (Cabrera) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), an endemic species from the north of Argentina, is a rich source of elephantopus-type sesquiterpene lactones. These compounds have proved to be promising antiparasitic agents, but there is no report about their action against pest insects. In this work we studied for the first time the antifeedant and toxic effects of V. nebularum natural products against the fall army warm Spodoptera frugiperda Smith and the oviposition deterrent activity against the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann. As a result, we found that extracts, fractions composed of sesquiterpene lactones and pure sesquiterpene lactones altered larval feeding behavior in the food choice test. Nutritional parameters of S. frugiperda larvae were also affected. Fraction II (300??g/g of diet.), containing compounds 1, 2 and 3, was the most toxic substance with 80% pupal mortality and wing malformations in adults. In oviposition deterrent experiments against Ceratitis capitata, we observed a moderate effect at 30??g/cm2 of the test compound. The most active substances were the methanolic extract, dichloromethane subextract and lactone 2. According to our results, V. nebularum natural products could be used for maximizing the effectiveness and specificity in future insecticide design with specific or multiple target sites, while ensuring the economic and ecological sustainability, in addition to combat the increasing resistance rates developed by synthetic pesticides.