A polymorphism in the cachexia-associated gene INHBA predicts efficacy of regorafenib in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Activin/myostatin signaling has a critical role not only in cachexia but also in tumor angiogenesis. Cachexia is a frequent complication among patients with advanced cancer and heavily pretreated patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of cachexia-associated genetic variants in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with regorafenib. Associations between twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 genes (INHBA, MSTN, ALK4, TGFBR1, ALK7, ACVR2B, SMAD2, FOXO3) and clinical outcome were evaluated in mCRC patients of three cohorts: a discovery cohort of 150 patients receiving regorafenib, a validation cohort of 80 patients receiving regorafenib and a control cohort of 128 receiving TAS-102. In the discovery cohort, patients with any G variant in FOXO3 rs12212067 had a significantly lower response rate (P = 0.031) and overall survival (OS) than those with a T/T in univariate analysis (4.5 vs. 7.6 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.46, P = 0.012). Among female patients, those with any G variant in INHBA rs2237432 had a significantly longer OS than those with an A/A in both univariate (7.6 vs. 4.3 months, HR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.34-0.95, P = 0.021) and multivariable (HR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.29-0.94, adjusted P = 0.031) analysis. This association was confirmed in female patients of the validation cohort, though without statistical significance (P = 0.059). Conversely, female patients with any G allele in the control group receiving TAS-102 did not show a longer OS. This was the first study evaluating the associations between polymorphisms in cachexia-associated genes and outcomes in refractory mCRC patients treated with regorafenib. Further studies should be conducted to confirm these associations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trifluridine (FTD) is an active cytotoxic component of the metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) drug TAS-102, and thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI) inhibits the rapid degradation of FTD. We tested whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in FTD metabolism and TPI excretion could predict outcome in patients with mCRC treated with TAS-102. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We investigated three different cohorts: a training cohort (n = 52) and a testing cohort (n = 129) both receiving TAS-102 and a control cohort (n = 52) receiving regorafenib. SNPs of TK1, ENT1, CNT1, MATE1, MATE2 and OCT2 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS:In the training cohort, patients with any ENT1 rs760370 G allele had a significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS; 3.5 versus 2.1 months, respectively, hazard ratio [HR] 0.44, P = 0.004) and overall survival (OS; 8.7 versus 5.3 months, respectively, HR 0.27, P = 0.003) than the A/A genotype. These findings were validated in the testing cohort (P = 0.021 and 0.009 for PFS and OS, respectively). In addition, the combination of ENT1 rs760370, MATE1 rs2289669 and OCT2 rs316019 SNPs significantly stratified patients with the risk of PFS and OS in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for PFS and OS in the training cohort; P = 0.053 and 0.025 for PFS and OS, respectively, in the testing cohort). No significant differences were observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of ENT1, MATE1 and OCT2 SNPs may serve as a predictive and prognostic marker in mCRC patients treated with TAS-102.
Project description:Background:Tri-phosphorylated trifluridine (FTD) incorporation into DNA is TAS-102's main anti-tumor action. We tested whether genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination (HR) and cell cycle checkpoint pathway for DNA repair is associated with outcomes in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with TAS-102. Patients and methods:We analyzed genomic DNA extracted from 233 samples of three cohorts: an evaluation cohort of 52 patients receiving TAS-102, a validation cohort of 129 patients receiving TAS-102 and a control cohort of 52 patients receiving regorafenib. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes involved in HR (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCD2, H2AX, RAD51) and cell cycle checkpoint (ATR, CHEK1, CHEK2, CDKN1A, TP53, CHE1, PIN1, PCNA) were analyzed by PCR-based direct sequencing. Results:In univariate analysis for the evaluation cohort, patients with any G allele in ATM rs609429 had longer overall survival (OS) than those with the C/C variant (8.7 vs. 4.4 months, HR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99, P?=?0.022). Patients carrying any A allele in XRCC3 rs861539 had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (3.8 vs. 2.3 months, HR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92, P?=?0.024) and OS (15.6 vs. 6.3 months, HR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.79, P?=?0.012) than those with the G/G variant. In multivariable analysis, ATM rs609429 remained significant for OS (P?=?0.020). In the validation cohort, patients having ATM rs609429 with any G allele showed longer OS and PFS; the G/A variant in XRCC3 rs861539 showed longer OS, though without statistical significance. Conclusion:Genetic variants in the HR pathway may predict clinical outcome in mCRC patients receiving TAS-102.
Project description:Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines recommend regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) for the third-line therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this analysis, we evaluated hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 treatment and the impact of hospitalizations on overall survival (OS). This retrospective analysis was based on unselected, consecutive mCRC patients treated with regorafenib and/or TAS-102 at the tertiary cancer centers in Salzburg and Wels-Grieskirchen, Austria. Between January 2013 and May 2019, 93 patients started third- or fourth-line therapy with regorafenib or TAS-102. Tumor therapy (regorafenib versus TAS-102, HR: 1.95 [95% CI: 1.07-3.54], p = 0.03) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (2-3 versus 0-1, HR: 4.04 [95% CI: 2.11-7.71], p < 0.001) showed a statistically significant association with hospitalization risk in multivariate analysis. The corresponding hospitalization probability from initiation of third- or fourth-line was 30% with regorafenib versus 18% with TAS-102 at five weeks and 41% versus 28% at ten weeks, respectively. Hospitalizations irrespective of cause during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did neither impact median survival in patients undergoing only third-line therapy (never-hospitalized: 5.7 months [95% CI: 3.9-10.5] versus hospitalized: 5.4 months [95% CI: 2.8-9.6], p = 0.45), nor in patients receiving third- and fourth-line therapy (12.2 months [95% CI: 10.6-28.8] versus 18.6 months [95% CI: 6.3-not reached], p = 0.90). In conclusion, apart from poor ECOG performance status, regorafenib therapy was associated with an increased hospitalization probability during palliative systemic third- and fourth-line therapy in mCRC. However, hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did not impact OS beyond second-line therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limited treatment options are available in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The objective was to conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) and exploratory network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare the tolerability and effectiveness of SIRT with Y-90 resin microspheres, regorafenib, TAS-102 (trifluridine/tipiracil), and best supportive care (BSC) as third-line treatment in patients with mCRC. METHODS:An SLR was conducted to identify studies comparing two or more of the treatments and reporting overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, tumor response, or adverse event (AE) incidence. An exploratory NMA was conducted to compare hazard ratios (HRs) for OS using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. RESULTS:Seven studies were identified in the SLR: two double-blind randomized-controlled trials (RCT) for each drug, one open-label RCT, and two non-randomized comparative studies for SIRT. Patient selection criteria differed between studies, with SIRT studies including patients with liver-dominant colorectal metastases. Nausea and vomiting were more frequent with TAS-102 than regorafenib or SIRT; diarrhea was more common with TAS-102 and regorafenib than SIRT. The exploratory NMA suggested that all active treatments improved OS, with HRs of 0.48 (95% CrI 0.30-0.78) for SIRT with Y-90 resin microspheres, 0.63 (0.38-1.03) for TAS-102, and 0.67 (0.40-1.08) for regorafenib each compared to BSC. CONCLUSIONS:Regorafenib, TAS-102 and SIRT using Y-90 resin microspheres are more effective than BSC in third-line treatment of mCRC; however, study heterogeneity made comparisons between active treatments challenging. SIRT is a viable treatment for third-line mCRC and its favorable AE profile should be considered in the therapeutic decision-making process.
Project description:Background:The evidence base for optimum third-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is not conclusive. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of regorafenib as third-line therapy in mCRC. This indirect meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of regorafenib with other available third-line therapies for mCRC. Methods:A literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of fruquintinib, regorafenib, TAS-102, and nintedanib as third-line therapies in patients with mCRC. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were the primary outcomes, while objective response rate (ORR) and safety were the secondary outcomes. Hazard ratio (HR) and relative risk (RR) with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for analysis of survival, clinical response, and safety data. An adjusted indirect meta-analysis with placebo as the common comparator was performed. Results:We identified eight RCTs comparing regorafenib (two studies), fruquintinib (two studies), TAS-102 (three studies), and nintedanib (one study) against placebo. The OS with regorafenib was significantly better when compared with nintedanib (HR?=?0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95, p?=?0.02) but was similar to that of fruquintinib (HR?=?1.01; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.52, p?=?0.94) and TAS-102 (HR?=?0.97; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.38, p?=?0.88). The PFS and ORR for regorafenib were slightly better than those of TAS-102 (PFS: HR?=?0.86, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.37, p?=?0.5; ORR: RR?=?1.13, 95% CI: 0.11, 11.05, p?=?0.92) and nintedanib (PFS: HR?=?0.68, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.10, p?=?0.12; ORR: not reported) but were lower than those for fruquintinib (PFS: HR?=?1.53, 95% CI: 0.93, 2.52, p?=?0.08; ORR: RR?=?0.68269, 95% CI: 0.045, 10.32, p?=?0.79). Safety analysis showed that the RR of adverse events (AEs) was lesser in patients treated with regorafenib in comparison with that in patients treated with fruquintinib, but was similar to that in patients treated with nintedanib and TAS-102. Conclusion:Regorafenib has efficacy similar to that of TAS-102 and better safety when compared with fruquintinib. Considering the mechanism of action of regorafenib, which targets multiple factors in the angiogenic pathway, it could be an ideal option for treatment in the beyond second-line setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify key randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs), followed by network meta-analysis, to compare the efficacy and safety profiles of regorafenib, fruquintinib, and TAS-102 in previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Systematic literature review was performed using the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane library online databases to identify published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Hazard ratios (HRs) for progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the odds ratios (ORs) for the objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), and fatal adverse events (FAEs) were compared indirectly using network meta-analysis based on a random-effects model. RESULTS Five RCTs that included 2,604 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were analyzed. Indirect comparisons showed that fruquintinib was associated with significant superiority for PFS (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34-0.95) and DCR (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.08-3.01) when compared with TAS-102 in patients with mCRC. However, there was no significant difference between OS or ORR between regorafenib, fruquintinib, and TAS-102. Fruquintinib was associated with a significantly higher risk of SAEs when compared with TAS-102 or regorafenib. There was no significant difference in the risk of AEs or FAEs following indirect comparison between fruquintinib, regorafenib, and TAS-102. CONCLUSIONS The findings from network meta-analysis showed that fruquintinib was associated with significant superiority for PFS and DCR compared with TAS-102, but fruquintinib was associated with significantly increased risk for SAEs compared with regorafenib and TAS-102.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:In the phase 3 CONCUR trial (NCT01584830), regorafenib improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo in Asian patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of Chinese patients in CONCUR. METHODS:Adults with mCRC progressing despite at least two prior treatment regimens and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. Dose modifications were permitted. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective overall response, disease control rate, and safety. RESULTS:A total of 172 Chinese patients were randomized and treated (regorafenib n = 112, placebo n = 60). OS was significantly improved with regorafenib versus placebo (8.4 vs 6.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.80; one-sided P = 0.000632), as was progression-free survival (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.47; one-sided P < 0.000001). The most common drug-related grade ? 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; regorafenib, placebo) were hand-foot skin reaction (19%, 0%), hypertension (13%, 3%), hypophosphatemia (7%, 0%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6%, 0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (5%, 0%). In patients receiving regorafenib and placebo, respectively, TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation in 14% and 7%, dose reduction in 39% and 0%, and dose interruption in 64% and 20%. CONCLUSIONS:This retrospective analysis showed that regorafenib provided an OS benefit over placebo for Chinese patients with previously treated mCRC. TEAEs were consistent with the regorafenib safety profile and manageable with treatment modifications.
Project description:Purpose:Regorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor approved for the therapy of previously treated metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). The aim of the present study was to analyze the outcomes of treatment with regorafenib in real-world clinical practice based on data from a national registry. Methods:The CORECT registry, the Czech non-interventional database of patients with mCRC treated with targeted agents, searched for patients with metastatic CRC treated with regorafenib. In total, 555 evaluable patients were identified. Results:The median age at diagnosis was 61.7 years. All patients had disease progression on or after previous systemic treatment. Most patients were treated with an initial dose of 160 mg daily (n = 463; 83.6%). The median duration of treatment was 2.7 months (range 0.0-23.4 months). By the data cut-off date, 472 patients (85%) had completed treatment with regorafenib and were evaluable for treatment response evaluation. Partial response was reported in 13 patients (2.8%) and disease stabilization in 130 patients (27.5%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 3.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-3.7 months) and 9.3 months (95% CI 8.3-10.3 months), respectively. The 6-month OS rate was 67.7% (95% CI 63.4-72.1%). Multivariable analysis showed that female gender, longer interval from diagnosis of metastatic disease, M0 stage at diagnosis, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 0 were associated with longer PFS, while higher body-mass index (BMI), longer interval from diagnosis of metastatic disease, and ECOG PS of 0 were associated with longer OS. Conclusion:OS of patients treated with regorafenib in the real-world clinical practice in this cohort exceeded that reported in randomized trials. Regorafenib is a safe and active treatment option for a subgroup of patients with mCRC who are progressing after other systemic therapies and maintain good performance status.
Project description:Regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) are novel antitumor agents for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. However, it is unclear which patients may derive a survival benefit from these drugs in real-life clinical practice. We evaluated retrospectively the efficacy and safety of regorafenib and TAS-102 at a single institution between June 2013 and November 2015. Cox regression analysis was carried out to obtain predictive scores (the nearest integers of hazard ratio) for survival benefit. Forty-four patients treated with regorafenib or TAS-102 were included in the analysis; among them, 17 received crossover treatment. The median overall survival (OS) was 9.1 months for regorafenib and 9.3 months for TAS-102, and the corresponding values after crossover were 7.1 and 5.3 months, respectively. OS was not correlated to relative dose intensity, but was proportional to the total administered dose of each drug. Adverse events were tolerable even after crossover. We identified three variables as significant for prediction of OS with good discrimination (C-statistic=0.70): Poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, time since diagnosis of metastatic disease ?18 months, and previous chemotherapy continued ?2 months beyond progression were all predictors of poor OS. Regorafenib and TAS-102 can be recommended for patients with better performance status and slow progression of metastatic disease. Optimal survival benefit was provided by prompt administration of either drug after failure of previous chemotherapy, with flexible titration to the optimal dose for each individual patient.
Project description:TAS-102 (trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride; a novel combination oral nucleoside anti-tumor agent) has recently received regulatory approval for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Internal review of data at a single-institution showed a trend towards better overall survival (OS) for patients who experienced chemotherapy-induced neutropenia at 1-month (CIN-1-month). To explore this finding further, a cohort study was designed based on outcome data from three centers in United States and one from Japan.CIN-1-month after starting TAS-102 was defined by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 4.03 as a neutrophil count decrease of???grade 2 (absolute neutrophil count?<?1500/mm(3)). Patients had confirmed mCRC that was refractory to standard therapies. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between patients with CIN-1-month (CIN-1-month positive) versus those who did not have CIN-1-month (CIN-1-month negative); with the median progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences evaluated using the Log-rank test.Our cohort study had a total of 149 patients with data regarding their neutrophil assessment at 1-month mark. Patients who developed???grade 2 CIN-1-month had a both longer PFS (median 3.0 months versus 2.4 months; Log-rank P-value?=?0.01), as well as OS (14.0 versus 5.6 months; Log-rank P-value?<?0.0001). Only CIN-1-month (adjusted HR: 0.21 (95 % CI: 0.11-0.38) and higher baseline CEA levels (adjusted HR: 2.00 (95 % CI: 1.22-3.35) were noted to be independent predictors of OS. Furthermore, the CIN-1-month was noted to be a statistically significantly predictor of OS over a wide range of cutoffs.Our observations are novel and hypothesis generating. Neutropenia after starting TAS-102 was associated with better prognosis in patients with refractory mCRC. It can be postulated that the dosage of TAS-102 potentially may need to be increased to achieve better outcomes in patients not experiencing any neutropenia. Further pharmacologic investigations should help elucidate these issues.