Substituting Far-Red for Traditionally Defined Photosynthetic Photons Results in Equal Canopy Quantum Yield for CO2 Fixation and Increased Photon Capture During Long-Term Studies: Implications for Re-Defining PAR.
ABSTRACT: Far-red photons regulate shade avoidance responses and can have powerful effects on plant morphology and radiation capture. Recent studies have shown that far-red photons (700 to 750 nm) efficiently drive photosynthesis when added to traditionally defined photosynthetic photons (400-700 nm). But the long-term effects of far-red photons on canopy quantum yield have not yet been determined. We grew lettuce in a four-chamber, steady-state canopy gas-exchange system to separately quantify canopy photon capture, quantum yield for CO2 fixation, and carbon use efficiency. These measurements facilitate a mechanistic understanding of the effect of far-red photons on the components of plant growth. Day-time photosynthesis and night-time respiration of lettuce canopies were continuously monitored from seedling to harvest in five replicate studies. Plants were grown under a background of either red/blue or white light, each background with or without 15% (50 ?mol m-2 s-1) of far-red photons substituting for photons between 400 and 700 nm. All four treatments contained 31.5% blue photons, and an equal total photon flux from 400 to 750 nm of 350 ?mol m-2 s-1. Both treatments with far-red photons had higher canopy photon capture, increased daily carbon gain (net photosynthesis minus respiration at night), and 29 to 31% more biomass than control treatments. Canopy quantum yield was similar among treatments (0.057 ± 0.002 mol of CO2 fixed in gross photosynthesis per mole of absorbed photons integrated over 400 to 750 nm). Carbon use efficiency (daily carbon gain/gross photosynthesis) was also similar for mature plants (0.61 ± 0.02). Photosynthesis increased linearly with increasing photon capture and had a common slope among all four treatments, which demonstrates that the faster growth with far-red photon substitution was caused by enhanced photon capture through increased leaf expansion. The equivalent canopy quantum yield among treatments indicates that the absorbed far-red photons were equally efficient for photosynthesis when acting synergistically with the 400-700 nm photons.
Project description:Light-emitting diodes allow for the application of specific wavelengths of light to induce various morphological and physiological responses. In lettuce (<i>Lactuca sativa</i>), far-red light (700-800 nm) is integral to initiating shade responses which can increase plant growth. In the first of two studies, plants were grown with a similar photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) but different intensities of far-red light. The second study used perpendicular gradients of far-red light and PPFD, allowing for examination of interactive effects. The far-red gradient study revealed that increasing supplemental far-red light increased leaf length and width, which was associated with increased projected canopy size (PCS). The higher PCS was associated with increased cumulative incident light received by plants, which increased dry matter accumulation. In the perpendicular gradient study, far-red light was 57% and 183% more effective at increasing the amount of light received by the plant, as well as 92.5% and 162% more effective at increasing plant biomass at the early and late harvests, respectively, as compared to PPFD. Light use efficiency (LUE, biomass/mol incident light) was generally negatively correlated with specific leaf area (SLA). Far-red light provided by LEDs increases the canopy size to capture more light to drive photosynthesis and shows promise for inclusion in the growth light spectrum for lettuce under sole-source lighting.
Project description:Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400-700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture.
Project description:We reported the first observation of the two-photon-induced quantum cutting phenomenon in a Gd(3+)/Tb(3+)-codoped glass in which two photons at ~400?nm are simultaneously absorbed, leading to the cascade emission of three photons in the visible spectral region. The two-photon absorption induced by femtosecond laser pulses allows the excitation of the energy states in Gd(3+) which are inactive for single-photon excitation and enables the observation of many new electric transitions which are invisible in the single-photon-induced luminescence. The competition between the two-photon-induced photon cascade emission and the single-photon-induced emission was manipulated to control the luminescence color of the glass. We demonstrated the change of the luminescence color from red to yellow and eventually to green by varying either the excitation wavelength or the excitation power density.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Shading by an overhead canopy (i.e. canopy shading) entails simultaneous changes in both photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red to far-red ratio (R:FR). As plant responses to PAR (e.g. changes in leaf photosynthesis) are different from responses to R:FR (e.g. changes in plant architecture), and these responses occur at both organ and plant levels, understanding plant photosynthesis responses to canopy shading needs separate analysis of responses to reductions in PAR and R:FR at different levels. METHODS:In a glasshouse experiment we subjected plants of woody perennial rose (Rosa hybrida) to different light treatments, and so separately quantified the effects of reductions in PAR and R:FR on leaf photosynthetic traits and plant architectural traits. Using a functional-structural plant model, we separately quantified the effects of responses in these traits on plant photosynthesis, and evaluated the relative importance of changes of individual traits for plant photosynthesis under mild and heavy shading caused by virtual overhead canopies. KEY RESULTS:Model simulations showed that the individual trait responses to canopy shading could have positive and negative effects on plant photosynthesis. Under mild canopy shading, trait responses to reduced R:FR on photosynthesis were generally negative and with a larger magnitude than effects of responses to reduced PAR. Conversely, under heavy canopy shading, the positive effects of trait responses to reduced PAR became dominant. The combined effects of low-R:FR responses and low-PAR responses on plant photosynthesis were not equal to the sum of the separate effects, indicating interactions between individual trait responses. CONCLUSIONS:Our simulation results indicate that under canopy shading, the relative importance of plant responses to PAR and R:FR for plant photosynthesis changes with shade levels. This suggests that the adaptive significance of plant plasticity responses to one shading factor depends on plant responses to the other.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a widely used model cyanobacterium, whose substrains can vary on both genotype and phenotype levels. Previously described phenotypic variations include ability of mixotrophic growth, ability of movement on agar plates and variations in pigments composition or cell size. In this study, we report for the first time significant variation among Synechocystis substrains in complex cellular traits such as growth rate, photosynthesis efficiency, cellular dry weight and cellular composition (including protein or carbohydrates content). We also confirmed previously reported differences in cell size. Synechocystis cultures were cultivated in controlled environment of flat panel photobioreactors under red, blue and white light of intensities up to 790 ?mol(photons) m-2 s-1, temperatures 23°C-60°C, input CO2 concentrations ranging from 400 to 15 000 ppm and in BG11 cultivation medium with and without addition of NaCl. Three Synechocystis substrains were used for the comparative experiments: GT-L, GT-B (Brno, CZ) and PCC-B (Brno, CZ). Growth rates of Synechocystis GT-B were inhibited under high intensities of red light (585-670 nm), and growth rates of both substrains GT-B and PCC-B were inhibited under photons of wavelengths 485-585 nm and 670-700 nm. Synechocystis GT-B was more sensitive to low temperatures than the other two tested substrains, and Synechocystis GT-L was sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the cultivation media. The results suggest that stress sensitivity of commonly used Synechocystis substrains can strongly vary, similarly as glucose tolerance or motility as reported previously. Our study further supports the previous statement that emphasizes importance of proper Synechocystis substrains selection and awareness of phenotypical differences among Synechocystis substrains which is crucial for comparative and reproducible research. This is highly relevant for studies related to stress physiology and development of sustainable biotechnological applications.
Project description:The economic viability and energy use of vertical farms strongly depend on the efficiency of the use of light. Increasing far-red radiation (FR, 700-800 nm) relative to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) may induce shade avoidance responses including stem elongation and leaf expansion, which would benefit light interception, and FR might even be photosynthetically active when used in combination with PAR. The aims of this study are to investigate the interaction between FR and planting density and to quantify the underlying components of the FR effects on growth. Lettuce (<i>Lactuca sativa</i> cv. Expertise RZ) was grown in a climate chamber under two FR treatments (0 or 52 ?mol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>) and three planting densities (23, 37, and 51 plants m<sup>-2</sup>). PAR of 89% red and 11% blue was kept at 218 ?mol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>. Adding FR increased plant dry weight after 4 weeks by 46-77% (largest effect at lowest planting density) and leaf area by 58-75% (largest effect at middle planting density). Radiation use efficiency (RUE: plant dry weight per unit of incident radiation, 400-800 nm) increased by 17-42% and incident light use efficiency (LUE<sub>inc</sub>: plant dry weight per unit of incident PAR, 400-700 nm) increased by 46-77% by adding FR; the largest FR effects were observed at the lowest planting density. Intercepted light use efficiency (LUE<sub>int</sub>: plant dry weight per unit of intercepted PAR) increased by adding FR (8-23%). Neither specific leaf area nor net leaf photosynthetic rate was influenced by FR. We conclude that supplemental FR increased plant biomass production mainly by faster leaf area expansion, which increased light interception. The effects of FR on plant dry weight are stronger at low than at high planting density. Additionally, an increased LUE<sub>int</sub> may contribute to the increased biomass production.
Project description:Light spectrum of growing environment is a determinant factor for plant growth and photosynthesis. Plants under different light spectra exhibit different growth and photosynthetic behaviors. To unravel the effects of light spectra on plant growth, photosynthetic pigments and electron transport chain reactions, purple and green basil varieties were grown under five different light spectra including white (W: 400-730 nm), blue (B: 400-500 nm), red (R: 600-700 nm) and two combinations of R and B lights (R50B50 and R70B30), with same PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density). Almost all values for shoot and root growth traits were higher in purple variety and were improved by combinational R and B lights (especially under R70B30), while they were negatively influenced by B monochromatic light when compared to growth traits of W-grown plants. Highest concentration of photosynthetic pigments was detected in R70B30. Biophysical properties of photosynthetic electron transport chain showed higher florescence intensity at all steps of OJIP kinetics in plants grown under R light in both varieties. Oxygen evolving complex activity (Fv/Fo) and PSII maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) in R-grown plants were lower than plants grown under other light spectra. Values for parameters related to specific energy fluxes per reaction center (ABS/RC, TRo/RC, ETo/RC and DIo/RC) were increased under R light (especially for purple variety). Performance index was significantly decreased under R light in both varieties. In conclusion, light spectra other than RB combination, induced various limitations on pigmentations, efficiency of electron transport and growth of basil plants and the responses were cultivar specific.
Project description:Growth in dense stands induces shade avoidance responses. Late stages of stand development lead to low red:far-red (R:FR) and low blue light conditions. We studied gene expression in late stages of canopy development when both light signals were present, and studied gene expression in the single and combined light treatments. Overall design: Plants were grown either single (all light treatments, and canopy control), or put in a high density of 2066 plants / m2. Gene expression measured in petioles.
Project description:In vegetation stands, plants receive red to far-red ratio (R:FR) signals of varying strength from all directions. However, plant responses to variations in R:FR reflected from below have been largely ignored despite their potential consequences for plant performance. Using a heterogeneous rose canopy, which consists of bent shoots down in the canopy and vertically growing upright shoots, we quantified upward far-red reflection by bent shoots and its consequences for upright shoot architecture. With a three-dimensional plant model, we assessed consequences of responses to R:FR from below for plant photosynthesis. Bent shoots reflected substantially more far-red than red light, causing reduced R:FR in light reflected upwards. Leaf inclination angles increased in upright shoots which received low R:FR reflected from below. The increased leaf angle led to an increase in simulated plant photosynthesis only when this low R:FR was reflected off their own bent shoots and not when it reflected off neighbour bent shoots. We conclude that plant response to R:FR from below is an under-explored phenomenon which may have contrasting consequences for plant performance depending on the type of vegetation or crop system. The responses are beneficial for performance only when R:FR is reflected by lower foliage of the same plants.
Project description:Batrachospermum turfosum Bory is one of the generalists among the few red algae that have adapted to freshwater habitats, occurring in a variety of primarily shaded, nutrient-poor micro-habitats with lotic (running) or lentic (standing) waters. Seasonal variations in water level and canopy cover can expose this sessile alga to widely fluctuating temperatures, solar irradiation and nutrient availability. Here we report on the ecophysiology of B. turfosum collected from an ultra-oligotrophic bog pool in the Austrian Alps. Photosynthesis as a function of photon fluence density (PFD) and temperature was studied by measuring oxygen evolution in combination with chlorophyll fluorescence. In addition, the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on photosynthetic pigments were analysed using HPLC and spectrophotometric methods, and cellular ultrastructure was studied using transmission electron microscopy. We found that B. turfosum is adapted to low light, with a light compensation point (Ic) and a light saturation point (Ik) of 8.4 and 29.7 ?mol photons m- 2 s-1, respectively, but also tolerates higher PFDs of ~1000 ?mol photons m-2 s-1, and is capable of net photosynthesis at temperatures between 5°C and 35°C. Exposure to either UV-A or UV-AB for 102 h led to a strong transient drop in effective quantum yield (?F/FM'), followed by an acclimation to about 70% of initial ?F/FM' values. Ultrastructural changes included the accumulation of plastoglobules and dilated membranes after UVR treatment. Although all photosynthetic pigments strongly decreased upon UVR exposure and no UV-photoprotectants (e.g. mycosporine-like amino acids) could be detected, the alga was capable of recovering ?F/FM' and phycobiliproteins after UVR treatment. In summary, B. turfosum tolerates a wide range of irradiation and temperature regimes, and these traits may be the basis for its successful adaptation to challenging environments.