Heterogeneity in past-year smoking, current tobacco use, and smoking cessation behaviors among light and/or non-daily smokers
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Prevalence of light daily smoking, <10 cigarettes per day (CPD), and non-daily smoking has increased in the US population. This analysis examined the heterogeneity in past-year smoking behavior, current tobacco use behaviors, and smoking cessation behaviors among light and/or non-daily smokers. METHODS Current adult (?18 years old) smokers (N=26196) participated in the 2010–2011 US Current Population Survey – Tobacco Use Supplement, which reported current (T1) and past 12-month (T0) smoking behaviors. Responses were categorized by intensity (light ?10 CPD vs heavy >10 CPD) and frequency (non-daily vs daily). Combinations of T0 and T1 smoking behaviors resulted in 15 smoking trajectories ending in light/non-daily smoking and a 16th category of heavy daily smokers at T1. Differences in demographics, tobacco use, and smoking cessation behaviors were assessed by using weighted multivariable regression models. RESULTS Overall, 46.1% of US smokers were heavy smokers, 24.6% remained light daily smokers and 12.5% remained light non-daily smokers between T0 and T1. Current cigar, smokeless tobacco, and pipe use differed by smoking trajectories (p<0.05). All light and/or non-daily smokers were more likely than heavy daily smokers to have made a quit attempt (p<0.05) but use of cessation treatments varied. Smokers in many light and/or non-daily smoking trajectories were less likely than heavy daily smokers to be aided by healthcare providers for smoking cessation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Among heavy daily smokers who became light non-daily smokers, the mismatch between intent to quit (80.9%) and receiving advice to set a quit date (33.7%) is one example of a potential opportunity for a clinical intervention.
Project description:Among cigarette smokers, lower levels of consumption, defined as smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD) or not smoking daily, are becoming more common. The relationship between cigarette consumption and smoking frequency (daily or nondaily) is not well characterized, and the natural history of light smoking (defined here as smoking < or =10 CPD) is poorly understood.We assessed changes in CPD and smoking frequency over time among light smokers (< or =10 CPD) and very light smokers (< or =5 CPD), using a population-based longitudinal survey of 3,083 adult smokers in Massachusetts who were interviewed three times over a 4-year follow-up period (in 2000-2001, 2002-2003, and 2005-2006). We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with light smokers' progression to heavier smoking or smoking reduction/quitting.Seventy percent of very light smokers were nondaily smokers. Very light nondaily smokers differed from very light daily smokers by younger age, higher socioeconomic status, a social smoking pattern, later smoking initiation, less evidence of nicotine addiction, and more recent and planned cessation efforts. Very light nondaily smokers and smokers consuming 6-10 CPD were more likely to remain in the same smoking category and were less likely to increase consumption than were very light daily smokers. Factors independently associated with increasing consumption among very light smokers were smoking daily, nicotine dependence, White ethnicity, social smoking, and having more friends who smoked; among smokers consuming 6-10 CPD, male gender and lack of quitting self-efficacy were associated with increasing consumption.Our findings indicate that most light smoking is not a gateway to heavier smoking.
Project description:Previous research demonstrated the efficacy of sustained release bupropion (bupropion SR) for smoking cessation in whites as well as moderate to heavy (?10 cigarettes per day [CPD]) African American smokers. We evaluated whether bupropion SR was effective for smoking cessation among African American light smokers (?10 CPD).A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from December 27, 2007, to May 13, 2010. All participants were African American light smokers (?10 CPD), aged 18 years or older. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg bupropion SR (150 mg once daily for 3 days and then 150 mg twice daily) (n = 270 participants) or placebo (n = 270 participants) for 7 weeks, and up to six sessions of health education counseling. Serum cotinine was measured at baseline (week 0). The primary outcome was salivary cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at week 26; a cut point of 15 ng/mL differentiated smokers from nonsmokers. Salivary cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at end of medication treatment at week 7 was also examined. Odds ratios (OR) for smoking abstinence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.Participants at baseline visit (week 0) smoked an average of 8.0 CPD and had a mean serum cotinine level of 275.8 ng/mL (SD = 155.8 ng/mL); most used menthol cigarettes (83.7%) and smoked within 30 minutes of waking (72.2%). After imputing those lost to follow-up as smokers, no statistically significant difference in long-term smoking abstinence rates at week 26 was observed between bupropion SR and placebo groups (13.3% vs 10.0%, OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.82 to 2.35, P = .23). Cotinine-verified smoking abstinence rate at end of medication week 7 was higher in the bupropion SR vs placebo group (23.7% vs 9.6%, OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.78 to 4.77, P < .001).Bupropion SR was effective in promoting smoking cessation during the medication phase of treatment but showed no effect on long-term smoking cessation among African American light smokers. More research is needed to identify strategies for sustaining abstinence among African American light smokers.
Project description:The role of inhalation behaviors as predictors of nicotine uptake was examined in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (2012-2014), a study of 332 adults whose cigarette smoking was measured in a naturalistic environment (e.g., at home) with portable handheld topography devices. Piecewise regression analyses showed that levels of salivary cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and total salivary nicotine metabolites (cotinine + trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) increased linearly up to a level of about 1 pack per day (20 cigarettes per day (CPD)) (P < 0.01). Total daily puff volume (TDPV; in mL) (P < 0.05) and total daily number of puffs (P < 0.05), but not other topographical measures, increased linearly with CPD up to a level of about 1 pack per day. The mean level of cotinine per cigarette did not change above 20 CPD and was 36% lower in heavy smokers (≥20 CPD) than in lighter smokers (<20 CPD) (15.6 ng/mL vs. 24.5 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.01). Mediation models showed that TDPV accounted for 43%-63% of the association between CPD and nicotine metabolites for smokers of <20 CPD. TDPV was the best predictor of nicotine metabolite levels in light-to-moderate smokers (1-19 CPD). In contrast, neither CPD, total daily number of puffs, nor TDPV predicted nicotine metabolite levels above 20 CPD (up to 40 CPD). Finally, although light smokers are traditionally considered less dependent on nicotine, these findings suggest that they are exposed to more nicotine per cigarette than are heavy smokers due to more frequent, intensive puffing.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is a common risk factor for developing upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).To assess the impact of cigarette smoking status, cumulative smoking exposure, and time from cessation on oncologic UTUC outcomes in patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU).A total of 864 patients underwent RNU at five institutions. The median follow-up in this retrospective study was 50 mo. Smoking history included smoking status, quantity of cigarettes per day (CPD), duration in years, and years from smoking cessation. The cumulative smoking exposure was categorized as light-short-term (? 19 CPD and ? 19.9 yr), moderate (all combinations except light-short-term and heavy-long-term), and heavy-long-term (? 20 CPD and ? 20 yr).RNU with or without lymph node dissection. No patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Univariable and multivariable logistic regression and competing risk regression analyses assessed the effects of smoking on oncologic outcomes.A total of 244 patients (28.2%) never smoked; 297 (34.4%) and 323 (37.4%) were former and current smokers, respectively. Among smokers, 87 (10.1%), 331 (38.3%), and 202 (23.4%) were light-short-term, moderate, and heavy-long-term smokers, respectively. Current smoking status, smoking ? 20 CPD, ? 20 yr, and heavy-long-term smoking were associated with advanced disease (p values ? 0.004), greater likelihood of disease recurrence (p values ? 0.01), and cancer-specific mortality (p values ? 0.05) on multivariable analyses that adjusted for standard features. Patients who quit smoking ? 10 yr prior to RNU did not differ from never smokers regarding advanced tumor stages, disease recurrence, and cancer-specific mortality, but they had better oncologic outcomes then current smokers and those patients who quit smoking <10 yr prior to RNU. The study is limited by its retrospective nature.Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with advanced disease stages, disease recurrence, and cancer-specific mortality in patients treated with RNU for UTUC. Current smokers and those with a heavy and long-term smoking exposure have the highest risk for poor oncologic outcomes. Smoking cessation >10 yr prior to RNU seems to mitigate some detrimental effects. These results underscore the need for smoking cessation and prevention programs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. METHODS:Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ?2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (?20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. RESULTS:An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ?2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ?2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ?2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. CONCLUSIONS:Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This information can be useful from a public health perspective to define strategies to reduce disability in Belgium.
Project description:Introduction:Genetic variants associated with nicotine dependence have previously been identified, primarily in European-ancestry populations. No genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been reported for smoking behaviors in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States and Latin America, who are of mixed ancestry with European, African, and American Indigenous components. Methods:We examined genetic associations with smoking behaviors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (N = 12 741 with smoking data, 5119 ever-smokers), using ~2.3 million genotyped variants imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project phase 3. Mixed logistic regression models accounted for population structure, sampling, relatedness, sex, and age. Results:The known region of CHRNA5, which encodes the ?5 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit, was associated with heavy smoking at genome-wide significance (p ? 5 × 10-8) in a comparison of 1929 ever-smokers reporting cigarettes per day (CPD) > 10 versus 3156 reporting CPD ? 10. The functional variant rs16969968 in CHRNA5 had a p value of 2.20 × 10-7 and odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 for the minor allele (A); its minor allele frequency was 0.22 overall and similar across Hispanic/Latino background groups (Central American = 0.17; South American = 0.19; Mexican = 0.18; Puerto Rican = 0.22; Cuban = 0.29; Dominican = 0.19). CHRNA4 on chromosome 20 attained p < 10-4, supporting prior findings in non-Hispanics. For nondaily smoking, which is prevalent in Hispanic/Latino smokers, compared to daily smoking, loci on chromosomes 2 and 4 achieved genome-wide significance; replication attempts were limited by small Hispanic/Latino sample sizes. Conclusions:Associations of nicotinic receptor gene variants with smoking, first reported in non-Hispanic European-ancestry populations, generalized to Hispanics/Latinos despite different patterns of smoking behavior. Implications:We conducted the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of smoking behavior in a US Hispanic/Latino cohort, and the first GWAS of daily/nondaily smoking in any population. Results show that the region of the nicotinic receptor subunit gene CHRNA5, which in non-Hispanic European-ancestry smokers has been associated with heavy smoking as well as cessation and treatment efficacy, is also significantly associated with heavy smoking in this Hispanic/Latino cohort. The results are an important addition to understanding the impact of genetic variants in understudied Hispanic/Latino smokers.
Project description:We examined population-based data to assess potential differences between light and intermittent smokers as compared with moderate to heavy tobacco users in health information-seeking behavior and attitudes and media exposure.Data from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Surveys were combined to examine the information-seeking characteristics of light daily smokers (n = 594), intermittent smokers (n = 532), and moderate to heavy daily smokers (n = 1,131).Compared with moderate to heavy daily smokers, intermittent smokers reported less exposure to television, greater trust in doctors as a source of health information, and greater intention to quit smoking. No differences in information-seeking experiences and preferences were observed between light daily smokers and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Intermittent smokers were distinct from moderate to heavy smokers in their information-seeking experiences and preferences.The insight into the media use and information preferences of different smoking populations lays the groundwork for conducting further research to examine the information needs and preferences of smoking groups and to more effectively develop and deliver smoking cessation interventions.
Project description:Weight gain after quitting smoking is a common concern for smokers and can discourage quit attempts. The purpose of this analysis was to describe the long-term weight gain, smoking cessation attributable (SCA) weight gain and describe their relationship to cigarette consumption and body mass index (BMI) 10 years ago in a contemporary, nationally representative sample of smokers who continued to smoke and those who quit.In all, 12,204 adults ?36 years old were selected from the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Ten-year weight gain for never, continuing and former smokers (who quit 1-10 years ago) was calculated by body mass index (BMI) 10 years ago and cigarettes per day (CPD). SCA weight gain was calculated by taking the difference between the adjusted mean 10-year weight gain of former smokers and that of continuing smokers.Mean 10-year weight gain among continuing smokers was 3.5? versus 8.4?kg among former smokers; the SCA weight gain was 4.9?kg. After Bonferroni correction, there was no significant difference in overall weight gain between continuing and former smokers of 1-14 CPD, and SCA weight gain was lowest in this group (2.0?kg, confidence interval (CI): 0.3, 3.7). SCA weight gain was highest for former smokers of ?25 CPD (10.3?kg, CI: 7.4, 13.2) and for those who were obese (7.1?kg, CI: 2.9, 11.3) mostly because of lower than average weight gain or weight loss among continuing smokers in these groups.In a current, nationally representative sample, baseline BMI and CPD were important factors that contributed to the magnitude of long-term weight gain following smoking cessation. Light to moderate smokers (<15 CPD) experienced little SCA weight gain, whereas heavy smokers (?25 CPD) and those who were obese before quitting experienced the most.
Project description:Understanding variability in smoking patterns may inform smoking cessation interventions. Retrospective reports of cigarettes smoked per day may be biased and typically do not provide temporal precision regarding when cigarettes are smoked. However, real-time, user-initiated tracking, such as logging each time a cigarette is smoked, can be burdensome over long time frames. In this study, adult, non-treatment seeking daily smokers (N?=?22) used an electronic, smart lighter to light and timestamp cigarettes for 14?days. Participants reported number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) via a mobile device (daily diary) and retrospectively reported CPD at the end of the study using the Timeline Followback (TLFB). Self-reported lighter satisfaction and adherence varied with 68% of participants reporting that they liked using the lighter and participants reporting using the lighter for 92% of cigarettes smoked, on average. Lighter-estimated CPD did not differ from daily diary-estimated CPD, but was significantly lower than TLFB estimates. The lighter resulted in greater day-to-day variability relative to other methods and fewer rounded cigarette counts (digit bias) relative to the TLFB. The lighter appears to be feasible for capturing data on smoking patterns in daily smokers. Though false positive cigarettes are likely low, additional technologies that augment data captured from the lighter may be necessary to reduce false negatives (missed cigarettes) and alternative lighter designs may appeal more to certain smokers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Higher smoking prevalence in people with serious psychological distress (SPD) is well-recognized. However, gender and age differences in the association between heaviness of cigarette smoking and SPD have not been fully investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>We used anonymized data from a nationally representative survey in Japan (33,925 men and 37,257 women). SPD was measured using the Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale and defined as???13 points. Multiple logistic regression analyses stratified by gender and age-groups (20-44 years, 45-64 years, and???65 years) were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for SPD.<h4>Results</h4>After adjusting for sociodemographic confounders including education, equivalent household expenditures, and employment contract, women had a significant association between heavier smoking and more frequent SPD: compared to never-smokers, aORs (95% CIs) of ex-smokers, current light smokers who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD), current moderate smokers 11-20 CPD, and current heavy smokers???21 CPD were 1.22 (0.92-1.63), 1.52 (1.25-1.84), 1.75 (1.46-2.09), and 2.22 (1.59-3.10), respectively (P-trend?<?0.001). A significant positive association among women was consistent across all age-groups. Among men, there was no association between heaviness of cigarette smoking and SPD in all age-groups, and only current heavy smokers aged 20-44 years had a significantly higher OR for SPD (aOR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.02-1.85]) than never-smokers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There was a positive association between heaviness of cigarette smoking and SPD only among women, but not among men. For female smokers experiencing mental disorders, there is a need not only to improve mental health services but also to improve smoking-cessation support.