The Loss of Nuclear PTEN Increases Tumorigenesis in a Preclinical Mouse Model for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: The PTEN gene is highly mutated in many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The PTEN protein is located at different subcellular regions-PTEN at the plasma membrane suppresses PI3-kinase signaling in cell growth, whereas PTEN in the nucleus maintains genome integrity. Here, using nuclear PTEN-deficient mice, we analyzed the role of PTEN in the nucleus in hepatocellular carcinoma that is induced by carcinogen and oxidative stress-producing hepatotoxin. Upon oxidative stress, PTEN was accumulated in the nucleus of the liver, and this accumulation promoted repair of DNA damage in wild-type mice. In contrast, nuclear PTEN-deficient mice had increased DNA damage and accelerated hepatocellular carcinoma formation. Both basal and oxidative stress-induced localization of PTEN in the nucleus require ubiquitination of lysine 13 in PTEN. Taken together, these data suggest the critical role of nuclear PTEN in the protection from DNA damage and tumorigenesis in vivo.
Project description:Oxidative stress induced by free fatty acids (FFA) contributes to metabolic syndrome-associated development of cardiovascular diseases, yet molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed at establishing whether phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and its subcellular location play a role in FFA-induced endothelial oxidative stress.Exposing human endothelial cells (ECs) with FFA activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K pathway, and upon activation, S6K directly phosphorylated PTEN at S380. Phosphorylation of PTEN increased its interaction with its deubiquitinase USP7 in the nucleus, leading to PTEN deubiquitination and nuclear export. The reduction of PTEN in the nucleus, in turn, decreased p53 acetylation and transcription, reduced the expression of the p53 target gene glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and endothelial damage. Finally, C57BL/6J mice fed with high-fat atherogenic diet (HFAD) showed PTEN nuclear export, decreased p53 and GPX1 protein expressions, elevated levels of ROS, and significant lesions in aortas. Importantly, inhibition of mTOR or S6K effectively blocked these effects, suggesting that mTOR/S6K pathway mediates HFAD-induced oxidative stress and vascular damage via PTEN/p53/GPX1 inhibition in vivo.Our study demonstrated for the first time that S6K directly phosphorylated PTEN at S380 under high FFA conditions, and this phosphorylation mediated FFA-induced endothelial oxidative stress. Furthermore, we showed that S380 phosphorylation affected PTEN monoubiquitination and nuclear localization, providing the first example of coordinated regulation of PTEN nuclear localization via phosphorylation and ubiquitination.Our studies provide a novel mechanism by which hyperlipidemia causes vascular oxidative damage through the phosphorylation of PTEN, blocking of PTEN nuclear function, and inhibition of p53/GPX1 activity.
Project description:PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a tumor suppressor frequently mutated in human cancer, has various cytoplasmic and nuclear functions. PTEN translocates to the nucleus from the cytoplasm in response to oxidative stress. However, the mechanism and function of the translocation are not completely understood. In this study, topotecan (TPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and cisplatin (CDDP) were employed to induce DNA damage. The results indicate that TPT or CDDP activates ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase), which phosphorylates PTEN at serine 113 and further regulates PTEN nuclear translocation in A549 and HeLa cells. After nuclear translocation, PTEN induces autophagy, in association with the activation of the p-JUN-SESN2/AMPK pathway, in response to TPT. These results identify PTEN phosphorylation by ATM as essential for PTEN nuclear translocation and the subsequent induction of autophagy in response to DNA damage.
Project description:Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN.
Project description:Loss of function of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is associated with many human cancers. In the cytoplasm, PTEN antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PTEN also accumulates in the nucleus, where its function remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that SUMOylation (SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier) of PTEN controls its nuclear localization. In cells exposed to genotoxic stress, SUMO-PTEN was rapidly excluded from the nucleus dependent on the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Cells lacking nuclear PTEN were hypersensitive to DNA damage, whereas PTEN-deficient cells were susceptible to killing by a combination of genotoxic stress and a small-molecule PI3K inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may have implications for individualized therapy for patients with PTEN-deficient tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hepatospecific deletion of PTEN results in constitutive activation of Akt and increased lipogenesis. In mice, the addition of a high fat diet (HFD) downregulates lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a HFD on hepatocellular damage induced by deletion of PTEN.<h4>Methods</h4>12 Week old male flox/flox hepatospecific PTEN mice (PTENf/f) or Alb-Cre controls were fed a HFD composed of 45% fat-derived calories (from corn oil) or a normal chow. Animals were then analyzed for hepatocellular damage, oxidative stress and expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism.<h4>Results</h4>In the Alb-Cre animals, the addition of a HFD resulted in a significant increase in liver triglycerides and altered REDOX capacity as evidenced by increased GPX activity, decreased GST activity and decreased hepatic concentrations of GSSG. In addition, SCD2, ACLY and FASN were all downregulated by the addition of HFD. Furthermore, expression of PPAR? and PPAR?-dependent proteins Cyp4a and ACSL1 were upregulated. In the PTENf/f mice, HFD resulted in significant increased in ALT, serum triglycerides and decreased REDOX capacity. Although expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes was elevated in the chow fed PTENf/f group, the addition of HFD resulted in SCD2, ACLY and FASN downregulation. Compared to the Alb-Cre HFD group, expression of PGC1?, PPAR? and its downstream targets ACSL and Cyp4a were upregulated in PTENf/f mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data suggest that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and increased steatosis, the addition of a HFD enhances hepatocellular damage due to increased CD36 expression and altered REDOX status. In addition, this work indicates HFD-induced hepatocellular damage occurs in part, independently of Akt signaling.
Project description:Aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10), a member of aldo-keto reductase superfamily, contributes to detoxification of xenobiotics and metabolization of physiological substrates. Although increased expression of AKR1B10 was found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the role of AKR1B10 in the development of HCC remains unclear. This study aims to illustrate the role of AKR1B10 in hepatocarcinogenesis based on its intrinsic oxidoreduction abilities. HCC cell lines with AKR1B10 overexpression or knockdown were treated with doxorubicin or hydrogen peroxide to determinate the influence of aberrant AKR1B10 expression on cells' response to oxidative stress. Using Akr1b8 (the ortholog of human AKR1B10) knockout mice, diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver injury, chronic inflammation and hepatocarcinogenesis were explored. Clinically, the pattern of serum AKR1B10 relevant to disease progression was investigated in a patient cohort with chronic hepatitis B (n=30), liver cirrhosis (n=30) and HCC (n=40). AKR1B10 expression in HCC tissues was analyzed using both the TCGA database (n=371) and our collected HCC samples (n=67). AKR1B10 overexpression reduced hepatocyte injury while AKR1B10 knockdown augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and apoptotic cell death. Consistently, Akr1b8 deficiency in mice promoted DEN-induced hepatocyte damage and liver inflammation characterized by increased phospho-H2AX, serum alanine aminotransferase, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha level, myeloid cell infiltration and led to more severe hepatocarcinogenesis and metastasis compared with wild type mice due to significant alteration on detoxification and oxidoreduction. AKR1B10 was compensatory expressed and gradually upregulated in the process of liver disease progression in HCC and increased oxidative stress upregulated AKR1B10 through NRF2. Our results here suggested that through oxidoreduction and detoxification, AKR1B10 played an important role in protecting hepatocytes from damage induced by ROS. Deficiency of AKR1B10 might accelerate hepatotoxin and inflammation-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. AKR1B10 expression elevation in HCC could be a result of compensatory upregulation, rather than a driver of malignant transformation during the development of HCC.
Project description:Most cancer cells express high levels of telomerase and proliferate indefinitely. In addition to its telomere maintenance function, telomerase also has a pro-survival function resulting in an increased resistance against DNA damage and decreased apoptosis induction. However, the molecular mechanisms for this protective function remain elusive and it is unclear whether it is connected to telomere maintenance or is rather a non-telomeric function of the telomerase protein, TERT. It was shown recently that the protein subunit of telomerase can shuttle from the nucleus to the mitochondria upon oxidative stress where it protects mitochondrial function and decreases intracellular oxidative stress. Here we show that endogenous telomerase (TERT protein) shuttles from the nucleus into mitochondria upon oxidative stress in cancer cells and analyzed the nuclear exclusion patterns of endogenous telomerase after treatment with hydrogen peroxide in different cell lines. Cell populations excluded TERT from the nucleus upon oxidative stress in a heterogeneous fashion. We found a significant correlation between nuclear localization of telomerase and high DNA damage, while cells which excluded telomerase from the nucleus displayed no or very low DNA damage. We modeled nuclear and mitochondrial telomerase using organelle specific localization vectors and confirmed that mitochondrial localization of telomerase protects the nucleus from inflicted DNA damage and apoptosis while, in contrast, nuclear localization of telomerase correlated with higher amounts of DNA damage and apoptosis. It is known that nuclear DNA damage can be caused by mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). We demonstrate here that mitochondrial localization of telomerase specifically prevents nuclear DNA damage by decreasing levels of mitochondrial ROS. We suggest that this decrease of oxidative stress might be a possible cause for high stress resistance of cancer cells and could be especially important for cancer stem cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major risk factor for chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the mechanism of HCV-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis is not well understood. Insufficiency of PTEN tumor suppressor is associated with more aggressive cancers, including HCC. We asked whether viral non-coding RNA could initiate oncogenesis in HCV infected human hepatocytes. The results presented herein suggest that loss of nuclear PTEN in HCV-infected human hepatocytes results from depletion of Transportin-2, which is a direct target of viral non-coding RNA, vmr11. METHODS:The intracellular distribution of PTEN in HCV-infected cells was monitored by immunostaining and Western blots of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Effects of PTEN depletion were examined by comparing expression arrays of uninfected cells with either HCV-infected or vmr11-transfected cells. Target genes suggested by array analyses were validated by Western blot. The influence of nuclear PTEN deficiency on virus production was determined by quantitative analysis of HCV genomic RNA in culture media of infected hepatocytes. RESULTS:Import of PTEN to the nucleus relies on the interaction of Transportin-2 and PTEN proteins; we show that depletion of Transportin-2 by HCV infection or by the introduction of vmr11 in uninfected cells results in reduced nuclear PTEN. In turn, nuclear PTEN insufficiency correlates with increased virus production and the induction of ?-H2AX, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks and genomic instability. CONCLUSION:An HCV-derived small non-coding RNA inhibits Transportin-2 and PTEN translocation to the nucleus, suggesting a direct viral role in hepatic oncogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>In the liver, a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NASH) is oxidative stress, which leads to the accumulation of highly reactive electrophilic ?/? unsaturated aldehydes. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of NASH on protein carbonylation and antioxidant responses in a murine model.<h4>Methods</h4>Liver-specific phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deletion mice (PTENLKO) or control littermates were fed a standard chow diet for 45-55 weeks followed by analysis for liver injury, oxidative stress and inflammation.<h4>Results</h4>Histology and Picrosirius red-staining of collagen deposition within the extracellular matrix revealed extensive steatosis and fibrosis in the PTENLKO mice but no steatosis or fibrosis in controls. Increased steatosis and fibrosis corresponded with significant increases in inflammation. PTEN-deficient livers showed significantly increased cell-specific oxidative damage, as detected by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and acrolein staining. Elevated staining correlated with an increase in nuclear DNA repair foci (?H2A.X) and cellular proliferation index (Ki67) within zones 1 and 3, indicating oxidative damage was zonally restricted and was associated with increased DNA damage and cell proliferation. Immunoblots showed that total levels of antioxidant response proteins induced by nuclear factor erythroid-2-like-2 (Nrf2), including GST?, GST? and CBR1/3, but not HO-1, were elevated in PTENLKO as compared to controls, and IHC showed this response also occurred only in zones 1 and 3. Furthermore, an analysis of autophagy markers revealed significant elevation of p62 and LC3II expression. Mass spectrometric (MS) analysis identified significantly more carbonylated proteins in whole cell extracts prepared from PTENLKO mice (966) as compared to controls (809). Pathway analyses of identified proteins did not uncover specific pathways that were preferentially carbonylated in PTENLKO livers but, did reveal specific strongly increased carbonylation of thioredoxin reductase and of glutathione-S-transferases (GST) M6, O1, and O2.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Results show that disruption of PTEN resulted in steatohepatitis, fibrosis and caused hepatic induction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant system at least in part due to elevation of p62. This response was both cell-type and zone specific. However, these responses were insufficient to mitigate the accumulation of products of lipid peroxidation.
Project description:The urgent unmet need for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapies is addressed here by characterising a novel mouse model of HCC in the context of ongoing liver damage and overnutrition. Male C57Bl/6J mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and thioacetamide (TAA), and some were provided with an atherogenic high fat diet (HFD). Inflammation, steatosis, fibrosis, 87 genes, liver lesions and intratumoural leukocyte subsets were quantified up to 24 weeks of age. Adding HFD to DEN/TAA increased fibrosis, steatosis and inflammation, and the incidence of both HCC and non-HCC dysplastic lesions. All lesions contained ?-SMA positive fibroblasts. Macrophage marker F4/80 was not significantly different between treatment groups, but the macrophage-associated genes Arg-1 and Cd47 were differentially expressed. Fibrosis, cancer and cell death associated genes were upregulated in DEN/TAA/HFD livers. Fewer Kupffer cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were in tumours compared to control liver. In conclusion, combining a hepatotoxin with an atherogenic diet produced more intrahepatic tumours, dysplastic lesions and fibrosis compared to hepatotoxin alone. This new HCC model provides a relatively rapid means of examining primary HCC and potential therapies in the context of multiple hepatotoxins including those derived from overnutrition.