Antibiotics Disturb Dentin Formation and Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells: The Role of Microbiota in Cellular Turnover of Mouse Incisor.
ABSTRACT: Dentin formation was dependent on osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). It was observed in previous studies that antibiotic treatment in a clinical and animal model resulted in impaired mineralization of dental tissues. We previously reported that microbiota maintained the function of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, while whether microbiota dysbiosis caused by antibiotic treatment contributed to DPSCs dysfunction and impaired dentin formation is still not known. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of microbiota or its metabolic products on dental mineralization and the function of DPSCs. Mice were treated with antibiotics to disrupt microbiota; then, the growth rate and histological characteristics of incisors as well as the biological characteristics of DPSCs in vitro were compared with specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. In antibiotic-treated mice (AbT), we found a diminished quantity of microbiota and reduced growth rate of mechanical injured incisor, as well as decreased colony-forming rate and impaired ability of osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs, in comparison to SPF mice. Colonization of AbT mice with SPF mice replanted the microbiota by cohousing (conventionalized (ConvD)) and normalized the growth rate of injured incisors and colony-forming and osteo-/odontogenic differentiation ability of DPSCs. Giving short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by oral gavage after antibiotic treatment also rescued the growth rate of incisors and the differentiation ability of DPSCs and enhanced proliferation ability of DPSCs. Collectively, gut microbiota could make contribution to maintain continuous growth of injured rodent incisor and differentiation capacity of DPSCs; SCFAs might play a crucial role in this process.
Project description:Retinoic acid (RA) signal is involved in tooth development and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are one of the useful MSCs in tissue regeneration. However, the function of RA in osteo/odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs remains unclear. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of RA in miniature pig tooth germ and intervened in the RA signal during osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human DPSCs. Deciduous canine (DC) germs of miniature pigs were observed morphologically, and the expression patterns of RA were studied by in situ hybridization (ISH). Human DPSCs were isolated and cultured in osteogenic induction medium with or without RA or BMS 493, an inverse agonist of the pan-retinoic acid receptors (pan-RARs). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays, alizarin red staining, quantitative calcium analysis, CCK8 assay, osteogenesis-related gene expression, and in vivo transplantation were conducted to determine the osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential and proliferation potential of DPSCs. We found that the expression of RAR? and CRABP2 decreased during crown calcification of DCs of miniature pigs. Activation of RA signal in vitro inhibited ALP activities and mineralization of human DPSCs and decreased the mRNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and a transcription factor, osterix. With BMS 493 treatment, the results were opposite. Interference in RA signal decreased the proliferation of DPSCs. In vivo transplantation experiments suggested that osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs was enhanced by inversing RA signal. Our results demonstrated that downregulation of RA signal promoted osteo/odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs and indicated a potential target pathway to improve tissue regeneration.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-mediated regenerative endodontics is a promising therapy for damaged teeth; however, the hypoxic environment in root canals can affect tissue regeneration. In this study, we investigate the characteristics and possible regulatory mechanisms of DPSC function under hypoxic conditions.<h4>Methods</h4>Human DPSCs were cultured under normoxia (20% O<sub>2</sub>) and hypoxia (3% O<sub>2</sub>). DPSC proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin red staining, real-time RT-PCR assays, and western blot analysis. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses were performed to investigate the differences in the mRNA, lncRNA, and miRNA expression profiles of DPSCs.<h4>Results</h4>DPSCs exhibited a more powerful proliferation ability and lower osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential in hypoxic conditions. A total of 60 mRNAs (25 upregulated and 35 downregulated), 47 lncRNAs (20 upregulated and 27 downregulated), and 14 miRNAs (7 upregulated and 7 downregulated) in DPSCs were differentially expressed in the hypoxia group compared with the normoxia group. Bioinformatic analysis identified that 7 mRNAs (GRPR, ERO1L, ANPEP, EPHX1, PGD, ANGPT1, and NQO1) and 5 lncRNAs (AF085958, AX750575, uc002czn.2, RP3-413H6.2, and six-twelve leukemia (STL)) may be associated with DPSCs during hypoxia according to CNC network analysis, while 28 mRNAs (including GYS1, PRKACB, and NQO1) and 13 miRNAs (including hsa-miR-3916 and hsa-miR-192-5p) may be involved according to miRNA target gene network analysis. The depletion of one candidate lncRNA, STL, inhibited the osteo/odontogenic differentiation potentials of DPSCs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results revealed that hypoxia could enhance the proliferation ability and impair the osteo/odontogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs in vitro. Furthermore, our results identified candidate coding and noncoding RNAs that could be potential targets for improving DPSC function in regenerative endodontics and lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of hypoxia's effects on DPSCs.
Project description:Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have great potential for use in tissue engineering (TE)-based dental treatments. Electrical stimulation (EStim) has been shown to influence cellular functions that could play an important role in the success of TE treatments. Despite many recent studies focused on DPSCs, few have investigated the effect EStim has on these cells. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of direct current (DC) EStim on osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. To do so cells were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats (7–8 weeks old), and phenotype characterization and multilineage differentiation analysis were conducted to verify their “stemness.” Different voltages of DC EStim were administrated 1?h/day for 7 days, and the effect of EStim on DPSC osteo-/odontogenic differentiation was assessed by measuring calcium and collagen deposition, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteo- and odontogenic marker genes at days 7 and 14 of culture. We found that while 10 and 50?mV/mm of EStim had no effect on cell number or metabolic activity, 100?mV/mm caused a significant reduction in cell number, and 150?mV/mm resulted in cell death. Despite increased gene expression of osteo-/odontogenic gene markers, Osteocalcin, RunX2, BSP, and DMP1, at day 7 in EStim treated cells, 50?mV/mm of EStim decreased collagen deposition and ALP activity at both time points, and calcium deposition was found to be lower at day 14. In conclusion, under the conditions tested, EStim appears to impair DPSC osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. Additional studies are needed to further characterize and understand the mechanisms involved in DPSC response to EStim, with an eye toward its potential use in TE-based dental treatments.
Project description:Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have emerged as an important source of stem cells in the tissue engineering, and hypoxia will change various innate characteristics of DPSCs and then affect dental tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, little is known about the complicated molecular mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence and mechanism of miR-140-3p on DPSCs under hypoxia condition. Hypoxia was induced in DPSCs by Cobalt chloride (CoCl<sub>2</sub>) treatment. The osteo/dentinogenic differentiation capacity of DPSCs was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin Red S staining and main osteo/dentinogenic markers. A luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to verify the downstream target gene of miR-140-3p. This research exhibited that miR-140-3p promoted osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of DPSCs under normoxia environment. Furthermore, miR-140-3p rescued the CoCl<sub>2</sub>-induced decreased osteo/odontogenic differentiation potentials in DPSCs. Besides, we investigated that miR-140-3p directly targeted lysine methyltransferase 5B (KMT5B). Surprisingly, we found inhibition of KMT5B obviously enhanced osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of DPSCs both under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. In conclusion, our study revealed the role and mechanism of miR-140-3p for regulating osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of DPSCs under hypoxia, and discovered that miR-140-3p and KMT5B might be important targets for DPSC-mediated tooth or bone tissue regeneration.
Project description:Dental pulp tissue engineering is a promising alternative treatment for pulpitis and periapical periodontitis, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are considered to be the gold standard for dental seed cell research. Periapical lesions harbor mesenchymal stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. However, it remains unknown whether these periapical lesion-derived stem cells (PLDSCs) are suitable for dental pulp tissue engineering. To investigate this possibility, PLDSCs and DPSCs were isolated using the tissue outgrowth method and cultured under identical conditions. We then performed in vitro experiments to investigate their biological characteristics. Our results indicate that PLDSCs proliferate actively in vitro and exhibit similar morphology, immunophenotype and multilineage differentiation ability as DPSCs. Simultaneously, PLDSCs exhibit stronger migrative ability and express more vascular endothelial growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor than DPSCs, and PLDSC-derived conditioned medium was more effective in tube formation assay. The mRNA expression levels of immunomodulatory genes HLA-G, IDO and ICAM-1 were also higher in PLDSCs. However, regarding osteo/odontogenic differentiation, PLDSCs showed weaker alkaline phosphatase staining and lower calcified nodule formation compared to DPSCs, as well as lower expression of ALP, RUNX2 and DSPP, as confirmed by a quantitative RT-PCR. The osteo/odontogenic protein expression levels of DSPP, RUNX2, DMP1 and SP7 were also higher in DPSCs. The present study demonstrates that PLDSCs demonstrate potential use as seed cells for dental pulp regeneration, especially for achieving enhanced neurovascularization.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on hydrogel scaffolds derived from bone extracellular matrix (bECM) in comparison to those seeded on collagen I (Col-I), one of the main components of dental pulp ECM.DPSCs isolated from human third molars were characterized for surface marker expression and odontogenic potential prior to seeding into bECM or Col-I hydrogel scaffolds. The cells were then seeded onto bECM and Col-I hydrogel scaffolds and cultured under basal conditions or with odontogenic and growth factor (GF) supplements. DPSCs cultivated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) with and without supplements were used as controls. Gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and mineral deposition was observed by Von Kossa staining.When DPSCs were cultured on bECM hydrogels, the mRNA expression levels of DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE genes were significantly upregulated with respect to those cultured on Col-I scaffolds or TCPS in the absence of extra odontogenic inducers. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on bECM hydrogel scaffolds as demonstrated by Von Kossa staining. Moreover, DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE mRNA expressions of DPSCs cultured on bECM hydrogels were further upregulated by the addition of GFs or osteo/odontogenic medium compared to Col-I treated cells in the same culture conditions.These results demonstrate the potential of the bECM hydrogel scaffolds to stimulate odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs.
Project description:Tissue resident adult stem cells are known to participate in tissue regeneration and repair that follows cell turnover, or injury. It has been well established that aging impedes the regeneration capabilities at the cellular level, but it is not clear if the different onset of stem cell aging between individuals can be predicted or prevented at an earlier stage. Here we studied the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), a population of adult stem cells that is known to participate in the repair of an injured tooth, and its properties can be affected by aging. The dental pulp from third molars of a diverse patient group were surgically extracted, generating cells that had a high percentage of mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD44, CD146 and Stro1 and had the ability to differentiate into osteo/odontogenic and adipogenic lineages. Through RNA seq and qPCR analysis we identified homeobox protein, Barx1, as a marker for DPSCs. Furthermore, using high throughput transcriptomic and proteomic analysis we identified markers for DPSC populations with accelerated replicative senescence. In particular, we show that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) pathway and the cytoskeletal proteins are upregulated in rapid aging DPSCs, indicating a loss of stem cell characteristics and spontaneous initiation of terminal differentiation. Importantly, using metabolic flux analysis, we identified a metabolic signature for the rapid aging DPSCs, prior to manifestation of senescence phenotypes. This metabolic signature therefore can be used to predict the onset of replicative senescence. Hence, the present study identifies Barx1 as a DPSCs marker and dissects the first predictive metabolic signature for DPSCs aging.
Project description:Osteo/odontogenic differentiation is a key process of human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) in tooth root development. Emerging evidence indicates microRNAs (miRNAs) play diverse roles in osteogenesis. However, their functions in osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAP require further elucidation. To investigate the role of miRNA in SCAP osteo/odontogenic differentiation and underlying mechanisms, miRNA microarray analysis was performed to screen differentially expressed miRNAs between control and osteo/odontogenic-induced group. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to detected osteo/odontogenic differentiation-related markers and possible signaling pathway SCAP-associated genes. Alizarin Red Staining (ARS) were applied to evaluated osteogenic capacity. The results showed that miR-497-5p increased during SCAP osteo/odontogenic differentiation. Overexpression of miR-497-5p enhanced the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAP, whereas downregulation of miR-497-5p elicited the opposite effect, thus suggesting that miR-497-5p is a positive regulator of the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAP. Bioinformatic analysis and dual luciferase reporter assay identified that SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (Smurf2) is a direct target of miR-497-5p. Further study demonstrated that Smurf2 negatively regulates SCAP osteo/odontogenic differentiation, and silencing Smurf2 could block the inhibitory effect of the miR-497-5p inhibitor. Meanwhile, pathway detection manifested that miR-497-5p promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation via Smad signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings demostrate that miR-497-5p promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAP via Smad signaling pathway by targeting Smurf2.
Project description:Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-based odontogenic regeneration in inflammatory conditions is important in the process of pulpitis. DPSCs have been reported to lose potential for odontogenic regeneration in inflammatory conditions. This study aims to determine the mechanism of impaired odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs in an inflammatory microenvironment. We regulated Wnt4 expression using recombinant lentiviral Wnt4 and Wnt4 siRNA. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red S (ARS) staining as well as Real-Time PCR were performed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs with either upregulated or downregulated Wnt4. Furthermore, SP600125 was used to inhibit the potential downstream factor JNK1, and the osteogenic differentiation ability of DPSCs was evaluated. As shown, Wnt4 was downregulated in DPSCs under inflammatory conditions. Inhibition of Wnt4 expression in DPSCs negatively regulated odontogenic differentiation. Overexpression of Wnt4 in LPS-treated DPSCs promoted odontogenic differentiation. In addition, JNK1 was responsible for Wnt4-mediated odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, Wnt4 may function by affecting JNK signaling pathways in the process of impaired odontogenic regeneration by DPSCs under inflammatory conditions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epiregulin (EREG) is an important component of EGF and was demonstrated to promote the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of stem cells from dental apical papilla (SCAPs). Whether EREG can stimulate the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in inflammatory environment is not clear. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of EREG on the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation ability of DPSCs in inflammatory environment.<h4>Methods</h4>DPSCs were isolated from human third molars. Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were used to knock down EREG expression in DPSCs. Recombinant human EREG (rhEREG) protein was used in the rescue experiment. TNF-α was employed to mimic the inflammatory environment in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin red staining, quantitative calcium analysis, and real-time RT-PCR were performed to detect osteo/dentinogenic differentiation markers and related signalling pathways under normal and inflammatory conditions.<h4>Results</h4>EREG depletion promoted the ALP activity and mineralization ability of DPSCs. The expression of BSP, DMP-1, and DSPP was also enhanced. Moreover, 50 ng/mL rhEREG treatment decreased the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs, while treatment with 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 4 h increased the expression of EREG in DPSCs. Conversely, EREG knockdown rescued the impaired osteo/dentinogenic differentiation ability caused by TNF-α treatment. Further mechanistic studies showed that EREG depletion activated the p38 MAPK and Erk signalling pathways in DPSCs under normal and inflammatory conditions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results demonstrated that EREG could inhibit the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs via the p38 MAPK and Erk signalling pathways. Under inflammatory environment, EREG depletion enhanced osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs by improving the expression of p-p38 MAPK and p-Erk.