Sleep-length differences are associated with altered longevity in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.
ABSTRACT: Sleep deprivation has been shown to negatively impact health outcomes, leading to decreased immune responses, memory loss, increased activity of stress and inflammatory pathways, weight gain, and even behavioral changes. These observations suggest that sleep deprivation substantially interferes with important physiological functions, including metabolic pathways of energy utilization. Many of those phenotypes are correlated with age, suggesting that disrupted sleep may interfere with the aging process. However, little is known about how sleep disruption affects aging and longevity. Here, we investigate this relationship using eight representative fruit fly lines from the Sleep Inbred Panel (SIP). The SIP consists of 39 inbred lines that display extreme short- and long-sleep patterns, and constitutes a crucial Drosophila community resource for investigating the mechanisms of sleep regulation. Our data show that flies with short-sleep periods have ?16% longer life span, as well as reduced aging rate, compared to flies with long-sleep. In contrast, disrupting normal circadian rhythm reduces fly longevity. Short-sleep SIP flies moreover show slight metabolic differences to long-sleep lines, and to flies with disrupted circadian rhythm. These data suggest that the inbred SIP lines engage sleep mechanisms that are distinct from the circadian clock system.
Project description:Although sleep is heritable and conserved across species, sleep duration varies from individual to individual. A shared genetic architecture between sleep duration and other evolutionarily important traits could explain this variability. Learning and memory are critical traits sharing a genetic architecture with sleep. We wanted to know whether learning and memory would be altered in extreme long or short sleepers. We therefore assessed the short-term learning and memory ability of flies from the Sleep Inbred Panel (SIP), a collection of 39 extreme long- and short-sleeping inbred lines of Drosophila. Neither long nor short sleepers had appreciable learning, in contrast to a moderate-sleeping control. We also examined the response of long and short sleepers to enriched social conditions, a paradigm previously shown to induce morphological changes in the brain. While moderate-sleeping control flies had increased daytime sleep and quantifiable increases in brain structures under enriched social conditions, flies of the Sleep Inbred Panel did not display these changes. The SIP thus emerges as an important model for the relationship between sleep and learning and memory.
Project description:Circadian clocks coordinate physiological, neurological, and behavioral functions into circa 24 hour rhythms, and the molecular mechanisms underlying circadian clock oscillations are conserved from Drosophila to humans. Clock oscillations and clock-controlled rhythms are known to dampen during aging; additionally, genetic or environmental clock disruption leads to accelerated aging and increased susceptibility to age-related pathologies. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are associated with a decay of circadian rhythms, but it is not clear whether circadian disruption accelerates neuronal and motor decline associated with these diseases. To address this question, we utilized transgenic Drosophila expressing various Amyloid-? (A?) peptides, which are prone to form aggregates characteristic of AD pathology in humans. We compared development of AD-like symptoms in adult flies expressing A? peptides in the wild type background and in flies with clocks disrupted via a null mutation in the clock gene period (per01). No significant differences were observed in longevity, climbing ability and brain neurodegeneration levels between control and clock-deficient flies, suggesting that loss of clock function does not exacerbate pathogenicity caused by human-derived A? peptides in flies. However, AD-like pathologies affected the circadian system in aging flies. We report that rest/activity rhythms were impaired in an age-dependent manner. Flies expressing the highly pathogenic arctic A? peptide showed a dramatic degradation of these rhythms in tune with their reduced longevity and impaired climbing ability. At the same time, the central pacemaker remained intact in these flies providing evidence that expression of A? peptides causes rhythm degradation downstream from the central clock mechanism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Circadian clocks are found in nearly all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and ensure that behavioral and physiological processes occur at optimal times of day and in the correct temporal order. It is becoming increasingly clear that chronic circadian misalignment (CCM), such as occurs in shift workers or as a result of aberrant sleeping and eating schedules common to modern society, has profound metabolic and cognitive consequences, but the proximate mechanisms connecting CCM with reduced organismal health are unknown. Furthermore, it has been difficult to disentangle whether the health effects are directly induced by misalignment or are secondary to the alterations in sleep and activity levels that commonly occur with CCM. Here, we investigated the consequences of CCM in the powerful model system of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We subjected flies to daily 4-h phase delays in the light-dark schedule and used the Drosophila Activity Monitoring (DAM) system to continuously track locomotor activity and sleep while simultaneously monitoring fly lifespan. RESULTS:Consistent with previous results, we find that exposing flies to CCM leads to a ~?15% reduction in median lifespan in both male and female flies. Importantly, we demonstrate that the reduced longevity occurs independent of changes in overall sleep or activity. To uncover potential molecular mechanisms of CCM-induced reduction in lifespan, we conducted whole body RNA-sequencing to assess differences in gene transcription between control and misaligned flies. CCM caused progressive, large-scale changes in gene expression characterized by upregulation of genes involved in response to toxic substances, aging and oxidative stress, and downregulation of genes involved in regulation of development and differentiation, gene expression and biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Many of these gene expression changes mimic those that occur during natural aging, consistent with the idea that CCM results in premature organismal decline, however, we found that genes involved in lipid metabolism are overrepresented among those that are differentially regulated by CCM and aging. This category of genes is also among the earliest to exhibit CCM-induced changes in expression, thus highlighting altered lipid metabolism as a potentially important mediator of the negative health consequences of CCM.
Project description:Many behaviors and physiological processes including locomotor activity, feeding, sleep, mating, and migration are dependent on daily or seasonally reoccurring, external stimuli. In D. melanogaster, one of the best-studied circadian behaviors is locomotion. The fruit fly is considered a diurnal (day active/night inactive) insect, based on locomotor-activity recordings of single, socially naive flies. We developed a new circadian paradigm that can simultaneously monitor two flies in simple social contexts. We find that heterosexual couples exhibit a drastically different locomotor-activity pattern than individual males, females, or homosexual couples. Specifically, male-female couples exhibit a brief rest phase around dusk but are highly active throughout the night and early morning. This distinct locomotor-activity rhythm is dependent on the clock genes and synchronized with close-proximity encounters, which reflect courtship, between the male and female. The close-proximity rhythm is dependent on the male and not the female and requires circadian oscillators in the brain and the antenna. Taken together, our data show that constant exposure to stimuli emanating from the female and received by the male olfactory and other sensory systems is responsible for the significant shift in intrinsic locomotor output of socially interacting flies.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe cognitive deterioration. While causes of AD pathology are debated, a large body of evidence suggests that increased cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) producing the neurotoxic Amyloid-? (A?) peptide plays a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. One of the detrimental behavioral symptoms commonly associated with AD is the fragmentation of sleep-activity cycles with increased nighttime activity and daytime naps in humans. Sleep-activity cycles, as well as physiological and cellular rhythms, which may be important for neuronal homeostasis, are generated by a molecular system known as the circadian clock. Links between AD and the circadian system are increasingly evident but not well understood. Here we examined whether genetic manipulations of APP-like (APPL) protein cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster affect rest-activity rhythms and core circadian clock function in this model organism. We show that the increased ?-cleavage of endogenous APPL by the ?-secretase (dBACE) severely disrupts circadian behavior and leads to reduced expression of clock protein PER in central clock neurons of aging flies. Our data suggest that behavioral rhythm disruption is not a product of APPL-derived A? production but rather may be caused by a mechanism common to both ? and ?-cleavage pathways. Specifically, we show that increased production of the endogenous Drosophila Amyloid Intracellular Domain (dAICD) caused disruption of circadian rest-activity rhythms, while flies overexpressing endogenous APPL maintained stronger circadian rhythms during aging. In summary, our study offers a novel entry point toward understanding the mechanism of circadian rhythm disruption in Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:We investigated the consequences of chronic circadian misalignment (CCM) in the powerful model system of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We subjected flies to daily 4-hr phase delays in the light-dark schedule and used the Drosophila Activity Monitoring (DAM) system to continuously track locomotor activity and sleep while simultaneously monitoring fly lifespan. Consistent with previous results, we find that exposing flies to CCM leads to a ~15% reduction in median lifespan in both male and female flies. Importantly, we demonstrate that the reduced longevity occurs independent of changes in overall sleep or activity. To uncover potential molecular mechanisms of CCM-induced reduction in lifespan, we conducted whole body RNA-sequencing to assess differences in gene transcription between control and misaligned flies. CCM caused progressive, large-scale changes in gene expression characterized by upregulation of genes involved in response to toxic substances, aging and oxidative stress, and downregulation of genes involved in regulation of development and differentiation, gene expression and biosynthesis. Many of these gene expression changes mimic those that occur during natural aging, consistent with the idea that CCM results in premature organismal decline, however, we found that genes involved in lipid metabolism are overrepresented among those that are differentially regulated by CCM and aging. This category of genes is also among the earliest to exhibit CCM-induced changes in expression, thus highlighting altered lipid metabolism as a potentially important mediator of the negative health consequences of CCM. Overall design: Humidity and temperature-controlled incubators were used to expose male and female iso31 flies to either a 24-hour schedule (LD 12:12; control group), or a 28-hour schedule (LD 14:14; chronic circadian misalignment (CCM) group) for 2 or 3 weeks. Flies were fed 5% sucrose/ 2% agar food. 10 male and 10 female flies were collected for each sample (3 CCM and 3 control samples at each time point; 12 total) and total RNA was extracted at ZT0-3
Project description:Circadian rhythms are essential for health and are frequently disturbed in disease. A full understanding of the causal relationships between behavioural and molecular circadian rhythms requires simultaneous longitudinal observations over time in individual organisms. Current experimental paradigms require the measurement of each rhythm separately across distinct populations of experimental organisms, rendering the comparability of the resulting datasets uncertain. We therefore developed FLYGLOW, an assay using clock gene controlled luciferase expression detected by exquisitely sensitive EM-CCD imaging, to enable simultaneous quantification of parameters including locomotor, sleep consolidation and molecular rhythms in single flies over days/weeks. FLYGLOW combines all the strengths of existing techniques, and also allows powerful multiparametric paired statistics. We found the age-related transition from rhythmicity to arrhythmicity for each parameter occurs unpredictably, with some flies showing loss of one or more rhythms during middle-age. Using single-fly correlation analysis of rhythm robustness and period we demonstrated the independence of the peripheral clock from circadian behaviours in wild type flies as well as in an Alzheimer's model. FLYGLOW is a useful tool for investigating the deterioration of behavioural and molecular rhythms in ageing and neurodegeneration. This approach may be applied more broadly within behavioural neurogenetics research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutants which carry mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial ligases MUL1 and PARKIN are convenient Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease (PD). In several studies it has been shown that in Parkinson's disease sleep disturbance occurs, which may be the result of a disturbed circadian clock. RESULTS:We found that the ROS level was higher, while the anti-oxidant enzyme SOD1 level was lower in mul1A6 and park1 mutants than in the white mutant used as a control. Moreover, mutations of both ligases affected circadian rhythms and the clock. The expression of clock genes per, tim and clock and the level of PER protein were changed in the mutants. Moreover, expression of ATG5, an autophagy protein also involved in circadian rhythm regulation, was decreased in the brain and in PDF-immunoreactive large ventral lateral clock neurons. The observed changes in the molecular clock resulted in a longer period of locomotor activity rhythm, increased total activity and shorter sleep at night. Finally, the lack of both ligases led to decreased longevity and climbing ability of the flies. CONCLUSIONS:All of the changes observed in the brains of these Drosophila models of PD, in which mitochondrial ligases MUL1 and PARKIN do not function, may explain the mechanisms of some neurological and behavioural symptoms of PD.
Project description:The variation of individual life spans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal's physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and life span is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here, we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their life spans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 h (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer life spans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24-h intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging.
Project description:Understanding how genomic variation causes differences in observable phenotypes remains a major challenge in biology. It is difficult to trace the sequence of events originating from genomic variants to changes in transcriptional responses or protein modifications. Ideally, one would conduct experiments with individuals that are at either extreme of the trait of interest, but such resources are often not available. Further, advances in genome editing will enable testing of candidate polymorphisms individually and in combination. Here we have created a resource for the study of sleep with 39 inbred lines of Drosophila-the Sleep Inbred Panel (SIP). SIP lines have stable long- and short-sleeping phenotypes developed from naturally occurring polymorphisms. These lines are fully sequenced, enabling more accurate targeting for genome editing and transgenic constructs. This panel facilitates the study of intermediate transcriptional and proteomic correlates of sleep, and supports genome editing studies to verify polymorphisms associated with sleep duration.