Gut Bacterial Species Distinctively Impact Host Purine Metabolites during Aging in Drosophila.
ABSTRACT: Gut microbiota impacts the host metabolome and affects its health span. How bacterial species in the gut influence age-dependent metabolic alteration has not been elucidated. Here we show in Drosophila melanogaster that allantoin, an end product of purine metabolism, is increased during aging in a microbiota-dependent manner. Allantoin levels are low in young flies but are commonly elevated upon lifespan-shortening dietary manipulations such as high-purine, high-sugar, or high-yeast feeding. Removing Acetobacter persici in the Drosophila microbiome attenuated age-dependent allantoin increase. Mono-association with A. persici, but not with Lactobacillus plantarum, increased allantoin in aged flies. A. persici increased allantoin via activation of innate immune signaling IMD pathway in the renal tubules. On the other hand, analysis of bacteria-conditioned diets revealed that L. plantarum can decrease allantoin by reducing purines in the diet. These data together demonstrate species-specific regulations of host purine levels by the gut microbiome.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>We report that establishment and maintenance of the Drosophila melanogaster microbiome depend on ingestion of bacteria. Frequent transfer of flies to sterile food prevented establishment of the microbiome in newly emerged flies and reduced the predominant members, Acetobacter and Lactobacillus spp., by 10- to 1,000-fold in older flies. Flies with a normal microbiome were less susceptible than germfree flies to infection by Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Augmentation of the normal microbiome with higher populations of Lactobacillus plantarum, a Drosophila commensal and probiotic used in humans, further protected the fly from infection. Replenishment represents an unexplored strategy by which animals can sustain a gut microbial community. Moreover, the population behavior and health benefits of L. plantarum resemble features of certain probiotic bacteria administered to humans. As such, L. plantarum in the fly gut may serve as a simple model for dissecting the population dynamics and mode of action of probiotics in animal hosts.<h4>Importance</h4>Previous studies have defined the composition of the Drosophila melanogaster microbiome in laboratory and wild-caught flies. Our study advances current knowledge in this field by demonstrating that Drosophila must consume bacteria to establish and maintain its microbiome. This finding suggests that the dominant Drosophila symbionts remain associated with their host because of repeated reintroduction rather than internal growth. Furthermore, our study shows that one member of the microbiome, Lactobacillus plantarum, protects the fly from intestinal pathogens. These results suggest that, although not always present, the microbiota can promote salubrious effects for the host. In sum, our work provides a previously unexplored mechanism of microbiome maintenance and an in vivo model system for investigating the mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria.
Project description:The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster.
Project description:There is increasing evidence of the far-reaching effects of gut bacteria on physiological and behavioural traits, yet the fitness-related consequences of changes in the gut bacteria composition of sexually interacting individuals remain unknown. To address this question, we manipulated the gut microbiota of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, by monoinfecting flies with either Acetobacter pomorum (AP) or Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). Re-inoculated individuals were paired in all treatment combinations. LP-infected males had longer mating duration and induced higher short-term offspring production in females compared with AP-infected males. Furthermore, females of either re-inoculation state mated with AP-infected males were more likely to have zero offspring after mating, suggesting a negative effect of AP on male fertility. Finally, we found that the effects of male and female gut bacteria interacted to modulate their daughters', but not sons' body mass, revealing a new trans-generational effect of parental gut microbiota. In conclusion, this study shows direct and trans-generational effects of the gut microbiota on mating and reproduction.
Project description:Most associations between animals and their gut microbiota are dynamic, involving sustained transfer of food-associated microbial cells into the gut and shedding of microorganisms into the external environment with feces, but the interacting effects of host and microbial factors on the composition of the internal and external microbial communities are poorly understood. This study on laboratory cultures of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster reared in continuous contact with their food revealed time-dependent changes of the microbial communities in the food that were strongly influenced by the presence and abundance of Drosophila. When germfree Drosophila eggs were aseptically added to nonsterile food, the microbiota in the food and flies converged to a composition dramatically different from that in fly-free food, showing that Drosophila has microbiota-independent effects on the food microbiota. The microbiota in both the flies that developed from unmanipulated eggs (bearing microorganisms) and the associated food was dominated by the bacteria most abundant on the eggs, demonstrating effective vertical transmission via surface contamination of eggs. Food coinoculated with a four-species defined bacterial community of Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species revealed the progressive elimination of Lactobacillus from the food bearing few or no Drosophila, indicating the presence of antagonistic interactions between Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Drosophila at high densities ameliorated the Acetobacter/Lactobacillus antagonism, enabling Lactobacillus to persist. This study with Drosophila demonstrates how animals can have major, coordinated effects on the composition of microbial communities in the gut and immediate environment.
Project description:Unlike vertically transmitted endosymbionts, which have broad effects on their host's germ line, the extracellular gut microbiota is transmitted horizontally and is not known to influence the germ line. Here we provide evidence supporting the influence of these gut bacteria on the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of the gut bacteria represses oogenesis, expedites maternal-to-zygotic-transition in the offspring and unmasks hidden phenotypic variation in mutants. We further show that the main impact on oogenesis is linked to the lack of gut Acetobacter species, and we identify the Drosophila Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) gene as an apparent mediator of repressed oogenesis in Acetobacter-depleted flies. The finding of interactions between the gut microbiota and the germ line has implications for reproduction, developmental robustness and adaptation.
Project description:The gut microbiota shapes animal growth trajectory in stressful nutritional environments, but the molecular mechanisms behind such physiological benefits remain poorly understood. The gut microbiota is mostly composed of bacteria, which construct metabolic networks among themselves and with the host. Until now, how the metabolic activities of the microbiota contribute to host juvenile growth remains unknown. Here, using Drosophila as a host model, we report that two of its major bacterial partners, Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter pomorum, engage in a beneficial metabolic dialogue that boosts host juvenile growth despite nutritional stress. We pinpoint that lactate, produced by L. plantarum, is utilized by A. pomorum as an additional carbon source, and A. pomorum provides essential amino acids and vitamins to L. plantarum. Such bacterial cross-feeding provisions a set of anabolic metabolites to the host, which may foster host systemic growth despite poor nutrition.
Project description:We recently reported that transglutaminase (TG) suppresses immune deficiency pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptides (IMD-AMPs), thereby conferring immune tolerance to gut microbes, and that RNAi of the TG gene in flies decreases the lifespan compared with non-TG-RNAi flies. Here, analysis of the bacterial composition of the Drosophila gut by next-generation sequencing revealed that gut microbiota comprising one dominant genus of Acetobacter in non-TG-RNAi flies was shifted to that comprising two dominant genera of Acetobacter and Providencia in TG-RNAi flies. Four bacterial strains, including Acetobacter persici SK1 and Acetobacter indonesiensis SK2, Lactobacillus pentosus SK3, and Providencia rettgeri SK4, were isolated from the midgut of TG-RNAi flies. SK1 exhibited the highest resistance to the IMD-AMPs Cecropin A1 and Diptericin among the isolated bacteria. In contrast, SK4 exhibited considerably lower resistance against Cecropin A1, whereas SK4 exhibited high resistance to hypochlorous acid. The resistance of strains SK1-4 against IMD-AMPs in in vitro assays could not explain the shift of the microbiota in the gut of TG-RNAi flies. The lifespan was reduced in gnotobiotic flies that ingested both SK4 and SK1, concomitant with the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in the midgut, whereas the survival rate was not altered in gnotobiotic flies that mono-ingested either SK4 or SK1. Interestingly, significant amounts of reactive oxygen species were detected in the midgut of gnotobiotic flies that ingested SK4 and SK2, concomitant with no significant apoptosis in the midgut. In gnotobiotic flies that co-ingested SK4 and SK1, an additional unknown factor(s) may be required to cause midgut apoptosis.
Project description:The microbial population that live within the gut of animals influences their physiology. We used axenic and recolonized flies to identify genes whose expression is modulated by the presence of a bacterial flora in the gut. We identified several up regulated genes, most of which are described as enriched in the midgut, and related either to immunity or to metabolism. This work also suggests that most microbiota regulated genes are Relish dependent. We raised axenic Flies and either : (1) kept them germ free or (2) recolonized their environment with a set of 4 known commensal bacteria of lab-raised drosophila (Commensalibacter intestini, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Acetobacter pomorum). Flies were maintained in their respective (axenic or recolonized) environment from emergence to 7 days of age. Then females were collected, and total RNA extraction was performed on groups of 20 whole bodies.
Project description:The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans.
Project description:A wealth of studies has demonstrated that resident microorganisms (microbiota) influence the pattern of nutrient allocation to animal protein and energy stores, but it is unclear how the effects of the microbiota interact with other determinants of animal nutrition, including animal genetic factors and diet. Here, we demonstrate that members of the gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster mediate the effect of certain animal genetic determinants on an important nutritional trait, triglyceride (lipid) content. Parallel analysis of the taxonomic composition of the associated bacterial community and host nutritional indices (glucose, glycogen, triglyceride, and protein contents) in multiple Drosophila genotypes revealed significant associations between the abundance of certain microbial taxa, especially Acetobacteraceae and Xanthamonadaceae, and host nutritional phenotype. By a genome-wide association study of Drosophila lines colonized with a defined microbiota, multiple host genes were statistically associated with the abundance of one bacterium, Acetobacter tropicalis. Experiments using mutant Drosophila validated the genetic association evidence and reveal that host genetic control of microbiota abundance affects the nutritional status of the flies. These data indicate that the abundance of the resident microbiota is influenced by host genotype, with consequent effects on nutrient allocation patterns, demonstrating that host genetic control of the microbiome contributes to the genotype-phenotype relationship of the animal host.