Retrospective study of gene signatures and prognostic value of m6A regulatory factor in non-small cell lung cancer using TCGA database and the verification of FTO.
ABSTRACT: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA. However, little is known about its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, a total of 1017 NSCLC patients from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database with copy number variation (CNV) data were included. Log-rank tests and Cox regression model were used for survival analysis. The relationship between m6A regulators and clinicopathological features was evaluated using the chi-square test. The alteration of m6A regulators were related to T stage. Patients with any CNVs of regulators genes had worse overall survival (OS) than those with diploid genes. The deletion of m6A writer genes was an independent risk factor for poor OS, and the effect synergized with that of copy number gain of eraser genes. High expression of Fat mass-and obesity-associated gene (FTO) was associated with KRAS signaling up. Knockdown of FTO increased m6A content and inhibit proliferation of A549 lung cancer cell. Thus, we identified the genetic changes of m6A regulatory factors in NSCLC for the first time and found a significant relationship between these changes and poor clinical characteristics. FTO might play an important role in promoting NSCLC by decreasing m6A level and activating KRAS signaling.
Project description:m6A is the most common form of mRNA modification. However, little is known about its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This study aims to identify gene signatures and prognostic values of m6A regulators in ccRCC. In this study, a total of 528 ccRCC patients from TCGA database with sequencing and CNV data were included. Survival analysis was performed using log-rank tests and Cox regression model. The association between alteration of m6A regulators and clinicopathological characteristics was examined using chi-square test. The results showed that alteration of m6A regulators was associated with pathologic stage. Patients with any CNVs of the regulatory genes had worse OS and DFS than those with diploid genes. Moreover, deletion of m6A "writer" genes was an independent risk factor for OS, and copy number gain of "eraser" genes could magnify the effect in a synergistic way. Additionally, low expression of the writer gene METTL3 was related to activations of adipogenesis and mTOR pathways. Thus, we for the first time determined genetic alterations of m6A regulators in ccRCC and found a significant relationship between the alterations and worse clinical characteristics. The findings provide us clues to understand epigenetic modification of RNA in ccRCC.
Project description:N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA and associated with numerous cellular processes in health and disease. Up- and down-regulation of its "writer" or "eraser" proteins alter the global m6A level; however, modifying distinct m6A sites has remained elusive. We genetically fused the dioxygenase FTO responsible for m6A demethylation to RCas9 as an RNA-targeting module. The resulting RCas9-FTO retained demethylation activity and bound to RNA in a sequence-specific manner depending on the sgRNA and PAMmer. Using SCARLET analysis, we quantified the m6A level at a specific site and analyzed the effect of the PAM-to-m6A distance on activity. Sequence-specific demethylation by RCas9-FTO was tested on different RNA combinations and showed up to 15-fold sequence preference for target RNA compared to off-target RNA. Taken together, RCas9-FTO represents a new tool for sequence-specific demethylation of m6A in RNA that can be readily adapted to any given RNA sequence and opens the door to studying the function of distinct m6A sites.
Project description:Currently, although many successful bioinformatics efforts have been reported in the epitranscriptomics field for N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) site identification, none is focused on the substrate specificity of different m6A-related enzymes, ie, the methyltransferases (writers) and demethylases (erasers). In this work, to untangle the target specificity and the regulatory functions of different RNA m6A writers (METTL3-METT14 and METTL16) and erasers (ALKBH5 and FTO), we extracted 49 genomic features along with the conventional sequence features and used the machine learning approach of random forest to predict their epitranscriptome substrates. Our method achieved reasonable performance on both the writer target prediction (as high as 0.918) and the eraser target prediction (as high as 0.888) in a 5-fold cross-validation, and results of the gene ontology analysis of their preferential targets further revealed the functional relevance of different RNA methylation writers and erasers.
Project description:Genetic alteration involving N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulatory genes is a frequent characteristic of multiple tumors. Nevertheless, little is known regarding their genetic alteration signatures and prognostic values in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study, RNA sequence profiles and copy number variation (CNV) data of 506 HNSCC patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Correlation analysis involving alteration of m6A regulatory genes, clinicopathological characteristics, and patient survival was performed using R language. The results suggest that alteration of m6A regulatory genes was correlated with clinical staging. Patients with high expression of ALKBH5, FTO, METTL14, WTAP, YTHDC1, YTHDF1, and YTHDF2 had poor overall survival (OS) than those with low expression. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that ALKBH5 and YTHDC2 were independent risk factors for OS. However, patients with high YTHDC2 expression had better OS. Moreover, according to machine learning results, YTHDC2 was found to be the most important gene among the 10 m6A regulators. Additionally, high expression of YTHDC2 was correlated with activation of apoptosis and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Here, we identified alterations to m6A regulatory genes in HNSCC for the first time and found that seven m6A regulators were associated with poor prognosis, especially ALKBH5, whereas YTHDC2 was associated with better prognosis. These m6A-related regulators could act as novel prognostic biomarkers for HNSCC. Our findings provide clues for understanding RNA epigenetic modifications in HNSCC.
Project description:Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) has been used in breast cancer therapy for copper chelation, as elevated copper promotes tumor growth. ATTM is also an identified H2S donor and endogenous H2S facilitates VitB12-induced S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) generation, which have been confirmed in m6A methylation and lung cancer development. The m6A modification was recently shown to participate in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) progression. These conflicting analyses of ATTM's anticancer vs. H2S's carcinogenesis suggest that H2S should not be ignored during LUAD's treatment with ATTM. This study was aimed to explore ATTM's effects on LUAD cells and mechanisms associated with H2S and m6A. It was found that treatment with ATTM inhibited cell growth at high concentrations, while enhanced cell growth at low concentrations in three LUAD cell lines (A549, HCC827, and PC9). However, another copper chelator triethylenetetramine, without H2S releasing activity, was not found to induce cell growth. Low ATTM concentrations also elevated m6A content in A549 cells. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in TCGA cohort indicated that m6A writer METTL3 and reader YTHDF1 were upregulated while eraser FTO was downregulated in LUAD tissues, consistent with the findings of protein expression in patient tissues. ATTM treatment of A549 cells significantly increased METTL3/14 and YTHDF1 while decreased FTO expression. Furthermore, inhibition of m6A with shMETTL3 RNA significantly attenuated eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) expressions in A549 cells. Correlation analysis indicated that small nuclear ribonucleic protein PRPF6 was positively expressed with YTHDF1 in LUAD tissues. Knockdown of YTHDF1 partially blocked both basal and ATTM-induced PRPF6 expression, as well as A549 cell growth. Lastly, ATTM treatment not only raised intracellular H2S content but also upregulated H2S-producing enzymes. Exogenous H2S application mimicked ATTM's aforementioned effects, but the effects could be weakened by zinc-induced H2S scavenging. Collectively, H2S impedes ATTM-induced anticancer effects through YTHDF1-dependent PRPF6 m6A methylation in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Project description:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a reversible modification in mRNA and has been shown to regulate processing, translation and decay of mRNA. However, the roles of m6A modification in neuronal development are still not known. Here, we found that the m6A eraser FTO is enriched in axons and can be locally translated. Axon-specific inhibition of FTO by rhein, or compartmentalized siRNA knockdown of Fto in axons led to increases of m6A levels. GAP-43 mRNA is modified by m6A and is a substrate of FTO in axons. Loss-of-function of this non-nuclear pool of FTO resulted in increased m6A modification and decreased local translation of axonal GAP-43 mRNA, which eventually repressed axon elongation. Mutation of a predicted m6A site in GAP-43 mRNA eliminated its m6A modification and exempted regulation of its local translation by axonal FTO. This work showed an example of dynamic internal m6A demethylation of non-nuclear localized mRNA by the demethylase FTO. Regulation of m6A modification of axonal mRNA by axonal FTO might be a general mechanism to control their local translation in neuronal development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is dynamically regulated by m6A RNA methylation modulators ("writer," "eraser," and "reader" proteins), which are associated with cancer occurrence and development. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between m6A RNA methylation modulators and HCC. METHODS:First, using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) databases, we compared the expression levels of 13 major m6A RNA methylation modulators between HCC and normal tissues. Second, we applied consensus clustering to the expression data on the m6A RNA methylation modulators to divide the HCC tissues into two subgroups (clusters 1 and 2), and we compared the clusters in terms of overall survival (OS), World Health Organization (WHO) stage, and pathological grade. Third, using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, we constructed a risk signature involving the m6A RNA methylation modulators that affected OS in TCGA and ICGC analyses. RESULTS:We found that the expression levels of 12 major m6A RNA methylation modulators were significantly different between HCC and normal tissues. After dividing the HCC tissues into clusters 1 and 2, we found that cluster 2 had poorer OS, higher WHO stage, and higher pathological grade. Four m6A RNA methylation modulators (YTHDF1, YTHDF2, METTL3, and KIAA1429) affecting OS in the TCGA and ICGC analyses were selected to construct a risk signature, which was significantly associated with WHO stage and was also an independent prognostic marker of OS. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, m6A RNA methylation modulators are key participants in the malignant progression of HCC and have potential value in prognostication and treatment decisions.
Project description:Rationale: Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent RNA modification within protein-coding mRNAs in mammals, and it is a reversible modification with various important biological functions. The formation and function of m6A are regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and special binding proteins (readers) as key factors. However, the underlying modification mechanisms of m6A in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer remain unclear. Here, we performed comprehensive molecular profiling of the nine known m6A writer, eraser, and reader proteins in GI cancer. Methods: Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were used. Gene alteration and pathway analysis were done in cBioportal. The protein network of m6A regulators and its related pathway members was analyzed in STRING online platform. Phylogenetic tree was constructed in MEGA7. m6A modification sites were predicted by SRAMP. m6A related SNPs were analyzed by m6ASNP. The modulation of m6A on its related pathway members was validated by m6A-seq, real-time PCR and phosphor-MAPK array. Results: We found that m6A regulators were mostly upregulated in GI cancer and their differential expression significantly influenced the overall survival of patients with GI cancer. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways were found to be potentially affected by m6A modification in most human cancers, including GI cancer, which was further verified by m6A-Seq and phospho-MAPK array. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that m6A RNA modification has a fundamental role in the regulation of PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathway function in cancer.
Project description:Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor. The disease has a poor prognosis due to the delay in the diagnosis and the development of metastasis. N6-Methyladenosine (m6A)-related regulators play an essential role in various tumors. In this study, a comprehensive analysis was conducted to elucidate the relationship between the expression profiles of m6A-related molecules and the clinical outcome of OS patients. Materials and Methods: Public genome datasets and a tissue microarray (TMA) cohort were used to analyze the mRNA and protein expression levels of m6A regulators. Next, immunofluorescence (IF) analysis was used to determine the subcellular localization of m6A-related molecules. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to confirm the prognostic value of m6A-related molecules in OS. A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was conducted to identify the potential molecular mechanisms mediated by m6A modification in OS. Results: We found that m6A-related regulator expression was dysregulated in OS tissues, especially in metastatic tumor tissues. Low expression of METTL3, METTL14, and YTHDF2 and high expression of KIAA1429 and HNRNPA2B1 were significantly associated with poor prognosis in the TMA cohort. Simultaneously, the genome meta-cohort analysis revealed that low expression of FTO and METTL14 and high expression of METTL3, HNRNPA2B1, and YTHDF3 were associated with poor prognosis in OS. Cox regression analysis showed that HNRNPA2B1 might be an independent risk factor for OS. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that m6A regulators might be involved in OS progression through humoral immune response and cell cycle pathways. Conclusion: M6A-related regulators are frequently dysregulated and correlate with metastasis and prognosis in OS. M6A-related regulators may serve as novel therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers for OS.
Project description:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common type of eukaryotic mRNA modification and has been found in many organisms, including mammals, and plants. It has important regulatory effects on RNA splicing, export, stability, and translation. The abundance of m6A on RNA depends on the dynamic regulation between methyltransferase ("writer") and demethylase ("eraser"), and m6A binding protein ("reader") exerts more specific regulatory function by binding m6A modification sites on RNA. Progress in research has revealed important functions of m6A modification in plants. In this review, we systematically summarize the latest advances in research on the composition and mechanism of action of the m6A system in plants. We emphasize the function of m6A modification on RNA fate, plant development, and stress resistance. Finally, we discuss the outstanding questions and opportunities exist for future research on m6A modification in plant.