[Association of hypertension and antihypertensive agents and the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. A monocentric French prospective study].
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM:Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) type 2 is the receptor of SARSCoV-2 for cell entry into lung cells. Because ACE-2 may be modulated by ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), there are concern that patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs are at higher risk for COVID-19 infection or severity. This study sought to analyse the association of severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality with hypertension and a previous treatment with ACEI and ARB. METHODS:Prospective follow-up of 433 consecutive patients hospitalised for COVID-19 pneumonia confirmed by PCR or highly probable on clinical, biological, and radiological findings, and included in the COVHYP study. Mortality and severe COVID-19 (criteria: death, intensive care unit, or hospitalisation >30 days) were compared in patients receiving or not ACEIs and ARBs. Follow-up was 100% at hospital discharge, and 96.5% at >1month. RESULTS:Age was 63.6±18.7 years, and 40%) were female. At follow-up (mean 78±50 days), 136 (31%) patients had severity criteria (death, 64 ; intensive care unit, 73; hospital stay >30 days, 49). Hypertension (55.1% vs 36.7%, P<0.001) and antihypertensive treatment were associated with severe COVID-19 and mortality. The association between ACEI/ARB treatment and COVID-19 severity criteria found in univariate analysis (Odds Ratio 1.74, 95%CI [1.14-2.64], P=0.01) was not confirmed when adjusted on age, gender, and hypertension (adjusted OR1.13 [0.59-2.15], P=0.72). Diabetes and hypothyroidism were associated with severe COVID-19, whereas history of asthma was not. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that previous treatment with ACEI and ARB is not associated with hospital mortality, 1- and 2-month mortality, and severity criteria in patients hospitalised for COVID-19. No protective effect of ACEIs and ARBs on severe pneumonia related to COVID-19 was demonstrated.
Project description:The rapid spread of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been shown to be a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 to enter host target cells. Given that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) upregulated ACE2 expression in animal studies, the concern might arise regarding whether ARBs and ACEIs would increase the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. On the other hand, animal data suggested a potential protective effect of ARBs against COVID-19 pneumonia because an ARB prevented the aggravation of acute lung injury in mice infected with SARS-CoV, which is closely related to SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, however, there is no clinical or experimental evidence supporting that ARBs and ACEIs either augment the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 or aggravate the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 at present. Until further data are available, it is recommended that ARB and ACEI medications be continued for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease and hypertension, especially those at high risk, according to guideline-directed medical therapy based on the currently available evidence.
Project description:The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the risk of COVID-19 infection and disease progression are yet to be investigated. The relationship between ACEI/ARB use and COVID-19 infection was systematically reviewed. To identify relevant studies that met predetermined inclusion criteria, unrestricted searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were conducted. The search strategy included clinical date published until May 9, 2020. Twelve articles involving more than 19,000 COVID-19 cases were included. To estimate overall risk, random-effects models were adopted. Our results showed that ACEI/ARB exposure was not associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection (OR = 0.99; 95 % CI, 0-1.04; P = 0.672). Among those with COVID-19 infection, ACEI/ARB exposure was also not associated with a higher risk of having severe infection (OR = 0.98; 95 % CI, 0.87-1.09; P = 0.69) or mortality (OR = 0.73, 95 %CI, 0.5-1.07; P = 0.111). However, ACEI/ARB exposure was associated with a lower risk of mortality compared to those on non-ACEI/ARB antihypertensive drugs (OR = 0.48, 95 % CI, 0.29-0.81; P = 0.006). In conclusion, current evidence did not confirm the concern that ACEI/ARB exposure is harmful in patientswith COVID-19 infection. This study supports the current guidelines that discourage discontinuation of ACEIs or ARBs in COVID-19 patients and the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) share their target receptor site with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, that may cause ACE2 receptor up-regulation which raised concerns regarding ACEI and ARB use in COVID-19 patients. However, many medical professional societies recommended their continued use given the paucity of clinical evidence, but there is a need for an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the latest clinical studies. METHODS AND RESULTS:A search was conducted on PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and various preprint servers for studies comparing clinical outcomes and mortality in COVID-19 patients on ACEIs and/or ARBs, and a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 16 studies were included for the review and meta-analysis. There were conflicting findings reported in the rates of severity and mortality in several studies. In a pooled analysis of four studies, there was a statistically non-significant association of ACEI/ARB use with lower odds of developing severe disease vs. non-users [odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-1.58, I2=50.52, P-value = 0.53). In a pooled analysis of six studies, there was a statistically non-significant association of ACEI/ARB use with lower odds of mortality as compared with non-users (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.53-1.41, I2 = 79.12, P-value = 0.55). CONCLUSION:It is concluded that ACEIs and ARBs should be continued in COVID-19 patients, reinforcing the recommendations made by several medical societies. Additionally, the individual patient factors such as ACE2 polymorphisms which might confer higher risk of adverse outcomes need to be evaluated further.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility, severity, and treatment is unclear.<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate, on an ongoing basis, whether use of ACEIs or ARBs either increases risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or is associated with worse COVID-19 disease outcomes, and to assess the efficacy of these medications for COVID-19 treatment.<h4>Data sources</h4>MEDLINE (Ovid) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2003 to 4 May 2020, with planned ongoing surveillance for 1 year; the World Health Organization database of COVID-19 publications and medRxiv.org through 17 April 2020; and ClinicalTrials.gov to 24 April 2020, with planned ongoing surveillance.<h4>Study selection</h4>Observational studies and trials in adults that examined associations and effects of ACEIs or ARBs on risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease severity and mortality.<h4>Data extraction</h4>Single-reviewer abstraction confirmed by another reviewer, independent evaluation by 2 reviewers of study quality, and collective assessment of certainty of evidence.<h4>Data synthesis</h4>Two retrospective cohort studies found that ACEI and ARB use was not associated with a higher likelihood of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and 1 case-control study found no association with COVID-19 illness in a large community (moderate-certainty evidence). Fourteen observational studies, involving a total of 23 565 adults with COVID-19, showed consistent evidence that neither medication was associated with more severe COVID-19 illness (high-certainty evidence). Four registered randomized trials plan to evaluate ACEIs and ARBs for treatment of COVID-19.<h4>Limitation</h4>Half the studies were small and did not adjust for important confounding variables.<h4>Conclusion</h4>High-certainty evidence suggests that ACEI or ARB use is not associated with more severe COVID-19 disease, and moderate-certainty evidence suggests no association between use of these medications and positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among symptomatic patients. Whether these medications increase the risk for mild or asymptomatic disease or are beneficial in COVID-19 treatment remains uncertain.<h4>Primary funding source</h4>None. (PROSPERO: registration number pending).
Project description:An association among the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) with the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. PubMed, EMBASE, MedRxiv, and BioRxiv were searched for relevant studies that assessed the association between application of ACEI/ARB and risk of COVID-19, inflammation level, severity COVID-19 infection, and death in patients with COVID-19. Eleven studies were included with 33?483 patients. ACEI/ARB therapy might be associated with the reduced inflammatory factor (interleukin-6) and elevated immune cells counts (CD3, CD8). Meta-analysis showed no significant increase in the risk of COVID-19 infection (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.89-1.05) in patients receiving ACEI/ARB therapy, and ACEI/ARB therapy was associated with a decreased risk of severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.96) and mortality (OR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.35-0.79). Subgroup analyses showed among the general population, ACEI/ARB therapy was associated with reduced severe COVID-19 infection (OR: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.60-1.05) and all-cause mortality (OR: 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13-0.75), and COVID-19 infection (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66-1.08) were not increased. Among patients with hypertension, the use of an ACEI/ARB was associated with a lower severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.51-1.03) and lower mortality (OR: 0.57, 95%CI: 0.37-0.87), without evidence of an increased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR: 1.00). On the basis of the available evidence, ACEI/ARB therapy should be continued in patients who are at risk for, or have COVID-19, either in general population or hypertension patients. Our results need to be interpreted with caution considering the potential for residual confounders, and more well-designed studies that control the clinical confounders are necessary to confirm our findings.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), was alleged to cause a more severe course of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:We systematically reviewed the published studies to assess the association of RAS inhibitors with mortality as well as disease severity in COVID-19 patients. A systematic literature search was performed to retrieve relevant original studies investigating mortality and severity (severe/critical disease) in COVID-19 patients with and without exposure to RAS inhibitors. RESULTS:A total of 59 original studies were included for qualitative synthesis. Twenty-four studies that reported adjusted effect sizes (24 studies reported mortality outcomes and 16 studies reported disease severity outcomes), conducted in RAS inhibitor-exposed and unexposed groups, were pooled in random-effects models to estimate overall risk. Quality assessment of studies revealed that most of the studies included were of fair quality. The use of an ACEI/ARB in COVID-19 patients was significantly associated with lower odds (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.95; n?=?18,749) or hazard (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.95; n?=?26,598) of mortality compared with non-use of ACEI/ARB. However, the use of an ACEI/ARB was non-significantly associated with lower odds (OR?=?0.91, 95% CI 0.75-1.10; n?=?7446) or hazard (HR?=?0.73, 95% CI 0.33-1.66; n?=?6325) of developing severe/critical disease compared with non-use of an ACEI/ARB. DISCUSSION:Since there was no increased risk of harm, the use of RAS inhibitors for hypertension and other established clinical indications can be maintained in COVID-19 patients.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) in the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is hotly debated. There have been recommendations to discontinue these medications, which are essential in the treatment of several chronic disease conditions, while, in the absence of clinical evidence, professional societies have advocated their continued use.<h4>Objective</h4>To study the association between use of ACEIs/ARBs with the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19 and to study outcome data in subsets of patients taking ACEIs/ARBs who tested positive with severity of clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (eg, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and requirement for mechanical ventilation).<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Retrospective cohort study with overlap propensity score weighting was conducted at the Cleveland Clinic Health System in Ohio and Florida. All patients tested for COVID-19 between March 8 and April 12, 2020, were included.<h4>Exposures</h4>History of taking ACEIs or ARBs at the time of COVID-19 testing.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Results of COVID-19 testing in the entire cohort, number of patients requiring hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and mechanical ventilation among those who tested positive.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 18?472 patients tested for COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 49?(21) years, 7384 (40%) were male, and 12?725 (69%) were white. Of 18?472 patients who underwent COVID-19 testing, 2285 (12.4%) were taking either ACEIs or ARBs. A positive COVID-19 test result was observed in 1735 of 18?472 patients (9.4%). Among patients who tested positive, 421 (24.3%) were admitted to the hospital, 161 (9.3%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, and 111 (6.4%) required mechanical ventilation. Overlap propensity score weighting showed no significant association of ACEI and/or ARB use with COVID-19 test positivity (overlap propensity score-weighted odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81-1.15).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>This study found no association between ACEI or ARB use and COVID-19 test positivity. These clinical data support current professional society guidelines to not discontinue ACEIs or ARBs in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, further study in larger numbers of hospitalized patients receiving ACEI and ARB therapy is needed to determine the association with clinical measures of COVID-19 severity.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Animal studies suggest that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers might increase the expression of ACE2 and potentially increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.<h4>Methods and results</h4>The effect of ACE inhibitor (ACEI) treatment on the pneumonia incidence in non-COVID-19 patients (25 studies, 330?780 patients) was associated with a 26% reduction of pneumonia risk (odds ratio [OR]: 0.74, P < .001). Pneumonia-related death cases in ACEI-treated non-COVID-19 patients were reduced by 27% (OR: 0.73, P = .004). However, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) treatment (10 studies, 275?621 non-COVID-19 patients) did not alter pneumonia risk in patients. Pneumonia-related death cases in ARB-treated non-COVID-19 patients was analysed only in 1 study and was significantly reduced (OR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.72). Results from 11 studies (8.4 million patients) showed that the risk of getting infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus was reduced by 13% (OR: 0.87, P = .014) in patients treated with ACEI, whereas analysis from 10 studies (8.4 million patients) treated with ARBs showed no effect (OR, 0.92, P = .354). Results from 34 studies in 67?644 COVID-19 patients showed that RAAS blockade reduces all-cause mortality by 24% (OR = 0.76, P = .04).<h4>Conclusion</h4>ACEIs reduce the risk of getting infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Blocking the RAAS may decrease all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients. ACEIs also reduce the risk of non-COVID pneumonia. All-cause mortality due to non-COVID pneumonia is reduced by ACEI and potentially by ARBs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The epidemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been spreading globally, raising increasing concerns. There are several controversial hypotheses on the potentially harmful or beneficial effects of antihypertensive drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence, based on several observational studies, that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not increase the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, conflicting findings regarding the role of ACEIs/ARBs as prognosis modifiers in COVID-19 hospitalised patients have been reported. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this large-scale, retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether prior exposure to ACEIs and/or ARBs was associated with all-cause mortality among over 40,000 hospitalised COVID-19 patients compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs), a potential therapeutic alternative. METHODS:This study was conducted using COVID-19 registries linked to claims databases from Lombardy, Veneto and Reggio Emilia (overall, 25% of Italian population). Overall, 42,926 patients hospitalised between 21 February and 21 April 2020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction tests were included in this study. All-cause mortality occurring in or out of hospital, as reported in the COVID-19 registry, was estimated. Using Cox models, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality (along with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated separately for ACEIs/ARBs and other antihypertensives versus CCBs and non-use. RESULTS:Overall, 11,205 in- and out-of-hospital deaths occurred over a median of 24 days of follow-up after hospital admission due to COVID-19. Compared with CCBs, adjusted analyses showed no difference in the risk of death among ACEI (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.06) or ARB (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.06) users. When non-use of antihypertensives was considered as a comparator, a modest statistically significant increase in mortality risk was observed for any antihypertensive use. However, when restricting to drugs with antihypertensive indications only, these marginal increases disappeared. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses confirmed our main findings. CONCLUSIONS:ACEI/ARB use is not associated with either an increased or decreased risk of all-cause mortality, compared with CCB use, in the largest cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients exposed to these drugs studied to date. The use of these drugs therefore does not affect the prognosis of COVID-19. This finding strengthens recommendations of international regulatory agencies about not withdrawing/switching ACEI/ARB treatments to modify COVID-19 prognosis.
Project description:The dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been observed in coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19) patients, but whether RAS inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), are associated with clinical outcomes remains unknown. COVID-19 patients with hypertension were enrolled to evaluate the effect of RAS inhibitors. We observed that patients receiving ACEI or ARB therapy had a lower rate of severe diseases and a trend toward a lower level of IL-6 in peripheral blood. In addition, ACEI or ARB therapy increased CD3 and CD8 T cell counts in peripheral blood and decreased the peak viral load compared to other antihypertensive drugs. This evidence supports the benefit of using ACEIs or ARBs to potentially contribute to the improvement of clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension.