CDC1 are required for the initiation of collagen-induced arthritis
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic autoimmune disease which etiology remains unknown. Several cell types have been described to potentiate/aggravate the arthritic process however the initiating event in synovial inflammation is still elusive. Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the initiation of primary immune responses and thus we hypothesized that these cells might be crucial for RA induction. DCs are a heterogeneous population of cells comprising different subsets with distinct phenotype and function. Here we investigated which DC subset(s) is/are crucial for the initiation of the arthritic process. We have previously demonstrated that Flt3?/? mice, with reduced DCs, were protected from collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Here we have shown that GM-CSF derived DCs in Flt3L?/? mice are functional but not sufficient to induce arthritis. Batf3?/? mice lacking both CD103+ and CD8?+ cDC1 were resistant to collagen induced arthritis (CIA), demonstrating that this DC subset is crucial for arthritis development. CEP-701 (a Flt3L inhibitor) treatment prevented CIA induction, and reduced dramatically the numbers CD103+ cDC1s present in the lymph nodes and synovium. Hence this study identified cDC1 as the main subset orchestrating the initiation of cell-mediated immunity in arthritis. Highlights • Flt3L independent DCs present in Flt3L?/? mice are functional but are not sufficient to induce arthritis.• BATF3?/? mice lacking cDC1 are protected from arthritis development indicating that cDC1 are necessary for disease induction.• Treatment with a Flt3L inhibitor, CEP701, reduced cDC1 populations and prevented arthritis induction.
Project description:Kidney dendritic cells (DCs) regulate nephritogenic T cell responses. Most kidney DCs belong to the CD11b+ subset and promote crescentic GN (cGN). The function of the CD103+ subset, which represents <5% of kidney DCs, is poorly understood. We studied the role of CD103+ DCs in cGN using several lines of genetically modified mice that allowed us to reduce the number of these cells. In all lines, we detected a reduction of FoxP3+ intrarenal regulatory T cells (Tregs), which protect against cGN. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 had a more profound reduction of CD103+ DCs and Tregs than did the other lines used, and showed the most profound aggravation of cGN. The conditional reduction of CD103+ DC numbers by 50% in Langerin-DTR mice halved Treg numbers, which did not suffice to significantly aggravate cGN. Mice lacking the cytokine Flt3L had fewer CD103+ DCs and Tregs than Langerin-DTR mice but exhibited milder cGN than did Batf3-/- mice presumably because proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs were somewhat depleted as well. Conversely, Flt3L supplementation increased the number of CD103+ DCs and Tregs, but also of proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs. On antibody-mediated removal of CD11b+ DCs, Flt3L supplementation ameliorated cGN. Mechanistically, CD103+ DCs caused cocultured T cells to differentiate into Tregs and produced the chemokine CCL20, which is known to attract Tregs into the kidney. Our findings show that CD103+ DCs foster intrarenal FoxP3+ Treg accumulation, thereby antagonizing proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs. Thus, increasing CD103+ DC numbers or functionality might be advantageous in cGN.
Project description:Deletion of CD8+ T cells by dendritic cells (DCs) is recognized as a critical mechanism of immune tolerance to self-antigens. Although DC-mediated peripheral deletion of autoreactive CD8+ T cells has been demonstrated using T cells reactive to model Ags, its role in shaping the naturally occurring polyclonal CD8+ T cell repertoire has not been defined. Using Batf3-/- mice lacking cross-presenting CD8?+ and CD103+ DCs (also known as type 1 conventional [cDC1]), we demonstrate that peripheral deletion of CD8+ T cells reactive to a model tissue Ag is dependent on cDC1. However, endogenous CD8+ T cells from the periphery of Batf3-/- mice do not exhibit heightened self-reactivity, and deep TCR sequencing of CD8+ T cells from Batf3-/- and Batf3+/+ mice reveals that cDC1 have a minimal impact on shaping the peripheral CD8+ T cell repertoire. Thus, although evident in reductionist systems, deletion of polyclonal self-specific CD8+ T cells by cDC1 plays a negligible role in enforcing tolerance to natural self-ligands.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) have long been recognized as potential therapeutic targets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increasing evidence has showed that DCs are capable of suppressing autoimmunity by expanding FoxP3? regulatory T cells (T(reg)), which in turn exert immunosuppression by increasing TGF?-1. In the SKG mice, activated DC prime autoreactive T cells causing autoantibody production and an inflammatory arthritic response. Recently, we reported that CC-chemokine receptor-2 deficient (Ccr2?/?) mice had impaired DCs migration and reduced CD8?? DCs in the C57Bl/6J mice strain and that these mice were more susceptible to collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), compared to wild type mice. To examine the mechanism by which DCs contribute to the increased susceptibility of arthritis in Ccr2?/? mice, we tested the hypothesis that CD8?? DCs are protective (tolerogenic) against autoimmune arthritis by examining the role of CD8?? DCs in Ccr2?/? and SKG mice.To examine the mechanism by which DCs defects lead to the development of arthritis, we used two murine models of experimental arthritis: collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA1/J mice and zymosan-induced arthritis in SKG mice. DBA1/J mice received recombinant fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) injections to expand endogenous DCs populations or adoptive transfers of CD8?? DCs.Flt3L-mediated expansion of endogenous CD8?? DCs resulted in heightened susceptibility of CIA. In contrast, supplementation with exogenous CD8?? DCs ameliorated arthritis in Ccr2?/? mice and enhanced TGF?1 production by T cells. Furthermore, SKG mice with genetic inactivation of CCR2 did not affect the numbers of DCs nor improve the arthritis phenotype.CD8?? DCs were tolerogenic to the development of arthritis. CD8?? DCs deficiency heightened the sensitivity to arthritis in Ccr2?/? mice. Ccr2 deficiency did not alter the arthritic phenotype in SKG mice suggesting the arthritis in Ccr2?/? mice was T cell-independent.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) subsets differ in precursor cell of origin, functional properties, requirements for growth factors, and dependence on transcription factors. Lymphoid-tissue resident CD8?(+) conventional DCs (cDCs) and CD11b(low/-)CD103(+) non-lymphoid DCs are developmentally related, each being dependent on FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), and requiring the transcription factors Batf3, Irf8, and Id2 for development. It was recently suggested that granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was required for the development of dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+)CD103(+) DCs, and that this dermal DC subset was required for priming autoreactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Here, we compared development of peripheral tissue DCs and susceptibility to EAE in GM-CSF receptor deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) and Batf3(-/-) mice. We find that Batf3-dependent dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+) DCs do develop in Csf2rb(-/-) mice, but that they express reduced, but not absent, levels of CD103. Further, Batf3(-/-) mice lacking all peripheral CD11b(low/-) DCs show robust Th cell priming after subcutaneous immunization and are susceptible to EAE. Our results suggest that defective T effector priming and resistance to EAE exhibited by Csf2rb(-/-) mice does not result from the absence of dermal CD11b(low/-)Langerin(+)CD103(+) DCs.
Project description:DCs are necessary and sufficient for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CD11b+ DCs direct the underlying Th2 immunity, but debate surrounds the function of CD103+ DCs in lung immunity and asthma after an allergic challenge. We challenged Batf3-/- mice, which lacked lung CD103+ DCs, with the relevant allergen house dust mite (HDM) as a model to ascertain their role in asthma. We show that acute and chronic HDM exposure leads to defective Th1 immunity in Batf3-deficient mice. In addition, chronic HDM challenge in Batf3-/- mice results in increased Th2 and Th17 immune responses and exacerbated airway inflammation. Mechanistically, Batf3 absence does not affect induction of Treg or IL-10 production by lung CD4+ T cells following acute HDM challenge. Batf3-dependent CD103+ migratory DCs are the main source of IL-12p40 in the mediastinal lymph node DC compartment in the steady state. Moreover, CD103+ DCs selectively increase their IL-12p40 production upon HDM administration. In vivo IL-12 treatment reverts exacerbated allergic airway inflammation upon chronic HDM challenge in Batf3-/- mice, restraining Th2 and Th17 responses without triggering Th1 immunity. These results suggest a protective role for lung CD103+ DCs to HDM allergic airway inflammation through the production of IL-12.
Project description:Although CD103-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are widely present in nonlymphoid tissues, the transcription factors controlling their development and their relationship to other DC subsets remain unclear. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 have a defect in the development of CD8alpha+ conventional DCs (cDCs) within lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that Batf3(-/-) mice also lack CD103+CD11b- DCs in the lung, intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), dermis, and skin-draining lymph nodes. Notably, Batf3(-/-) mice displayed reduced priming of CD8 T cells after pulmonary Sendai virus infection, with increased pulmonary inflammation. In the MLNs and intestine, Batf3 deficiency resulted in the specific lack of CD103+CD11b- DCs, with the population of CD103+CD11b+ DCs remaining intact. Batf3(-/-) mice showed no evidence of spontaneous gastrointestinal inflammation and had a normal contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, despite previous suggestions that CD103+ DCs were required for immune homeostasis in the gut and CHS. The relationship between CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs implied by their shared dependence on Batf3 was further supported by similar patterns of gene expression and their shared developmental dependence on the transcription factor Irf8. These data provide evidence for a developmental relationship between lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs.
Project description:The role of different DC subsets in priming and maintenance of immunity against Leishmania major (L. major) infection is debated. The transcription factor basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 3 (Batf3) is essential for the development of mouse CD103(+) DCs and some functions of CD8?(+) DCs. We found that CD103(+) DCs were significantly reduced in the dermis of Batf3-deficient C57BL/6 mice. Batf3(-/-) mice developed exacerbated and unresolved cutaneous pathology following a low dose of intradermal L. major infection in the ear pinnae. Parasite load was increased 1000-fold locally and expanded systemically. Batf3 deficiency did not affect L. major antigen presentation to T cells, which was directly exerted by CD8?(-) conventional DCs (cDCs) in the skin draining LN. However, CD4(+) T-cell differentiation in the LN and skin was skewed to nonprotective Treg- and Th2-cell subtypes. CD103(+) DCs are major IL-12 producers during L. major infection. Local Th1 immunity was severely hindered, correlating with impaired IL-12 production and reduction in CD103(+) DC numbers. Adoptive transfer of WT but not IL-12p40(-/-) Batf3-dependent DCs significantly improved anti-L. major response in infected Batf3(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that IL-12 production by Batf3-dependent CD103(+) DCs is crucial for maintenance of local Th1 immunity against L. major infection.
Project description:Multiple subsets of FLT3L-dependent dendritic cells (DCs) control T cell tolerance and immunity. In mouse tissues, CD8α-like DCs are identified by CD103 expression. This DC subset efficiently enters lymph nodes and cross-presents antigens, rendering CD103+ DCs promising targets for therapeutic tolerance induction or vaccination. However, only limited numbers of CD103+ DCs can be isolated with current methods. Moreover, bone marrow cultures with FLT3L produce complex mixtures of DC subsets. We developed a novel method for generating large numbers of Batf3-dependent CD103+ DCs. We used microarray analysis to compare in vitro generated CD103+ and CD103- DCs and correlated their expression patterns to published profiles and signatures of DC subsets. Overall design: We generated iCD103 DCs according to our new method. We sorted CD11c+B220-CD103hi and CD11c+B220-CD103- DC subsets and processed these populations for RNA extraction and hybridization to Agilent microarrays.
Project description:Dendritic cell (DC)-T cell interactions that underlie inducible/adaptive regulatory T cell generation and airway tolerance are not well understood. In this study, we show that mice lacking CD11c(hi) lung DCs, but containing plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), fail tolerization with inhaled Ag and cannot support Foxp3 induction in vivo in naive CD4(+) T cells. CD103(+) DCs from tolerized mice efficiently induced Foxp3 in cocultured naive CD4(+) T cells but pDCs and lung macrophages failed to do so. CD103(+) DCs, but not pDCs or lung macrophages, upregulated the expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (aldh1a2), which is key for the production of retinoic acid, a cofactor for TGF-? for Foxp3 induction. Batf3(-/-) mice, selectively lacking CD103(+) DCs, failed tolerization by inhaled Ag. Collectively, our data show that pulmonary tolerance is dependent on CD103(+) DCs, correlating with their ability to upregulate aldh1a2, which can promote Foxp3 expression in T cells.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) have critical roles in the induction of the adaptive immune response. The transcription factors Id2, Batf3 and Irf-8 are required for many aspects of murine DC differentiation including development of CD8?(+) and CD103(+) DCs. How they regulate DC subset specification is not completely understood. Using an Id2-GFP reporter system, we show that Id2 is broadly expressed in all cDC subsets with the highest expression in CD103(+) and CD8?(+) lineages. Notably, CD103(+) DCs were the only DC able to constitutively cross-present cell-associated antigens in vitro. Irf-8 deficiency affected loss of development of virtually all conventional DCs (cDCs) while Batf3 deficiency resulted in the development of Sirp-?(-) DCs that had impaired survival. Exposure to GM-CSF during differentiation induced expression of CD103 in Id2-GFP(+) DCs. It did not restore cross-presenting capacity to Batf3(-/-) or CD103(-)Sirp-?(-)DCs in vitro. Thus, Irf-8 and Batf3 regulate distinct stages in DC differentiation during the development of cDCs. Genetic mapping DC subset differentiation using Id2-GFP may have broad implications in understanding the interplay of DC subsets during protective and pathological immune responses.