Functional connectome fingerprint of sleep quality in insomnia patients: Individualized out-of-sample prediction using machine learning.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Insomnia disorder has been reclassified into short-term/acute and chronic subtypes based on recent etiological advances. However, understanding the similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms underlying the two subtypes and accurately predicting the sleep quality remain challenging. METHODS:Using 29 short-term/acute insomnia participants and 44 chronic insomnia participants, we used whole-brain regional functional connectivity strength to predict unseen individuals' Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), applying the multivariate relevance vector regression method. Evaluated using both leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation, the pattern of whole-brain regional functional connectivity strength significantly predicted an unseen individual's PSQI in both datasets. RESULTS:There were both similarities and differences in the regions that contributed the most to PSQI prediction between the two groups. Further functional connectivity analysis suggested that between-network connectivity was re-organized between short-term/acute insomnia and chronic insomnia. CONCLUSIONS:The present study may have clinical value by informing the prediction of sleep quality and providing novel insights into the neural basis underlying the heterogeneity of insomnia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess the effects of resistance exercise and stretching on sleep, mood, and quality of life in chronic insomnia patients. METHODS:Three 4-month treatments included: resistance exercise (n=10), stretching (n=10), and control (n=8). Sleep was evaluated with polysomnography, actigraphy, and questionnaires. Mood and quality of life were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36), respectively. RESULTS:There were no significant treatment differences between resistance exercise and stretching. However, compared with the control treatment, resistance exercise and stretching led to significantly greater improvements in Insomnia Severity Index scores (-10.5±2.3, -8.1±2.0 vs. 2.3±1.8, respectively), and actigraphic measures of sleep latency (-7.1±4.6, -5.2±1.9 vs. 2.2±2.1 min), wake after sleep onset (-9.3±2.8, -7.1±3.0 vs. 3.6±4.2 min), and sleep efficiency (4.4±1.8, 5.0±0.8 vs. -2.3±2%). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global scores (-5.3±0.8, -3.9±1.5 vs. -0.1±0.8) and sleep duration (1.2±0.3, 1.6±0.6 vs. -0.1±0.2 h) also improved following both experimental treatments compared with control. PSQI-Sleep efficiency increased after resistance exercise compared with control (19.5±3.9 vs. 2.1±4.3%). No significant differences were observed in polysomnography or quality of life measures. Tension-anxiety was lower in the stretching group than the control group. CONCLUSION:Moderate-intensity resistance exercise and stretching led to similar improvements in objective and subjective sleep in patients with chronic insomnia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01571115.
Project description:<b>Study Objectives:</b> We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of different regular exercise (lasting at least 2 months on a regular basis) on self-reported and physiological sleep quality in adults. Varied exercise interventions contained traditional physical exercise (e.g., walking, cycling) and mind-body exercise characterized by gentle exercise with coordination of the body (e.g., yoga). <b>Methods:</b> Procedures followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Systematical searches were conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) for relevant research that involved adult participants without pathological diseases receiving exercise intervention. The search strategy was based on the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome study design (PICOS) framework. The self-reported outcomes included varied rating scales of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Subgroup meta-analyses of PSQI scores were conducted based on type of exercise, duration of intervention, and participants' age and gender. The physiological outcomes were measured by Actigraph. All meta-analyses were performed in a fixed or random statistic model using Revman software. <b>Results:</b> Twenty-two randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. The overall analysis on subjective outcomes suggests that exercise interventions significantly improved sleep quality in adults compared with control interventions with lower PSQI (MD -2.19; 95% CI -2.96 to -1.41), ISI (MD -1.52; 95% CI -2.63 to -0.41), and ESS (MD -2.55; 95% CI -3.32 to -1.78) scores. Subgroup analyses of PSQI scores showed both physical and mind-body exercise interventions resulted in improvements of subjective sleep to the same extent. Interestingly, short-term interventions (≤3 months) had a significantly greater reduction in sleep disturbance vs. long-term interventions (>3 months). Regarding physiological sleep, few significant effects were found in various sleep parameters except the increased sleep efficiency in the exercise group vs. control group. <b>Conclusions:</b> Results of this systematic review suggest that regular physical as well as mind-body exercise primarily improved subjective sleep quality rather than physiological sleep quality in adults. Specifically, self-reported sleep quality, insomnia severity, and daytime sleepiness could be improved or ameliorated with treatment of exercise, respectively, evaluated by PSQI, ISI, and ESS sleep rating scales.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Several neuroimaging studies have suggested that patients with chronic primary insomnia (CPI) exhibit anatomical and functional alterations of the brain, but the temporal regularity in spontaneous neuronal activity remains unknown. Here, brain entropy (BEN), a data-driven method used to measure the signal regularity of a time series, was applied for the first time to investigate changes in the entire brain at the voxel level. METHODS:Resting-state functional MRI data were used to investigate insomnia-related BEN alterations and the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) pattern in seed regions with altered BEN in 29 patients with identified and untreated CPI and 29 matched healthy controls. Subsequently, within the CPI group, correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the clinical variables and the BEN and rsFC of the abnormal regions. RESULTS:Chronic primary insomnia patients showed significant increase in BEN in the central part of the default-mode network (DMN), the anterior regions of the task-positive network (TPN), the hippocampus (Hipp), and basal ganglia (BG), and decreases in BEN in the right postcentral gyrus (PoCG) and right temporal-occipital junction (TOJ). We also demonstrated that three altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) patterns were associated with abnormal BEN regions in CPI patients. Correlation analysis identified an association between the altered rsFC and clinical variables, such as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in CPI patients. CONCLUSIONS:Together, these findings suggest that abnormal BEN-related intrinsic functional plasticity in CPI patients corresponds to poor sleep quality during chronic insomnia. Alterations in both BEN and its affected connectivity may improve our understanding of treatment-naïve CPI patients and promote the future development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:To test a new cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) program designed for use by nonclinicians.Randomized controlled trial.Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system.Community-dwelling veterans aged 60 and older who met diagnostic criteria for insomnia of 3 months duration or longer (N = 159).Nonclinician "sleep coaches" delivered a five-session manual-based CBT-I program including stimulus control, sleep restriction, sleep hygiene, and cognitive therapy (individually or in small groups), with weekly telephone behavioral sleep medicine supervision. Controls received five sessions of general sleep education.Primary outcomes, including self-reported (7-day sleep diary) sleep onset latency (SOL-D), wake after sleep onset (WASO-D), total wake time (TWT-D), and sleep efficiency (SE-D); Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and objective sleep efficiency (7-day wrist actigraphy, SE-A) were measured at baseline, at the posttreatment assessment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Additional measures included the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)), and quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-form Survey version 2 (SF-12v2)).Intervention subjects had greater improvement than controls between the baseline and posttreatment assessments, the baseline and 6-month assessments, and the baseline and 12-month assessments in SOL-D (-23.4, -15.8, and -17.3 minutes, respectively), TWT-D (-68.4, -37.0, and -30.9 minutes, respectively), SE-D (10.5%, 6.7%, and 5.4%, respectively), PSQI (-3.4, -2.4, and -2.1 in total score, respectively), and ISI (-4.5, -3.9, and -2.8 in total score, respectively) (all P < .05). There were no significant differences in SE-A, PHQ-9, or SF-12v2.Manual-based CBT-I delivered by nonclinician sleep coaches improves sleep in older adults with chronic insomnia.
Project description:Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, <i>Zizyphus</i>, <i>Humulus lupulus</i>, magnesium and vitamin B6), in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (<i>n</i> = 171) were randomized (1:1) to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs) in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in) and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality.
Project description:Melatonin is extensively used in the USA in a non-regulated manner for sleep disorders. Prolonged release melatonin (PRM) is licensed in Europe and other countries for the short term treatment of primary insomnia in patients aged 55 years and over. However, a clear definition of the target patient population and well-controlled studies of long-term efficacy and safety are lacking. It is known that melatonin production declines with age. Some young insomnia patients also may have low melatonin levels. The study investigated whether older age or low melatonin excretion is a better predictor of response to PRM, whether the efficacy observed in short-term studies is sustained during continued treatment and the long term safety of such treatment.Adult outpatients (791, aged 18-80 years) with primary insomnia, were treated with placebo (2 weeks) and then randomized, double-blind to 3 weeks with PRM or placebo nightly. PRM patients continued whereas placebo completers were re-randomized 1:1 to PRM or placebo for 26 weeks with 2 weeks of single-blind placebo run-out. Main outcome measures were sleep latency derived from a sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Quality of Life (World Health Organzaton-5) Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) and adverse effects and vital signs recorded at each visit.On the primary efficacy variable, sleep latency, the effects of PRM (3 weeks) in patients with low endogenous melatonin (6-sulphatoxymelatonin [6-SMT] <or=8 microg/night) regardless of age did not differ from the placebo, whereas PRM significantly reduced sleep latency compared to the placebo in elderly patients regardless of melatonin levels (-19.1 versus -1.7 min; P = 0.002). The effects on sleep latency and additional sleep and daytime parameters that improved with PRM were maintained or enhanced over the 6-month period with no signs of tolerance. Most adverse events were mild in severity with no clinically relevant differences between PRM and placebo for any safety outcome.The results demonstrate short- and long-term efficacy and safety of PRM in elderly insomnia patients. Low melatonin production regardless of age is not useful in predicting responses to melatonin therapy in insomnia. The age cut-off for response warrants further investigation.
Project description:Insomnia, though quite common in the general population, is especially prevalent among individuals with co-occurring mental illnesses, patients whose condition can be further exacerbated by insomnia and vice versa. For individuals taking one or more psychotropic medications, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), the gold standard in insomnia treatment, is a particularly favorable option (vis-à-vis pharmacotherapy). However, CBT-I can be inaccessible for persons with low socioeconomic status, a group that includes many with psychiatric diagnoses. Computer-based delivery of CBT-I (cb-CBT-I) has the potential to be a cost-effective tool that could greatly improve accessibility for this at-risk demographic.Thirty-four participants with insomnia who were currently engaged in mental health care treatment were randomized to an active control group (sleep diary group; n = 16) or cb-CBT-I (n = 18) during weekly outpatient sessions over the course of 6 w. All participants completed sleep and activity logs at each appointment, whereas those in the cb-CBT-I group also completed one session of the cb-CBT-I program each week.cb-CBT-I treatment was associated with lower scores (improved sleep) on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Post hoc tests demonstrated a between groups difference at week 6 (p = 0.02), with a statistically significant decrease in PSQI scores in the cb-CBT-I group (p = 0.0006) but not in the sleep diary group (p = 0.35).cb-CBT-I improves sleep in individuals with insomnia and co-occurring mental illness. The significant improvements on the PSQI suggest that implementing a cb-CBT-I treatment in a community mental health center would be a simple and effective treatment for improving sleep over a short period of time.A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 161.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on sleep-wake behaviors in sedentary community-dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations.Multicenter, randomized trial of moderate-intensity physical activity versus health education, with sleep-wake behaviors prespecified as a tertiary outcome over a planned intervention period ranging from 24 to 30 months.Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study.Community-dwelling persons aged 70 to 89 who were initially sedentary and had a Short Physical Performance Battery score less than 10 (N = 1,635).Sleep-wake behaviors were evaluated using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) (?8 defined insomnia), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (?10 defined daytime drowsiness), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (>5 defined poor sleep quality) administered at baseline and 6, 18, and 30 months.The randomized groups were similar in terms of baseline demographic variables, including mean age (79) and sex (67% female). Structured physical activity resulted in a significantly lower likelihood of having poor sleep quality (adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for PSQI >5 = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.94), including fewer new cases (aOR for PSQI >5 = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54-0.89), than health education but not in resolution of prevalent cases (aOR for PSQI ?5 = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.90-1.43). No significant intervention effects were observed for the ISI or ESS.Structured physical activity resulted in a lower likelihood of developing poor sleep quality (PSQI >5) over the intervention period than health education but had no effect on prevalent cases of poor sleep quality or on sleep-wake behaviors evaluated using the ISI or ESS. These results suggest that the benefit of physical activity in this sample was preventive and limited to sleep-wake behaviors evaluated using the PSQI.
Project description:This study aimed to determine whether both subjective sleep quality and sleep duration are directly associated with quality of life (QOL), as well as indirectly associated with QOL through insomnia symptoms. Individuals aged 20-69 years without mental illness (<i>n</i> = 9305) were enrolled in this web-based cross-sectional survey. The Short Form-8 was used to assess physical and mental QOL. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and extracted items related to subjective sleep quality and sleep duration. Insomnia symptoms were also extracted from the PSQI. The hypothesized models were tested using structural equation modeling. Worse sleep quality, but not shorter sleep duration, was related to worse physical QOL. Both worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration were related to worse mental QOL. Insomnia symptoms mediated these relationships. Subgroup analyses revealed a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and physical/mental QOL. However, the relationship between sleep quality and physical/mental QOL was consistent regardless of sleep duration. The results suggest that subjective sleep quality has a more coherent association with QOL than subjective sleep duration. Because of its high feasibility, a questionnaire on overall sleep quality could be a useful indicator in future epidemiological studies of strategies for improving QOL.
Project description:Sleep duration and sleep quality play important roles in the development of hypertension (HT) in middle-aged subjects, with controversial data in elderly. In this study, we investigated the link between HT and self-reported sleep in non-insomniac elderly subjects.We examined 500 participants without insomnia complaints aged 72 ± 1 years. An extensive instrumental evaluation was carried out, including 24-h blood pressure (BP) monitoring and an assessment of nocturnal BP dipping. Sleep duration and quality were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The subjects were stratified into three groups according to sleep duration: short (< 6 h), normal (> 6h to < 8 h), and long (> 8 h) sleepers. A PSQI < 5 defined good sleepers (GS, n = 252), and a PSQI > 5 (n = 248) defined poor sleepers (PS).PS represented 50% of the subjects, more frequently females. Compared to GS, PS did not differ in terms of HT, BP, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and BP dipping. Short, normal, and long sleepers accounted for 28%, 42%, and 30% of subjects, with HT, BP values, BRS, and gender not differing between groups. No relationship was found between nocturnal BP values and self-reported sleep measures. Logistic regression analysis indicated that neither sleep duration nor sleep quality predicts the prevalence of HT, the body mass index being the only factor affecting this association.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT00759304 and NCT00766584.In a sample of non-insomniac elderly subjects, neither sleep duration nor sleep quality affected the prevalence of HT. These data argue against a relationship between self-reported sleep duration and quality and HT in elderly without insomnia.