Landmark-guided versus modified ultrasound-assisted Paramedian techniques in combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for elderly patients with hip fractures: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) anesthesia is considerably challenging for elderly patients with hip fractures due to spine degeneration and limitations in positioning. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a modified preprocedural ultrasound-guided technique to improve the success rate and efficacy of CSE anesthesia for elderly patients with hip fractures. METHODS:This prospective, single-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial included 80 patients (aged ?65?years) who were scheduled for elective hip fracture surgery with CSE anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated into landmark?group (n?=?40) or the ultrasound group (n?=?40). The primary outcome was first-pass success rate. Secondary outcomes included first-attempt success rate; number of needle insertion attempts; number of needle passes; locating, puncture, and total time; level of block; procedural adverse reactions and postoperative complications; and patient satisfaction score. Patients were blinded to group allocation. RESULTS:Eighty patients completed the study and were included in the final analysis. The first-pass success rates for the landmark and ultrasound groups were 20 and 70%, respectively (P?
Project description:Background:This study evaluated the efficacy of spinal anesthesia administration by resident physicians when using an ultrasound system with automated neuraxial landmark detection capabilities. Methods:150 patients were enrolled in this trial. Anesthesiology residents placed spinals in subjects undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery using one of three techniques to identify neuraxial landmarks: palpation, ultrasound, or combined palpation and ultrasound. Ultrasound was performed using a handheld system that automatically identified neuraxial landmarks (e.g. midline, intervertebral spaces). All residents watched a 10-minute video and received 20 minutes of hands-on training prior to participating in the study. First insertion success rate was the primary end point. Results:Among all patients, use of ultrasound resulted in a 11% greater first-insertion success rate (RR: 1.11 [0.85-1.47], p=0.431), a 15% reduction in needle insertions (RR: 0.85, p=0.052), and a 26% decrease in needle passes (RR: 0.74, p=0.070). In obese patients of BMI ? 30 kg/m2, use of ultrasound resulted in 26% greater first-insertion success rates (RR: 1.26, p=0.187), a 21% decrease in needle insertions (RR: 0.79, p=0.025), a 38% decrease in needle passes (RR: 0.62, p=0.030), and a 75% decrease in patients reporting neutral or low patient satisfaction with anesthesia administration (RR: 0.25, p=0.004). Discussion:Resident anesthesiologists competently utilized the ultrasound system after receiving minimal training. Technical endpoints and patient satisfaction trended towards improvement when ultrasound was used prior to spinal placement, with stronger trends observed in obese patients. Additional study is required to fully characterize the impact of the ultrasound system on clinical efficacy.
Project description:Routine use of pre-procedural ultrasound guided midline approach has not shown to improve success rate in administering subarachnoid block. The study hypothesis was that the routine use of pre-procedural (not real time) ultrasound-guided paramedian spinals at L5-S1 interspace could reduce the number of passes (i.e., withdrawal and redirection of spinal needle without exiting the skin) required to enter the subarachnoid space when compared to the conventional landmark-guided midline approach.After local ethics approval, 120 consenting patients scheduled for elective total joint replacements (Hip and Knee) were randomised into either Group C where conventional midline approach with palpated landmarks was used or Group P where pre-procedural ultrasound was used to perform subarachnoid block by paramedian approach at L5-S1 interspace (real time ultrasound guidance was not used).There was no difference in primary outcome (difference in number of passes) between the two groups. Similarly there was no difference in the number of attempts (i.e., the number of times the spinal needle was withdrawn from the skin and reinserted). The first pass success rates (1 attempt and 1 pass) was significantly greater in Group C compared to Group P [43% vs. 22%, P = 0.02].Routine use of paramedian spinal anaesthesia at L5-S1 interspace, guided by pre-procedure ultrasound, in patients undergoing lower limb joint arthroplasties did not reduce the number of passes or attempts needed to achieve successful dural puncture.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Spinal anesthesia using the midline approach might be technically difficult in geriatric population. We hypothesized that pre-procedural ultrasound (US)-guided paramedian technique and pre-procedural US-guided midline technique would result in a different spinal anesthesia success rate at first attempt when compared with the conventional landmark-guided midline technique in elderly patients. METHODS:In this prospective, randomized, controlled study, one hundred-eighty consenting patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomized into the conventional surface landmark-guided midline technique (group LM), the pre-procedural US-guided paramedian technique (group UP), or the pre-procedural US-guided midline technique (group UM) with 60 patients in each group. All spinal anesthesia were performed by a novice resident. RESULTS:The successful dural puncture rate on first attempt (primary outcome) was higher in groups LM and UM (77 and 73% respectively) than in group UP (42%; P?<?0.001). The median number of attempts was lower in groups LM and UM (1  and 1 [1-1.75] respectively) than in group UP (2 [1, 2]; P?<?0.001). The median number of passes was lower in groups LM and UM (2 [0.25-3] and 2 [0-4]; respectively) than in group UP (4 [2-7.75]; P?<?0.001). The time taken to perform the spinal anesthesia was not different between groups LM and UM (87.24?±?79.51?s and 116.32?±?98.12?s, respectively) but shorter than in group UP (154.58?±?91.51?s; P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:A pre-procedural US scan did not improve the ease of midline and paramedian spinal anesthesia as compared to the conventional landmark midline technique when performed by junior residents in elderly population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02658058, date of registration: January 18, 2016.
Project description:Identification of the subarachnoid space has traditionally been achieved by either a blind landmark-guided approach or using prepuncture ultrasound assistance. To assess the feasibility of performing spinal anaesthesia under real-time ultrasound guidance in routine clinical practice we conducted a single center prospective observational study among patients undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery. A spinal needle was inserted unassisted within the ultrasound transducer imaging plane using a paramedian approach (i.e., the operator held the transducer in one hand and the spinal needle in the other). The primary outcome measure was the success rate of CSF acquisition under real-time ultrasound guidance with CSF being located in 97 out of 100 consecutive patients within median three needle passes (IQR 1-6). CSF was not acquired in three patients. Subsequent attempts combining landmark palpation and pre-puncture ultrasound scanning resulted in successful spinal anaesthesia in two of these patients with the third patient requiring general anaesthesia. Median time from spinal needle insertion until intrathecal injection completion was 1.2 minutes (IQR 0.83-4.1) demonstrating the feasibility of this technique in routine clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The coracoid approach is a simple method to perform ultrasound-guided brachial plexus regional anesthesia (RA) but its simplicity is counterbalanced by a difficult needle visualization. We hypothesized that the retroclavicular (RCB) approach is not longer to perform when compared to the coracoid (ICB) approach, and improves needle visualization. METHODS:This randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial conducted in two hospitals, included patients undergoing distal upper limb surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to a brachial plexus block (ICB or RCB). The primary outcome was performance time (sum of visualization and needling time), and was analyzed with a non-inferiority test of averages. Depth of sensory and motor blockade, surgical success, total anesthesia time, needle visualization, number of needle passes and complications were also evaluated. Subgroup analysis restricted to patients with higher body mass index was completed. RESULTS:We included 109 patients between September 2016 and May 2017. Mean RCB performance time was 4.8?±?2.0?min while ICB was 5.2?±?2.3?min (p?=?0.06) with a 95% CI reaching up to 5.8% longer. RCB conferred an ultrasound-needle angle closer to 0° and significantly improved needle visibility after the clavicle was cleared and before local anesthetic administration. No differences were found in the secondary outcomes. Similar results were found in the subgroup analysis. CONCLUSION:RCB approach for brachial plexus anesthesia was similar to ICB approach in terms of time performance. Needle visibility, which represent an important clinical variable, was superior and angle between needle and ultrasound probe was close to 0° in the RCB group. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02913625), registered 26 September 2016.
Project description:Background. Distal arm surgery is widely performed under regional anesthesia with brachial plexus block. The preponderance of evidence for the efficacy relies upon injection of local anesthetic in excess of 30?mL. We aimed to compare three different ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block techniques restricting the total volume to 20?mL. Methods. 120 patients were prospectively randomized to ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block with 20?mL ropivacaine 0.75% at either the supraclavicular, infraclavicular, or axillary level. Multiinjection technique was performed with all three approaches. Primary outcome measure was performance time. Results. Performance time and procedural pain were similar between groups. Needle passes and injection numbers were significantly reduced in the infraclavicular group (P < 0.01). Nerve visibility was significantly reduced in the axillary group (P = 0.01). Success-rate was significantly increased in the supraclavicular versus the axillary group (P < 0.025). Total anesthesia-related time was significantly reduced in the supraclavicular compared to the infraclavicular group (P < 0.01). Block duration was significantly increased in the infraclavicular group (P < 0.05). No early adverse effects occurred. Conclusion. Supraclavicular and infraclavicular blocks exhibited favorable characteristics compared to the axillary block. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block with the multiinjection intracluster technique exhibited significantly reduced total anesthesia-related time and higher success rate without any early adverse events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The patient's position during spinal anesthesia administration plays a major role in the success of spinal needle insertion into the subarachnoid space. The traditional sitting position (TSP) is the standard position for spinal anesthesia administration, but the success rate for spinal anesthesia administration in the TSP is still quite low. The crossed-leg sitting position (CLSP) is one of the alternative positions for the administration of spinal anesthesia, which can increase the degree of lumbar flexion. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to compare successful spinal needle placement to patients in the CLSP and patients in the TSP prior to undergoing urology surgery. METHODS:This study was a non-blinded, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for urologic procedures from March-October, 2015 in the central national hospital Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, Indonesia. After obtaining approval from the FMUI - RSCM (Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Rumah Sakit Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo) Ethical Committee and informed consent from patients, 211 subjects were allocated into two groups: the CLSP group (n = 105) and the TSP group (n = 106). The proportion of successful spinal needle placement to the subarachnoid space, ease of landmark palpation, and the number of needle-bone contacts in both groups were then assessed and analyzed. RESULTS:The rate of first-time successful spinal needle insertion was not significantly different between the CLSP and TSP groups (62.9% versus 55.7%, P > 0.05). Ease of landmark palpation in the CLSP group was not significantly different from that in the TSP group (86.7% versus 76.4%, P > 0.05). The number of needle-bone contacts in both groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The complication rates were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS:The rate of successful spinal needle placement in the CLSP group was not significantly different from that in the TSP group in patients undergoing urology surgery. The CLSP can be used as an alternative sitting position for administration of spinal anesthesia.
Project description:This was a single-center, observational, prospective study designed to compare the effectiveness of a real-time, ultrasound- with landmark-guided technique for subclavian vein cannulation. Two groups of 74 consecutive patients each underwent subclavian vein catheterization. One group included patients from intensive care unit, studied by using an ultrasound-guided technique. The other group included patients from surgery or emergency units, studied by using a landmark technique. The primary outcome for comparison between techniques was the success rate of catheterization. Secondary outcomes were the number of attempts, cannulation failure, and mechanical complications. Although there was no difference in total success rate between ultrasound-guided and landmark groups (71 vs. 68, p?=?0.464), the ultrasound-guided technique was more frequently successful at first attempt (64 vs. 30, p?<?0.001) and required less attempts (1 to 2 vs. 1 to 6, p?<?0.001) than landmark technique. Moreover, the ultrasound-guided technique was associated with less complications (2 vs. 13, p?<?0.001), interruptions of mechanical ventilation (1 vs. 57, p?<?0.001), and post-procedure chest X-ray (43 vs. 62, p?=?0.001). In comparison with landmark-guided technique, the use of an ultrasound-guided technique for subclavian catheterization offers advantages in terms of reduced number of attempts and complications.
Project description:The optimal core biopsy needle for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is unknown. The principle aim of this study is to compare outcomes of EUS-fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) with a new 19-gauge EUS histology needle (ProCore, Cook Medical Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States) to a conventional 19-gauge Tru-Cut biopsy (EUS-TCB) needle (19G, Quick-Core, Cook Medical Inc.).Patients referred for EUS who require possible histologic biopsy were prospectively randomized to EUS-FNB or EUS-TCB. With the initial needle, ≤ 3 biopsies were obtained until either technical failure or an adequate core was obtained. Patients with suspected inadequate biopsies were crossed over to the other needle and similarly ≤ 3 passes were obtained until adequate cores or technical failure occurred. Technical success, diagnostic histology, accuracy and complication rates were evaluated.Eighty-five patients (mean 58 years; 43 male) were randomized to FNB (n = 44) and TCB (n = 41) with seven patients excluded. Procedure indication, biopsy site, mass size, number of passes, puncture site, overall technical success and adverse events were similar between the two groups. FNB specimens had a higher prevalence of diagnostic histology (85 % vs. 57 %; P = 0.006), accuracy (88 % vs. 62 %; P = 0.02), mean total length (19.4 vs. 4.3 mm; P = 0.001), mean complete portal triads from liver biopsies (10.4 vs. 1.3; P = 0.0004) and required fewer crossover biopsies compared to those of TCB (2 % vs. 65 %; P = 0.0001). Overall technical success and complication rates were comparable.EUS-FNB using a 19-gauge FNB needle is superior to 19-gauge EUS-TCB needle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuraxial procedures are commonly performed for therapeutic and diagnostic indications. Currently, they are typically performed via palpation-guided surface landmark. We devised a novel intelligent image processing system that identifies spinal landmarks using ultrasound images. Our primary aim was to evaluate the first attempt success rate of spinal anesthesia using landmarks obtained from the automated spinal landmark identification technique. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, we recruited 100 patients who required spinal anesthesia for surgical procedures. The video from ultrasound scan image of the L3/4 interspinous space in the longitudinal view and the posterior complex in the transverse view were recorded. The demographic and clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed based on the success rates of the spinal insertion. RESULTS:Success rate (95%CI) for dural puncture at first attempt was 92.0% (85.0-95.9%). Median time to detection of posterior complex was 45.0 [IQR: 21.9, 77.3] secs. There is good correlation observed between the program-recorded depth and the clinician-measured depth to the posterior complex (r?=?0.94). CONCLUSIONS:The high success rate and short time taken to obtain the surface landmark with this novel automated ultrasound guided technique could be useful to clinicians to utilise ultrasound guided neuraxial techniques with confidence to identify the anatomical landmarks on the ultrasound scans. Future research would be to define the use in more complex patients during the administration of neuraxial blocks. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was retrospectively registered on clinicaltrials.gov registry ( NCT03535155 ) on 24 May 2018.