Pericardial waffle for effusive-constrictive pericarditis.
ABSTRACT: We present the case of a 55-year-old female marathon runner who presented with progressive exercise intolerance and was diagnosed with effusive-constrictive pericarditis. Stereotypical findings of this challenging diagnosis are shown by transthoracic echocardiographic and right heart catheterization. We treated the patient with a parietal pericardiectomy and pericardial waffle procedure to relieve a thick and constrictive epicardium.
Project description:Highlights•AML infrequently causes tamponade and effusive constrictive pericarditis.•Pericardial cytology has limited sensitivity for malignancy.•Imaging identifies pericardial effusion and confirms tamponade and constriction.
Project description:Tuberculous pericarditis is rare in developed nations and is most commonly associated with effusive-constrictive pericarditis. We present the case of a 33-year-old man with a self-inflicted mid-abdominal stab wound. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy, revealing a grade IV pancreatic transection and injuries to the portal vein, right renal vein, inferior vena cava and the superior mesenteric vein. Repair of the vessels was performed and a pancreaticojejunostomy with a gastrojejunostomy was created for the pancreatic injury. The patient's hospital course was complicated by tuberculous effusive-constrictive pericarditis requiring emergent median sternotomy with opening of the pericardial sac and eventual expiration. The final cultures from the pericardial fluid demonstrated tuberculosis.
Project description:Background?:We present a 23-year-old Nepalese migrant with mycobacterial tuberculosis (TB) pericarditis manifesting as effusive constrictive disease and subsequent rapid progression to constrictive pericarditis resulting from bulky granulomatous disease. Case summary?:Following initial presumptive diagnosis of TB pericarditis based on presence of moderate pericardial effusion and positive polymerase chain reaction on concurrent pleural aspirate, the patient was managed with standard empiric therapy. Despite treatment, he developed progressive heart failure with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III symptoms and had confirmation of constrictive physiology on simultaneous left and right heart catheterization. He underwent pericardiectomy 4 months after his initial diagnosis, with debridement of large necrotizing granulomas and an associated immediate improvement clinical improvement. He remains well at 6-month follow-up with no residual heart failure symptoms off diuretic therapy. Discussion?:Tuberculous pericarditis accounts for 1-2% of presentations with TB infection, with progression to constrictive pericarditis in between 17 and 40% of cases. To date, pericardiectomy remains mainstay of treatment for constriction, albeit with high perioperative risk. In combination with anti-tuberculous therapy, prednisone and pericardiocentesis may reduce risk of progression to constriction, however, neither have shown mortality benefit. Our patient continued to progress, despite medical therapy and proceeded to pericardiectomy only 4 months after his initial diagnosis, with rapid improvement in symptoms, demonstrating the importance of close monitoring and revision of management strategy in these patients.
Project description:Background:Chylothorax is a rare clinical condition that results from thoracic duct damage with leakage of chyle from the lymphatic system to the pleural space. Rarely, constrictive pericarditis has been associated with chylothorax, but to our knowledge only in relation to secondary causes such as tuberculosis, HIV, or malignancy. Case summary:A previously healthy 63-year-old man presented with effusive-constrictive pericarditis, recurrent right-sided pleural effusion, and chylothorax. There was no history of co-morbidities, surgical illness, or cardiac procedures. No single aetiologic factor was identified despite comprehensive assessment. Substantial immunosuppressive therapy was given without a sufficient clinical response. Pericardiectomy resulted in resolution of the constrictive haemodynamics and terminated chylous effusion. Discussion:The hypothesized mechanisms for development of chylothorax in association with constrictive pericarditis are the increased effective capillary infiltration secondary to central venous hypertension and reduced lymphatic drainage due to high pressure in the left subclavian vein. Increased capillary filtration may result in excessive lymph formation. However, the mechanism is not completely understood.
Project description:Highlights•CLL/SLL can involve the pericardium and may present as constrictive pericarditis.•Echocardiography and cardiac MRI can aid in diagnosing constrictive pericarditis.•Radical pericardiectomy is a treatment option for malignant pericardial involvement.
Project description:Pericardiectomy for patients with constrictive pericarditis and multivessel coronary artery disease is rare. Therefore, there is limited experience of pericardiectomy in these patients.We performed only pericardiectomy under the support of intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) for a patient with tuberculous constrictive pericarditis and multivessel coronary artery disease who refused to accept revascularization. The postoperative course was uneventful.There is limited experience of pericardiectomy in patients with constrictive pericarditis and coronary artery disease, especially in those who want to perform only pericardiectomy and refuse to accept revascularization. There has only been one case report of a patient who had constrictive pericarditis and coronary artery disease, and hemodynamic instability postoperatively who did not have revascularization performed. Cardiopulmonary bypass facilitates dissecting grossly thickened pericardium off the heart and coronary artery exposure, but is associated with higher mortality and reoperation rates, renal failure, and atrial fibrillation. In our patient, cutting grossly thickened pericardium to expose the coronary artery under cardiopulmonary bypass was unnecessary because he refused to accept revascularization. Therefore, we performed only pericardiectomy under the support of IABP to avoid hemodynamic instability.Performing only pericardiectomy under the support of IABP for a patient with constrictive pericarditis and multivessel coronary artery disease is safe and effective as long as the left ventricular ejection fraction is normal.
Project description:Constrictive pericarditis is the final stage of a chronic inflammatory process characterized by fibrous thickening and calcification of the pericardium that impairs diastolic filling, reduces cardiac output, and ultimately leads to heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging each can reveal severe diastolic dysfunction and increased pericardial thickness. Cardiac catheterization can help to confirm a diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction secondary to pericardial constriction, and to exclude restrictive cardiomyopathy. Early pericardiectomy with complete decortication (if technically feasible) provides good symptomatic relief and is the treatment of choice for constrictive pericarditis, before severe constriction and myocardial atrophy occur. We describe our surgical approach to constrictive pericarditis, summarize our results in 93 patients, and provide a brief overview of the literature.
Project description:A rising prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has led to a rise in ESRD-related pericardial syndromes, calling for a better understanding of its pathophysiology, diagnoses, and management. Uremic pericarditis, the most common manifestation of uremic pericardial disease, is a contemporary problem that calls for intensive hemodialysis, anti-inflammatories, and often, drainage of large inflammatory pericardial effusions. Likewise, asymptomatic pericardial effusions can become large and impact the hemodynamics of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Constrictive pericarditis is also well documented in this population, ultimately resulting in pericardiectomy for definitive treatment. The management of pericardial diseases in ESRD patients involves internists, cardiologists, and nephrologists. Current guidelines lack clarity with respect to the management of pericardial processes in the ESRD population. Our review aims to describe the etiology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnostic imaging tools, and treatment options of pericardial diseases in this population.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma is a very rare pericardial tumor of unknown etiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of exertional dyspnea due to a large pericardial effusion. Intrapericardial fluid volume declined after repeated pericardiocentesis, but the patient progressively developed a hemodynamically relevant pericardial constriction. Pericardiectomy revealed a pericardial mesothelioma. Subsequently, four cycles of chemotherapy (dosage according to recently published trials) were administered. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no recurrence of the tumor after three years. CONCLUSION: Pericardial mesothelioma should be considered and managed appropriately in non-responders to pericardiocentesis, and in patients who develop constrictive pericarditis late in their clinical course.
Project description:Background:Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is a disease characterized by inflammation, progressive fibrosis, and thickening of the pericardium. Constrictive pericarditis after heart transplantation (HT) is a rare phenomenon, with a reported incidence of 1.4-3.9%. It is an important clinical problem which shares similar clinical features with entities such as restrictive cardiomyopathy. Therefore, it poses diagnostic challenges and therapeutic dilemmas even for experienced clinicians. Case summary:A 53-year-old patient developed a zoster infection with pericardial effusion 9?months after HT for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Two months later, he presented with leg oedema and ascites and was treated by diuretics for volume overload. He was readmitted 8?months later with features of right heart failure. Multimodal imaging investigations were suggestive of CP. He successfully recovered after a radical pericardiectomy. Discussion:Constrictive pericarditis is a rare complication in HT. Heart transplant recipients (HTR) with a history of post-operative pericardial effusion, or with rejection episodes are at high risk of developing CP. Differentiating CP from other conditions that cause apparent congestive heart failure in HTR is challenging. Management of CP is mainly surgical pericardiectomy.