Serum metabolites reflecting gut microbiome alpha diversity predict type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced gut microbiome diversity, although the cause is unclear. Metabolites generated by gut microbes also appear to be causative factors in T2D. We therefore searched for serum metabolites predictive of gut microbiome diversity in 1018 females from TwinsUK with concurrent metabolomic profiling and microbiome composition. We generated a Microbial Metabolites Diversity (MMD) score of six circulating metabolites that explained over 18% of the variance in microbiome alpha diversity. Moreover, the MMD score was associated with a significantly lower odds of prevalent (OR[95%CI] = 0.22[0.07;0.70], P = .01) and incident T2D (HR[95%CI] = 0.31[0.11,0.90], P = .03). We replicated our results in 1522 individuals from the ARIC study (prevalent T2D: OR[95%CI] = 0.79[0.64,0.96], P = .02, incident T2D: HR[95%CI] = 0.87[0.79,0.95], P = .003). The MMD score mediated 28%[15%,94%] of the total effect of gut microbiome on T2D after adjusting for confounders. Metabolites predicting higher microbiome diversity included 3-phenylpropionate(hydrocinnamate), indolepropionate, cinnamoylglycine and 5-alpha-pregnan-3beta,20 alpha-diol monosulfate(2) of which indolepropionate and phenylpropionate have already been linked to lower incidence of T2D. Metabolites correlating with lower microbial diversity included glutarate and imidazole propionate, of which the latter has been implicated in insulin resistance. Our results suggest that the effect of gut microbiome diversity on T2D is largely mediated by microbial metabolites, which might be modifiable by diet.
Project description:The gut microbiome influences metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation and is therapeutically modifiable. Arterial stiffness is poorly correlated with most traditional risk factors. Our aim was to examine whether gut microbial composition is associated with arterial stiffness.We assessed the correlation between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and gut microbiome composition in 617 middle-aged women from the TwinsUK cohort with concurrent serum metabolomics data. Pulse wave velocity was negatively correlated with gut microbiome alpha diversity (Shannon index, Beta(SE)=?-0.25(0.07), P?=?1?×?10-4) after adjustment for covariates. We identified seven operational taxonomic units associated with PWV after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing-two belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family. Associations between microbe abundances, microbe diversity, and PWV remained significant after adjustment for levels of gut-derived metabolites (indolepropionate, trimethylamine oxide, and phenylacetylglutamine). We linearly combined the PWV-associated gut microbiome-derived variables and found that microbiome factors explained 8.3% (95% confidence interval 4.3-12.4%) of the variance in PWV. A formal mediation analysis revealed that only a small proportion (5.51%) of the total effect of the gut microbiome on PWV was mediated by insulin resistance and visceral fat, c-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure.Gut microbiome diversity is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in women. The effect of gut microbiome composition on PWV is only minimally mediated by MetS. This first human observation linking the gut microbiome to arterial stiffness suggests that targeting the microbiome may be a way to treat arterial ageing.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Type 2 diabetes (T2D), a multifactorial disease influenced by host genetics and environmental factors, is the most common endocrine disease. Several studies have shown that the gut microbiota as a close-up environmental mediator influences host physiology including metabolism. The aim of the present study is to examine the compositional and functional potential of the gut microbiota across individuals from Denmark and South India with a focus on T2D. Many earlier studies have investigated the microbiome aspects of T2D, and it has also been anticipated that such microbial associations would be dependent on diet and ethnic origin. However, there has been no large scale trans-ethnic microbiome study earlier in this direction aimed at evaluating any "universal" microbiome signature of T2D.<h4>Methods</h4>16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed on stool samples from 279 Danish and 294 Indian study participants. Any differences between the gut microbiota of both populations were explored using diversity measures and negative binomial Wald tests. Study samples were stratified to discover global and country-specific microbial signatures for T2D and treatment with the anti-hyperglycemic drug, metformin. To identify taxonomical and functional signatures of the gut microbiota for T2D and metformin treatment, we used alpha and beta diversity measures and differential abundances analysis, comparing metformin-naive T2D patients, metformin-treated T2D patients, and normoglycemic individuals.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, the gut microbial communities of Danes and Indians are compositionally very different. By analyzing the combined study materials, we identify microbial taxonomic and functional signatures for T2D and metformin treatment. T2D patients have an increased relative abundance of two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the Lachnospiraceae family, and a decreased abundance of Subdoligranulum and Butyricicoccus. Studying each population per se, we identified T2D-related microbial changes at the taxonomic level within the Danish population only. Alpha diversity indices show that there is no significant difference between normoglycemic individuals and metformin-naive T2D patients, whereas microbial richness is significantly decreased in metformin-treated T2D patients compared to metformin-naive T2D patients and normoglycemic individuals. Enrichment of two OTUs from Bacteroides and depletion of Faecalibacterium constitute a trans-ethnic signature of metformin treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We demonstrate major compositional differences of the gut microbiota between Danish and South Indian individuals, some of which may relate to differences in ethnicity, lifestyle, and demography. By comparing metformin-naive T2D patients and normoglycemic individuals, we identify T2D-related microbiota changes in the Danish and Indian study samples. In the present trans-ethnic study, we confirm that metformin changes the taxonomic profile and functional potential of the gut microbiota.
Project description:Emerging evidence has suggested the association of the gut microbiome with some human diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we analyzed the gut microbiota from a cohort of healthy and diabetic Chinese individuals from Northern China. Pyrosequencing of the V4V5 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant decrease in the gut microbiota diversity of diabetic patients as compared to healthy individuals. Butyrate-producing bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia were significantly decreased in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the abundance of Dorea was significantly increased in T2D individuals and negatively correlated with the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. The increase of Dorea could play a role in the development of T2D and has been previously overlooked. Importantly, functional analysis of the gut microbiome revealed for the first time that increased levels of butyrate production via transferases and the degradation of several amino acids due to gut microbial metabolism have strong correlations with T2D in Northern China. Moreover, the potential of gut microbiota-based classifiers to identify individuals with a high risk for T2D has been demonstrated in this study. Taken together, our findings have revealed a previously unappreciated association of the gut microbiome with T2D and have also suggested that changes in gut microbiota may be used to identify individuals at high risk for T2D.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is the 3rd most prevalent cause of cancer related deaths in United states alone, with over 55000 patients being diagnosed in 2019 alone and nearly as many succumbing to it. Late detection, lack of effective therapy and poor understanding of pancreatic cancer systemically contributes to its poor survival statistics. Obesity and high caloric intake linked co-morbidities like type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been attributed as being risk factors for a number of cancers including pancreatic cancer. Studies on gut microbiome has shown that lifestyle factors as well as diet has a huge effect on the microbial flora of the gut. Further, modulation of gut microbiome has been seen to contribute to effects of intensive insulin therapy in mice on high fat diet. In another study, abnormal gut microbiota was reported to contribute to development of diabetes in Db/Db mice. Recent studies indicate that microbiome and microbial dysbiosis plays a role in not only the onset of disease but also in its outcome. In colorectal cancer, Fusobacterium has been reported to promote therapy resistance. Certain intra-tumoral bacteria have also been shown to elicit chemo-resistance by metabolizing anti-cancerous agents. In pancreatic cancer, studies on altered gut microbiome have been relatively recent. Microbial dysbiosis has been observed to be associated with pancreatic tumor progression. Modulation of microbiome has been shown to affect response to anti-PD1 therapy in this disease as well. However, most of the studies in pancreatic cancer and microbiome have remained focused om immune modulation. In the current study, we observed that in a T2D mouse model, the microbiome changed significantly as the hyperglycemia developed in these animals. Our results further showed that, tumors implanted in the T2D mice responded poorly to Gemcitabine/Paclitaxel (Gem/Pac) standard of care compared to those in the control group. A metabolomic reconstruction of the WGS of the gut microbiota further revealed that an enrichment of bacterial population involved in drug metabolism in the T2D group.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic syndrome characterized by insulin dysfunction and abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism. The gut microbiome has been recently identified as an important factor for development of T2D. In this study, a total of 102 subjects were recruited, and we have looked at the gut microbiota of prediabetics (PreDMs) (n?=?17), newly diagnosed diabetics (NewDMs) (n?=?11), and diabetics on antidiabetic treatment (KnownDMs) (n?=?39) and compared them with healthy nondiabetics (ND) (n?=?35). Twenty-five different serum biomarkers were measured to assess the status of diabetes and their association with gut microbiota. Our analysis revealed nine different genera as differentially abundant in four study groups. Among them, Akkermansia, Blautia, and Ruminococcus were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, while Lactobacillus was increased in NewDMs compared to ND and recovered in KnownDMs. Akkermansia was inversely correlated with HbA1c and positively correlated with total antioxidants. Compared to ND, there was increased abundance of Megasphaera, Escherichia, and Acidaminococcus and decreased abundance of Sutterella in KnownDMs. Among many taxa known to act as community drivers during disease progression, we observed genus Sutterella as a common driver taxon among all diabetic groups. On the basis of the results of random forest analysis, we found that the genera Akkermansia and Sutterella and that the serum metabolites fasting glucose, HbA1c, methionine, and total antioxidants were highly discriminative factors among studied groups. Taken together, our data revealed that gut microbial diversity of NewDMs but not of PreDMs is significantly different from that of ND. Interestingly, after antidiabetic treatment, the microbial diversity of KnownDMs tends to recover toward that of ND.IMPORTANCE Gut microbiota is considered to play a role in disease progression, and previous studies have reported an association of microbiome dysbiosis with T2D. In this study, we have attempted to investigate gut microbiota of ND, PreDMs, NewDMs, and KnownDMs. We found that the genera Akkermansia and Blautia decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in treatment-naive diabetics and were restored in KnownDMs on antidiabetic treatment. To the best of our knowledge, comparative studies on shifts in the microbial community in individuals of different diabetic states are lacking. Understanding the transition of microbiota and its association with serum biomarkers in diabetics with different disease states may pave the way for new therapeutic approaches for T2D.
Project description:We investigated the individual and combined effects of diet and physical exercise on metabolism and the gut microbiome to establish how these lifestyle factors influence host-microbiome cometabolism. Urinary and fecal samples were collected from athletes and less active controls. Individuals were further classified according to an objective dietary assessment score of adherence to healthy dietary habits according to WHO guidelines, calculated from their proton nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H-NMR) urinary profiles. Subsequent models were generated comparing extremes of dietary habits, exercise, and the combined effect of both. Differences in metabolic phenotypes and gut microbiome profiles between the two groups were assessed. Each of the models pertaining to diet healthiness, physical exercise, or a combination of both displayed a metabolic and functional microbial signature, with a significant proportion of the metabolites identified as discriminating between the various pairwise comparisons resulting from gut microbe-host cometabolism. Microbial diversity was associated with a combination of high adherence to healthy dietary habits and exercise and was correlated with a distinct array of microbially derived metabolites, including markers of proteolytic activity. Improved control of dietary confounders, through the use of an objective dietary assessment score, has uncovered further insights into the complex, multifactorial relationship between diet, exercise, the gut microbiome, and metabolism. Furthermore, the observation of higher proteolytic activity associated with higher microbial diversity indicates that increased microbial diversity may confer deleterious as well as beneficial effects on the host.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Improved control of dietary confounders, through the use of an objective dietary assessment score, has uncovered further insights into the complex, multifactorial relationship between diet, exercise, the gut microbiome, and metabolism. Each of the models pertaining to diet healthiness, physical exercise, or a combination of both, displayed a distinct metabolic and functional microbial signature. A significant proportion of the metabolites identified as discriminating between the various pairwise comparisons result from gut microbe-host cometabolism, and the identified interactions have expanded current knowledge in this area. Furthermore, although increased microbial diversity has previously been linked with health, our observation of higher microbial diversity being associated with increased proteolytic activity indicates that it may confer deleterious as well as beneficial effects on the host.
Project description:Role of gut microbiome in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) became apparent from several independent studies indicating that gut microbiome modulators like prebiotics may improve microbiome perturbations (dysbiosis) to ameliorate metabolic derangements. We herein isolate water soluble, nondigestible polysaccharides from five plant-based foods (acorn, quinoa, sunflower, pumpkin seeds and sago) and assess their impact on human fecal microbiome and amelioration of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity/T2D in mice. During polysaccharide isolation, purification, biochemical and digestion resistance characterization, and fermentation pattern by human fecal microbiome, we select acorn- and sago-derived prebiotics (on the basis of relatively higher purity and yield and lower protein contamination) and examine their effects in comparison to inulin. Prebiotics treatments in human fecal microbiome culture system not only preserve microbial diversity but also appear to foster beneficial bacteria and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Feeding of acorn- and sago-derived prebiotics ameliorates HFD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in mice, with effects comparatively superior to those seen in inulin-fed mice. Feeding of both of novel prebiotics as well as inulin increases SCFAs levels in the mouse gut. Interestingly, gut hyperpermeability and mucosal inflammatory markers were significantly reduced upon prebiotics feeding in HFD-fed mice. Hypothalamic energy signaling in terms of increased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin was also modulated by prebiotics administration. Results demonstrate that these (and/or such) novel prebiotics can ameliorate HFD-induced defects in glucose metabolism via positive modulation of gut-microbiome-brain axis and hence could be useful in preventing/treating diet-induced obesity/T2D.
Project description:In recent years, several associations between common chronic human disorders and altered gut microbiome composition and function have been reported. In most of these reports, treatment regimens were not controlled for and conclusions could thus be confounded by the effects of various drugs on the microbiota, which may obscure microbial causes, protective factors or diagnostically relevant signals. Our study addresses disease and drug signatures in the human gut microbiome of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Two previous quantitative gut metagenomics studies of T2D patients that were unstratified for treatment yielded divergent conclusions regarding its associated gut microbial dysbiosis. Here we show, using 784 available human gut metagenomes, how antidiabetic medication confounds these results, and analyse in detail the effects of the most widely used antidiabetic drug metformin. We provide support for microbial mediation of the therapeutic effects of metformin through short-chain fatty acid production, as well as for potential microbiota-mediated mechanisms behind known intestinal adverse effects in the form of a relative increase in abundance of Escherichia species. Controlling for metformin treatment, we report a unified signature of gut microbiome shifts in T2D with a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa. These in turn cause functional microbiome shifts, in part alleviated by metformin-induced changes. Overall, the present study emphasizes the need to disentangle gut microbiota signatures of specific human diseases from those of medication.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Recently, alterations in metabolism and gut microbiome have emerged as key regulators of SLE pathogenesis. However, it is not clear about the coordination of gut commensal bacteria and SLE metabolism. Here, by integrating 16S sequencing and metabolomics data, we characterized the gut microbiome and fecal and serum metabolome alterations in patients with SLE. Microbial diversity sequencing revealed gut microflora dysbiosis in SLE patients with significantly increased beta diversity. The metabolomics profiling identified 43 and 55 significantly changed metabolites in serum and feces samples in SLE patients. Notably, lipids accounted for about 65% altered metabolites in serum, highlighted the disruption of lipid metabolism. Integrated correlation analysis provided a link between the gut microbiome and lipid metabolism in patients with SLE, particularly according to regulate the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids. Overall, our results illustrate the perturbation of the gut microbiome and metabolome in SLE patients which may facilitate the development of new SLE interventions.
Project description:Dietary prebiotics produce favorable changes in the commensal gut microbiome and reduce host vulnerability to stress-induced disruptions in complex behaviors such as sleep. The mechanisms for how prebiotics modulate stress physiology remain unclear; however, emerging evidence suggests that gut microbes and their metabolites may play a role. This study tested if stress and/or dietary prebiotics (Test diet) alter the fecal metabolome; and explored if these changes were related to sleep and/or gut microbial alpha diversity. Male F344 rats on either Test or Control diet were instrumented for electroencephalography biotelemetry measures of sleep/wake. After 5 weeks on diet, rats were either stressed or remained in home cages. Based on untargeted mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, both stress and Test diet altered the fecal metabolome/microbiome. In addition, Test diet prevented the stress-induced reduction in microbial alpha diversity based on PD_Whole_Tree, which has been previously published. Network propagation analysis revealed that stress increased members of the neuroactive steroidal pregnane molecular family; and that Test diet reduced this effect. We also discovered links between sleep, alpha diversity, and pyrimidine, secondary bile acid, and neuroactive glucocorticoid/pregnanolone-type steroidal metabolites. These results reveal novel microbial-dependent metabolites that may modulate stress physiology and sleep.