GbMYBR1 from Ginkgo biloba represses phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and trichome development in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: MAIN CONCLUSION:GbMYBR1, a new type of R2R3-MYB repressor from Ginkgo biloba, displayed pleiotropic effects on plant growth, phenylpropanoid accumulation, by regulating multiple related genes at different levels. Ginkgo biloba is a typical gymnosperm that has been thriving on earth for millions of years. MYB transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in diverse processes in plants. However, the role of MYBs remains largely unknown in Ginkgo. Here, an MYB TF gene from Ginkgo, designated as GbMYBR1, was found to act as a repressor in multiple processes. GbMYBR1 was mainly expressed in the leaves of Ginkgo. Over-expression of GbMYBR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana led to growth retardation, decreases in lignin content, reduced trichome density, and remarkable reduction in anthocyanin and flavonol contents in leaves. Proanthocyanidin content was decreased in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which led to light-brown seed color. Both qPCR and transcriptome sequencing analyses demonstrated that the transcript levels of multiple genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, trichome formation, and pathogen resistance were down-regulated in the transgenic Arabidopsis. In particular, we found that GbMYBR1 directly interacts with the bHLH cofactor GL3 as revealed by yeast two-hybrid assays. Our work indicated that GbMYBR1 has pleiotropic effects on plant growth, phenylpropanoid accumulation, and trichome development, mediated by interaction with GL3 or direct suppression of key pathway genes. Thus, GbMYBR1 represents a novel type of R2R3 MYB repressor.
Project description:In Arabidopsis, a MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) transcriptional activator complex activates the homeodomain protein gene GLABRA2 (GL2), leading to the promotion of trichome formation and inhibition of root hair formation. The same MBW complex also activates single-repeat R3 MYB genes. R3 MYBs in turn, play a negative feedback role by competing with R2R3 MYB proteins for binding bHLH proteins, thus blocking the formation of the MBW complex. By BLASTing the rice (Oryza sativa) protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), we found that there are two genes in rice genome encoding R3 MYB transcription factors, namely Oryza sativa TRICHOMELESS1 (OsTCL1) and OsTCL2. Expressing OsTCL1 in Arabidopsis inhibited trichome formation and promoted root hair formation, and OsTCL1 interacted with GL3 when tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Consistent with these observations, expression levels of GL2, R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene GLABRA1 (GL1) and several R3 MYB genes were greatly reduced, indicating that OsTCL1 is functional R3 MYB. However, trichome and root hair formation in transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsTCL1 remained largely unchanged, and elevated expression of OsGL2 was observed in the transgenic rice plants, indicating that rice may use different mechanisms to regulate trichome formation.
Project description:Trichome initiation and patterning are controlled by the TTG1-bHLH-MYB regulatory complex. Several MYB transcription factors have been determined to function in trichome development via incorporation into this complex. This study examined the role of MYB82, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, in Arabidopsis trichome development. MYB82 was revealed to be a nuclear-localized transcription activator. Suppression of MYB82 function by fusion with a dominant repression domain (SRDX) resulted in glabrous leaves, as did overexpression of N-terminal-truncated MYB82. Overexpression of MYB82 genomic sequence, but not its cDNA sequence, led to reduced trichome numbers. Further investigation indicated that at least one of the two introns in MYB82 is essential to the protein's trichome developmental function. An MYB-binding box was identified in the third exon of MYB82, which was inferred to be crucial for MYB82 function because the mutation of this box interfered with the ability of MYB82 to rescue the gl1 mutant. Protein interaction analysis revealed that MYB82 physically interacts with GLABRA3 (GL3). In addition, MYB82 and GL1 can form homodimers and heterodimers at R2R3-MYB domains, which may explain why their overexpression reduces trichome numbers. These results demonstrate the functional diversification of MYB82 and GL1 in trichome development.
Project description:The R2R3-MYB gene family is the largest MYB subfamily in plants and is involved in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism and specific morphogenesis, as well as the response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, a systematic identification and characterization of this gene family has not been carried out in Ginkgo biloba. In this study, we performed a transcriptome-wide survey from four tissues of G. biloba to determine the genetic variation and expression pattern of the R2R3-MYB genes. We analyzed 45 GbMYBs and identified 42 with a complete coding sequence via conserved motif searches. The MYB domain and other motifs in GbMYBs are highly conserved with Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYBs. Phylogenetic analysis of the GbMYBs and AtMYBs categorized the R2R3-MYBs into 26 subgroups, of which 11 subgroups included proteins from both G. biloba and Arabidopsis, and 1 subgroup was specific to G. biloba. Moreover, the GbMYBs expression patterns were analyzed in different tissues and abiotic stress conditions. The results revealed that GbMYBs were differentially expressed in various tissues and following abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments, indicating their possible roles in biological processes and abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation. Our study demonstrated the functional diversity of the GbMYBs and will provide a foundation for future research into their biological and molecular functions.
Project description:The development of trichomes (leaf hairs) from pluripotent epidermal cells in Arabidopsis provides a powerful system to investigate the regulatory motifs involved in plant cell differentiation. Genetic studies have revealed that a bHLH transcription factor, GL3, activates downstream genes required for trichome initiation by interacting with a R2R3-MYB protein, GL1. We have taken advantage of several mutants in the trichome developmental pathway and gene expression analyses to identify a set of genes expressed predominantly in Arabidopsis trichomes. Overall design: We compared the gene expression between the wild type and trichome mutant, gl3 egl3 using green tissue (not include root).
Project description:Cotton fibres are unicellular seed trichomes. Our previous study suggested that the cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 is a functional homologue of the Arabidopsis trichome regulator GLABRA1 (GL1). Here, the GaMYB2 promoter activity is reported in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and Arabidopsis plants. A 2062 bp promoter of GaMYB2 was isolated from G. arboreum, and fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. In cotton, the GaMYB2 promoter exhibited activities in developing fibre cells and trichomes of other aerial organs, including leaves, stems and bracts. In Arabidopsis the promoter was specific to trichomes. Different from Arabidopsis and cotton that have unicellular non-glandular simple trichomes, tobacco plants contain more than one type of trichome, including multicellular simple and glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs). Interestingly, in tobacco plants the GaMYB2 promoter directed GUS expression exclusively in glandular cells of GSTs. A series of 5'-deletions revealed that a 360 bp fragment upstream to the translation initiation codon was sufficient to drive gene expression. A putative cis-element of the T/G-box was located at -233 to -214; a yeast one-hybrid assay showed that Arabidopsis bHLH protein GLABRA3 (GL3), also a trichome regulator, and GhDEL65, a GL3-like cotton protein, had high binding activities to the T/G-box motif. Overexpression of GL3 or GhDEL65 enhanced the GaMYB2 promoter activity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. A comparison of GaMYB2 promoter specificities in trichomes of different plant species with different types of trichomes provides a tool for further dissection of plant trichome structure and development.
Project description:In Arabidopsis thaliana the CPC-like MYB transcription factors [CAPRICE (CPC), TRIPTYCHON (TRY), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC 1, 2, 3/CPC-LIKE MYB 3 (ETC1, ETC2, ETC3/CPL3), TRICHOMELESS 1, 2/CPC-LIKE MYB 4 (TCL1, TCL2/CPL4)] and the bHLH transcription factors [GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3)] are central regulators of trichome and root-hair development. We identified TRY and GL3 homologous genes from the tomato genome and named them SlTRY and SlGL3, respectively. Phylogenic analyses revealed a close relationship between the tomato and Arabidopsis genes. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that SlTRY and SlGL3 were predominantly expressed in aerial parts of developing tomato. After transformation into Arabidopsis, CPC::SlTRY inhibited trichome formation and enhanced root-hair differentiation by strongly repressing GL2 expression. On the other hand, GL3::SlGL3 transformation did not show any obvious effect on trichome or non-hair cell differentiation. These results suggest that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation, and that a CPC-like R3 MYB may be a key common regulator of plant trichome and root-hair development.
Project description:The development of trichomes (leaf hairs) from pluripotent epidermal cells in Arabidopsis provides a powerful system to investigate the regulatory motifs involved in plant cell differentiation. Genetic studies have revealed that a bHLH transcription factor, GL3, activates downstream genes required for trichome initiation by interacting with a R2R3-MYB protein, GL1. In order to investigate genome-wide regulatory functions of GL1 and GL3, we performed genome-wide expression analyses using GR inducible systems of GL1 and GL3. Overall design: Transgenic plants carrying pGL1::GL1-GR and pGL3::GL3-GR were treated with mock or Dex for 4 and 24 hours.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trichomes and phenylpropanoid-derived phenolics are structural and chemical protection against many adverse conditions. Their production is regulated by a network that includes a TTG1/bHLH/MYB tri-protein complex in Arabidopsis. CSN5a, encoding COP9 signalosome subunit 5a, has also been implicated in trichome and anthocyanin production; however, the regulatory roles of CSN5a in the processes through interaction with the tri-protein complex has yet to be investigated. RESULTS:In this study, a new csn5a mutant, sk372, was recovered based on its altered morphological and chemical phenotypes compared to wild-type control. Mutant characterization was conducted with an emphasis on trichome and phenylpropanoid production and possible involvement of the tri-protein complex using metabolite and gene transcription profiling and scanning electron microscopy. Seed metabolite analysis revealed that defective CSN5a led to an enhanced production of many compounds in addition to anthocyanin, most notably phenylpropanoids and carotenoids as well as a glycoside of zeatin. Consistent changes in carotenoids and anthocyanin were also found in the sk372 leaves. In addition, 370 genes were differentially expressed in 10-day old seedlings of sk372 compared to its wild type control. Real-time transcript quantitative analysis showed that in sk372, GL2 and tri-protein complex gene TT2 was significantly suppressed (p?<?0.05) while complex genes EGL3 and GL3 slightly decreased (p?>?0.05). Complex genes MYB75, GL1 and flavonoid biosynthetic genes TT3 and TT18 in sk372 were all significantly enhanced. Overexpression of GL3 driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promotor increased the number of single pointed trichomes only, no other phenotypic recovery in sk372. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicated clearly that COP9 signalosome subunit CSN5a affects trichome production and the metabolism of a wide range of phenylpropanoid and carotenoid compounds. Enhanced anthocyanin accumulation and reduced trichome production were related to the enhanced MYB75 and suppressed GL2 and some other differentially expressed genes associated with the TTG1/bHLH/MYB complexes.
Project description:The development of trichomes (leaf hairs) from pluripotent epidermal cells in Arabidopsis provides a powerful system to investigate the regulatory motifs involved in plant cell differentiation. Genetic studies have revealed that a bHLH transcription factor, GL3, activates downstream genes required for trichome initiation by interacting with a R2R3-MYB protein, GL1. We have taken advantage of several mutants in the trichome developmental pathway and gene expression analyses to identify a set of genes expressed predominantly in Arabidopsis trichomes. Experiment Overall Design: We compared the gene expression between the wild type and trichome mutant, gl3 egl3 using green tissue (not include root).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors (single-repeat MYBs) play important roles in controlling trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. It was proposed that single-repeat MYBs negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GLABRA1 (GL1) for binding GLABRA3/ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3/EGL3), thus inhibiting the formation of activator complex TTG1(TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1)-GL3/EGL3-GL1 that is required for the activation of GLABRA2 (GL2), whose product is a positive regulator of trichome formation. Previously we identified a novel single-repeat MYB transcription factor, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), which negatively regulates trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels by directly suppressing the expression of GL1. RESULTS: We analyzed here the role of TRICHOMELESS2 (TCL2), a previously-uncharacterized single-repeat MYB transcription factor in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. We showed that TCL2 is closely related to TCL1, and like TCL1 and other single-repeat MYBs, TCL2 interacts with GL3. Overexpression of TCL2 conferred glabrous phenotype while knockdown of TCL2 via RNAi induced ectopic trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels, a phenotype that was previously observed in tcl1 mutants. These results suggested that TCL2 may have overlapping function with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences. On the other hand, although the transcription of TCL2, like TCL1, is not controlled by the activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, and TCL2 and TCL1 proteins are more than 80% identical at the amino acid level, the expression of TCL2 under the control of TCL1 promoter only partially recovered the mutant phenotype of tcl1, implying that TCL2 and TCL1 are not fully functional equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: TCL2 function redundantly with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences, but they are not fully functional equivalent. Transcription of TCL2 is not controlled by activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, but MIR156 controlled SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) transcription factors. However, SPLs might require co-activators to regulate the expression of their target genes, including TCL1, TRY and possibly, TCL2.