Cellular Senescence as the Pathogenic Hub of Diabetes-Related Wound Chronicity
ABSTRACT: Diabetes is constantly increasing at a rate that outpaces genetic variation and approaches to pandemic magnitude. Skin cells physiology and the cutaneous healing response are progressively undermined in diabetes which predisposes to lower limb ulceration, recidivism, and subsequent lower extremities amputation as a frightened complication. The molecular operators whereby diabetes reduces tissues resilience and hampers the repair mechanisms remain elusive. We have accrued the notion that diabetic environment embraces preconditioning factors that definitively propel premature cellular senescence, and that ulcer cells senescence impair the healing response. Hyperglycemia/oxidative stress/mitochondrial and DNA damage may act as major drivers sculpturing the senescent phenotype. We review here historical and recent evidences that substantiate the hypothesis that diabetic foot ulcers healing trajectory, is definitively impinged by a self-expanding and self-perpetuative senescent cells society that drives wound chronicity. This society may be fostered by a diabetic archetypal secretome that induces replicative senescence in dermal fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes. Mesenchymal stem cells are also susceptible to major diabetic senescence drivers, which accounts for the inability of these cells to appropriately assist in diabetics wound healing. Thus, the use of autologous stem cells has not translated in significant clinical outcomes. Novel and multifaceted therapeutic approaches are required to pharmacologically mitigate the diabetic cellular senescence operators and reduce the secondary multi-organs complications. The senescent cells society and its adjunctive secretome could be an ideal local target to manipulate diabetic ulcers and prevent wound chronification and acute recidivism. This futuristic goal demands harnessing the diabetic wound chronicity epigenomic signature.
Project description:In chronic pancreatitis (CP), persistent activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) converts wound healing into a pathological process resulting in organ fibrosis. Here, we have analysed senescence as a novel mechanism involved in the termination of PSC activation and tissue repair. PSC senescence was first studied in vitro by establishing long-term cultures and by applying chemical triggers, using senescence-associated ?-Galactosidase (SA ?-Gal) as a surrogate marker. Subsequently, susceptibility of PSC to immune cell-mediated cytolysis was investigated employing cocultures. Using the model of dibutyltin dichloride-induced CP in rats, appearance of senescent cells was monitored by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and correlated with the progression of tissue damage and repair, immune cell infiltration and fibrosis. The results indicated that long-term culture and exposure of PSC to stressors (doxorubicin, H(2) O(2) and staurosporine) induced senescence. Senescent PSC highly expressed CDKN1A/p21, mdm2 and interleukin (IL)-6, but displayed low levels of ?-smooth muscle actin. Senescence increased the susceptibility of PSC to cytolysis. In CP, the number of senescent cells correlated with the severity of inflammation and the extension of fibrosis. Areas staining positive for SA ?-Gal overlapped with regions of fibrosis and dense infiltrates of immune cells. Furthermore, a close physical proximity of immune cells and activated PSC was observed. We conclude that inflammation, PSC activation and cellular senescence are timely coupled processes which take place in the same microenvironment of the inflamed pancreas. Lymphocytes may play a dual-specific role in pancreatic fibrogenesis, triggering both the initiation of wound healing by activating PSC, and its completion by killing senescent stellate cells.
Project description:Whereas a healthy endothelium maintains physiological vascular functions, endothelial damage contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial senescence is the main determinant of endothelial dysfunction and thus of age-related cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study is to test the involvement of microRNA-126 and HIF-1? in a model of replicative endothelial senescence and the interrelationship between both molecules in this in vitro model. We demonstrated that senescent endothelial cells experience impaired tube formation and delayed wound healing. Senescent endothelial cells failed to express HIF-1?, and the microvesicles released by these cells failed to carry HIF-1?. Of note, HIF-1? protein levels were restored in HIF-1? stabilizer-treated senescent endothelial cells. Finally, we show that microRNA-126 was downregulated in senescent endothelial cells and microvesicles. With regard to the interplay between microRNA-126 and HIF-1?, transfection with a microRNA-126 inhibitor downregulated HIF-1? expression in early passage endothelial cells. Moreover, while HIF-1? inhibition reduced tube formation and wound healing closure, microRNA-126 levels remained unchanged. These data indicate that HIF-1? is a target of miRNA-126 in protective and reparative functions, and suggest that their therapeutic modulation could benefit age-related vascular disease.
Project description:Senescence is a cellular response to damage and stress. The senescence response prevents cancer by suppressing the proliferation of cells with a compromised genome and contributes to optimal wound healing in normal tissues. Persistent senescent cells are also thought to drive aging and age-associated pathologies through their secretion of inflammatory factors that modify the tissue microenvironment and alter the function of nearby normal or transformed cells. Understanding how senescent cells alter the microenvironment would be aided by the ability to induce or eliminate senescent cells at will in vivo. Here, we combine the use of the synthetic nucleoside analog ganciclovir (GCV) with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) activity to create or eliminate senescent human cells. We show that low concentrations of GCV induce senescence through the accumulation of nuclear DNA damage while higher concentrations of GCV, similar to those used in vivo, kill non-dividing senescent cells via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Using this system, we effectively eliminated xenografted normal human senescent fibroblasts or induced senescence in human breast cancer cells in vivo. Thus, cellular senescence and mtDNA damage are outcomes of synthetic nucleoside analog treatment, indicating that the GCV-HSVtk combination can be used effectively to promote the targeted formation or eradication of senescent cells.
Project description:Cellular senescence is an irreversible form of cell cycle arrest that has been linked to several pathological conditions. In particular, senescence can function as a tumor suppressor mechanism, but is also thought to contribute to organismal aging. Paradoxically however, through the secretion of various factors, collectively termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), senescent cells can also have tumor-promoting and tissue-remodeling functions. In addition, senescent cells can play beneficial roles in tissue repair and wound healing, and reconciling these contradictory features from an evolutionary standpoint has been challenging. Moreover, senescent cells had not previously been documented in non-pathological conditions. Recently however, 2 studies have identified cellular senescence as a programmed mechanism that contributes to tissue patterning and remodeling during normal embryonic development. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of cellular senescence and help to clarify the paradoxes and the evolutionary origin of this process.
Project description:Senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest program that contributes to tumor suppression, organismal aging and certain wound healing responses. During liver fibrosis, for example, hepatic stellate cells initially proliferate and secrete extracellular matrix components that produce fibrosis; however, these cells eventually senesce and are cleared by immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we examine how NK cells target senescent cells and assess the impact of this process on liver fibrosis. We show that granule exocytosis, but not death-receptor-mediated apoptosis, is required for NK-cell-mediated killing of senescent cells. This pathway bias is due to upregulation of the decoy death receptor, Dcr2, an established senescence marker that attenuates NK-mediated cell death. Accordingly, mice with defects in granule exocytosis accumulate senescent stellate cells and display more liver fibrosis in response to a fibrogenic agent. Our results thus provide new insights into the immune surveillance of senescent cells and reveal how granule exocytosis has a protective role against liver fibrosis.
Project description:Cellular senescence is characterized by stable cell-cycle arrest and a secretory program that modulates the tissue microenvironment1,2. Physiologically, senescence serves as a tumour-suppressive mechanism that prevents the expansion of premalignant cells3,4 and has a beneficial role in wound-healing responses5,6. Pathologically, the aberrant accumulation of senescent cells generates an inflammatory milieu that leads to chronic tissue damage and contributes to diseases such as liver and lung fibrosis, atherosclerosis, diabetes and osteoarthritis1,7. Accordingly, eliminating senescent cells from damaged tissues in mice ameliorates the symptoms of these pathologies and even promotes longevity1,2,8-10. Here we test the therapeutic concept that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells that target senescent cells can be effective senolytic agents. We identify the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)11 as a cell-surface protein that is broadly induced during senescence and show that uPAR-specific CAR T cells efficiently ablate senescent cells in vitro and in vivo. CAR T cells that target uPAR extend the survival of mice with lung adenocarcinoma that are treated with a senescence-inducing combination of drugs, and restore tissue homeostasis in mice in which liver fibrosis is induced chemically or by diet. These results establish the therapeutic potential of senolytic CAR T cells for senescence-associated diseases.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause with a median survival of only three years. Little is known about the mechanisms that precede the excessive collagen deposition seen in IPF, but cellular senescence has been strongly implicated in disease pathology. Senescence is a state of irreversible cell-cycle arrest accompanied by an abnormal secretory profile and is thought to play a critical role in both development and wound repair. Normally, once a senescent cell has contributed to wound repair, it is promptly removed from the environment via infiltrating immune cells. However, if immune clearance fails, the persistence of senescent cells is thought to drive disease pathology through their altered secretory profile. One of the major cell types involved in wound healing is fibroblasts, and senescent fibroblasts have been identified in the lungs of patients with IPF and in fibroblast cultures from IPF lungs. The question of what is driving abnormally high numbers of fibroblasts into senescence remains unanswered. The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a role in a myriad of processes, including cell-cycle progression, gene transcription, as well as mitochondrial respiration, all of which are dysregulated during senescence. Activation of STAT3 has previously been shown to correlate with IPF progression and therefore is a potential molecular target to modify early-stage senescence and restore normal fibroblast function. This review summarizes what is presently known about fibroblast senescence in IPF and how STAT3 may contribute to this phenotype.
Project description:During organism aging, the process of cellular senescence is triggered by critical stressors such as DNA damage, oncogenes, oxidative stress, and telomere erosion, and vascular cells are not exempted. Senescent cells stop proliferating but remain metabolically active producing pro-inflammatory signals in the environment collectively named senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that contribute to the amplification of the response to the neighbor and distant cells. Although the shift toward senescence is protective against tumors and needed during wound healing, the accumulation of senescent cells during aging due to an impairment of the immune system deputed to their clearance, can predispose to diseases of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. In this short review, we describe the main features of senescence of endothelial and smooth muscle cells and focus on the role non-coding RNAs of the microRNAs class in controlling this process. Finally, we discuss the potential of new strategies based on senescence removal in counteracting vascular disease burden.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a typical tumor-suppressive mechanism that restricts the proliferation of premalignant cells. However, mounting evidence suggests that senescent cells, which also persist in vivo, can promote the incidence of aging-related disorders principally via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), among which cancer is particularly devastating. Despite the beneficial effects of the SASP on certain physiological events such as wound healing and tissue repair, more studies have demonstrated that senescent cells can substantially contribute to pathological conditions and accelerate disease exacerbation, particularly cancer resistance, relapse and metastasis. To limit the detrimental properties while retaining the beneficial aspects of senescent cells, research advancements that support screening, design and optimization of anti-aging therapeutic agents are in rapid progress in the setting of prospective development of clinical strategies, which together represent a new wave of efforts to control human malignancies or mitigate degenerative complications.
Project description:Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) commonly occurs in individuals receiving bisphosphonates (BPs) with clinical manifestations of the exposed necrotic bone. Although defective wound healing of soft tissue is frequently, if not always, observed in BRONJ, the effects of BPs on oral soft tissue or cells remain unknown. To investigate the effects of BPs on cells of oral mucosal tissue, we studied the effect of pamidronate (PAM), one of the BPs most commonly administered to cancer patients, on the phenotypes of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK) and fibroblasts (NHOF). When exposed to PAM at 10 µM, NHOK, not NHOF, underwent senescence: NHOK overexpressed senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal), p16INK4A, IL-6, and IL-8. When exposed to a higher level (50 µM) of PAM, NHOK maintained senescent phenotypes, but NHOF underwent apoptosis. PAM-induced senescence in NHOK is mediated, in part, via geranylgeranylation of the mevalonate pathway. Our in vitro 3D oral mucosal tissue construction studies further demonstrated that PAM induced senescence and impaired re-epithelialization of oral mucosa. Analysis of these data indicates that premature senescence of oral mucosal cells and subsequent defective soft-tissue wound healing might be partly responsible for the development of BRONJ in individuals receiving PAM or other BPs.