Identification of Six Flavonoids as Novel Cellular Antioxidants and Their Structure-Activity Relationship.
ABSTRACT: This study is aimed at determining the relationship of flavonoid structures to their chemical and intracellular antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities of 60 flavonoids were investigated by three different antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The result showed 6 flavonoids as good cellular antioxidants evaluated for the first time. The cellular antioxidant activities of compounds 7-methoxy-quercetin, 3-O-methylquercetin, 8-hydroxy-kaempferol, quercetin-3-O-?-arabinofuranose, kaempferol-7-O-glucopyranoside, and luteolin6-C-glucoside were linked with the upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). A structure-activity relationship suggested that 2,3-double bond, 4-keto groups, 3',4'-catechol structure, and 3-hydroxyl in the flavonoid skeleton played important roles in the antioxidant behavior. Furthermore, the cell proliferative assay revealed a low cytotoxicity for 3-O-methylquercetin. The present results provide valuable information for the dietary application of flavonoids with different structures for high antioxidant.
Project description:Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are commonly employed as environmentally-friendly solvents in numerous chemical applications owing to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, a novel and environmentally-friendly extraction method based on ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent extraction (UAE-DES) was investigated for the extraction of flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) leaves, and the antioxidant activities of these flavonoids were evaluated. Nine different DES systems based on either two or three components were tested, and the choline chloride/1,4?butanediol system (1:5 molar ratio) was selected as the optimal system for maximizing the flavonoid extraction yields. Other extraction conditions required to achieve the maximum flavonoid extraction yields from the leaves of C. paliurus were as follows: DES water content (v/v), 30%; extraction time, 30 min; temperature, 60 °C; and solid-liquid ratio, 20 mg/mL. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the detection of five flavonoids in the extract, namely kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnoside, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-?-d-glucuronide. In vitro antioxidant tests revealed that the flavonoid-containing extract exhibited strong DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging abilities. Results indicate that UAE-DES is a suitable approach for the selective extraction of flavonoids from C. paliurus leaves, and DESs can be employed as sustainable extraction media for other bioactive compounds.
Project description:Leaves of custard apple are widely used in many places as a popular dietary supplement for the treatment of diabetes. Flavonoids are known to have anti-diabetic activity. In this study, the main flavonoid epimers were separated. The crude extract was first screened by HPLC-DAD before and after incubation with DPPH method to evaluate the antioxidants. An efficient extraction method was employed to remove non-flavonoid components. Subsequently, five main flavonoids with two pairs of epimers including quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, rutin, quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were successfully separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography with ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (4:1:5, v/v) coupled with online-storage inner-recycling mode. The structures of the separated compounds were identified by spectral techniques. The purity of the separated flavonoid glycosides was over 98%, as determined by HPLC. The separated pure constituents were found to possess the antioxidant capacities following DPPH radical scavenging protocol. The compounds (1-3) exhibited better antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the glucose uptake of crude flavonoid extract had better results than the crude ethanol extract. The present study demonstrates that the efficacy of custard apple leaves in lowering glucose level, and antioxidant capacities of separated pure compounds probably appear to be predominantly responsible for hypoglycaemic properties on HepG2 cells.
Project description:The flavonoids constitute a large group of polyphenolic phytochemicals with antioxidant properties in vitro. The interactions of four structurally related flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, rutin and luteolin) with Cu2+ ions were investigated in terms of the extent to which they undergo complex formation through chelation or modification through oxidation, as well as in their structural dependence. The ortho 3',4'-dihydroxy substitution in the B ring is shown to be important for Cu2+-chelate formation, thereby influencing the antioxidant activity. The presence of a 3-hydroxy group in the flavonoid structure enhances the oxidation of quercetin and kaempferol, whereas luteolin and rutin, each lacking the 3-hydroxy group, do not oxidize as readily in the presence of Cu2+ ions. The results also demonstrate that the reactivities of the flavonoids in protecting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against Cu2+ ion-induced oxidation are dependent on their structural properties in terms of the response of the particular flavonoid to Cu2+ ions, whether chelation or oxidation, their partitioning abilities between the aqueous compartment and the lipophilic environment within the LDL particle, and their hydrogen-donating antioxidant properties.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Silk sericin and a few non-protein components isolated from the cocoon layer including two silk proteins in silkworm Bombyx mori has many bioactivities. The dietary sericin possess antinatural oxidation, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activities. The non-protein components surrounding the sericin layer involve in wax, pigments mainly meaning flavonoids, sugars, and other impurities. However, very few investigations have reported the estimation of the total flavonoids derived from the cocoon layer. The flavonoids are commonly present in their glycosylated forms and mostly exist as quercetin glycosides in the sericin layers of silkworm cocoons.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to find a more accurate method to estimate the level of the total flavonoids in silkworm cocoons.<h4>Design</h4>An efficient procedure of hydrolysis-assisted extraction (HAE) was first established to estimate the level of the total flavonoids through the determination of their aglycones, quercetin, and kaempferol. Then, a comparison was made between traditional colorimetric method and our method. In addition, the antioxidant activities of hydrolysis-assisted extract sample were determined.<h4>Results</h4>The average contents of quercetin and kaempferol were 1.98 and 0.42 mg/g in Daizo cocoon. Their recoveries were 99.56 and 99.17%. The total sum of quercetin and kaempferol was detected to be 2.40±0.07 mg/g by HAE-HPLC, while the total flavonoids (2.59±0.48 mg/g) estimated by the traditional colorimetric method were only equivalent to 1.28±0.04 mg/g of quercetin. The HAE sample also exhibits that IC50 values of scavenging ability of diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl (DPPH) radical and hydroxyl radical (HO·) are 243.63 µg/mL and 4.89 mg/mL, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results show that the HAE-HPLC method is specificity of cocoon and far superior to the colorimetric method. Therefore, this study has profound significance for the comprehensive utilization of silkworm cocoon and also may be applied to the estimation of total flavonoids in other functional foods.
Project description:Flavonoids are a group of hydroxylated polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Biosynthesis of these compounds involves type III PKSs, whose presence has been recently predicted in some fungal species through genome sequencing efforts. In this study, for the first time it was found that Fusaria produce flavonoids on solid YES medium. Naringenin, as the central precursor of all flavonoids, was produced at highest quantities, followed by quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin and luteolin. In plants, flavonoids are involved in the protection of cereals to a wide range of stresses, including host defense against Fusaria. Under in vitro conditions, strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were incubated at levels of flavonoids close to amounts produced by cereals in response to fungal infection. The amounts of exogenous naringenin, apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin were reduced and converted by fungi to the other flavonoid derivatives. Treatment of fungi with naringenin derivatives led to the inhibition of naringenin production. Correspondingly, the production of fungal-derived phenolic acids decreased in flavonoid treated samples, although this effect appeared to be dependent on the strain, flavonoid molecule and its concentration. Fusaria showed high variability in trichothecene production in response to flavonoids. With emphasis on quercetin, mycotoxin accumulation in the media was significantly decreased by luteolin, kaempferol, naringenin and apigenin. However, in some cases, apigenin led to the increase of mycotoxin content in the media. Gene expression experiments of Tri genes responsible for trichothecene biosynthesis (Tri4, Tri5 and Tri10) proved that the inhibition of mycotoxin production by flavonoids occurred at the transcriptional level. However, the changes in Tri transcript levels were not significant in most apigenin and all kaempferol-treated cultures. In this study, a link was established between antioxidant and antiradical properties of flavonoids and their effects on fungi.
Project description:Fruits of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), a popular commercial Citrus species, contain high concentrations of flavonoids beneficial to human health. These fruits predominantly accumulate O-glycosylated flavonoids, in which the disaccharides [neohesperidose (rhamnosyl-α-1,2-glucose) or rutinose (rhamnosyl-α-1,6-glucose)] are linked to the flavonoid aglycones through the 3- or 7-hydroxyl sites. The biotransformation of the flavonoid aglycones into O-rutinosides or O-neohesperidosides in the Citrus plants usually consists of two glycosylation reactions involving a series of uridine diphosphate-sugar dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Although several genes encoding flavonoid UGTs have been functionally characterized in the Citrus plants, full elucidation of the flavonoid glycosylation process remains elusive. Based on the available genomic and transcriptome data, we isolated a UGT with a high expression level in the sweet orange fruits that possibly encodes a flavonoid glucosyltransferase and/or rhamnosyltransferase. Biochemical analyses revealed that a broad range of flavonoid substrates could be glucosylated at their 3- and/or 7-hydrogen sites by the recombinant enzyme, including hesperetin, naringenin, diosmetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, overexpression of the gene could significantly increase the accumulations of quercetin 7-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 7-O-glucoside, and kaempferol 7-O-glucoside, implying that the enzyme has flavonoid 7-O-glucosyltransferase and 7-O-rhamnosyltransferase activities in vivo.
Project description:Flavonols are a flavonoid subfamily widely distributed in plants, including several ones of great importance in human and animal diet (apple, tomato, broccoli, onion, beans, tea). These polyphenolic nutraceuticals exert potent antimicrobial (membrane potential disruptors), antioxidant (free-radical scavengers), pharmacokinetic (CYP450 modulators), anti-inflammatory (lipoxygenase inhibitors), antiangiogenic (VEGF inhibitors) and antitumor (cyclin inhibitors) activities. Biotechnological production of these nutraceuticals, for example via heterologous biosynthesis in industrial actinomycetes, is favored since in plants these polyphenols appear as inactive glycosylated derivatives, in low concentrations or as part of complex mixtures with other polyphenolic compounds. In this work, we describe the de novo biosynthesis of three important flavonols, myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin, in the industrially relevant actinomycetes Streptomyces coelicolor and S. albus. De novo biosynthesis of kaempferol, myricetin and quercetin in actinomycetes has not been described before.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced by the oxidative burst in activated macrophages and neutrophils cause oxidative stressimplicated diseases. Quercetin is flavonoid that occurs naturally in plants and is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated antioxidant activities and mechanisms of action in zymosan-induced macrophages of quercetin and quercetin-related flavonoids such as quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin 3-O-?-(2?-galloyl)-rhamnopyranoside (QGR) and quercetin 3-O-?-(2?-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (QGG) as well as gallic acid, a building moiety of QGR and QGG. QGR and QGG exhibited stronger antioxidant activities compared with quercetin, whereas quercitrin, isoquercitrin and gallic acid exhibited weak-tono antioxidant activities, assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide production, superoxide scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) production, peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Regarding mechanisms, the quercetincontaining flavonoids QGR and QGG differentially targeted compared with quercetin in the NF-?B signaling pathway that inhibited the DNA binding activity of the NF-?B complex without affecting the degradation and phosphorylation of I?B? and NF-?B phosphorylation. In addition, QGR and QGG inhibited CRE and activator protein (AP-1) transcriptional activity and JNK phosphorylation by inhibiting the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling in a different manner than quercetin. Our results showed that although QGR and QGG exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than querce-tin in macrophages, their mechanisms of action in terms of the NF-?B, PKA and PKC signaling pathways were different.
Project description:Ginkgo biloba leaf (GBL) is known as a potential source of bioactive flavonoids, such as quercetin, arresting the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-zippering. Here, the GBL flavonoids were isolated in two different manners and then examined for their bioactivity, physicochemical stability, and biocompatibility. The majority of flavonoids in the non-hydrolyzed and acidolyzed isolates, termed non-hydrolyzed isolate (NI) and acidolyzed isolate (AI) hereafter, were rich in flavonol glycosides and aglycones, respectively. Glycosidic/aglyconic quercetin and kaempferol were abundant in both NI and AI, whereas a little of apigenin, luteolin, and isorhamnetin were found in AI. NI was more thermostable in all pH ranges than quercetin, kaempferol, and AI. NI and AI both inhibited neurotransmitter release from differentiated neuronal PC-12 cells. NI and AI showed 1/2-1/3 lower EC50/CC50 values than quercetin and kaempferol. The NI and AI exhibited no toxicity assessed by the tests on chorioallantoic membranes of hen's eggs, removing toxicological concerns of irritation potential. Moreover, GBL isolates, particularly AI, showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the use below the CC50 levels. Taken together, these results suggest that GBL isolates that are rich in antioxidant flavonoids are effective anti-neuroexocytotic agents with high stability and low toxicity.
Project description:Extracts from 11 vegetables of Indonesian origin were screened for flavonoid content, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity. The flavonols myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol and flavones luteolin and apigenin were quantified by HPLC. Flavonoid content in mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) was apparently initially reported for Cosmos caudatus H.B.K. (52.19), Polyscias pinnata (52.19), Pluchea indica Less. (6.39), Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm.f.) Merr (5.43), Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. (3.93), Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Bl. (2.27), and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm (1.18). The flavonoid content of the vegetables studied were mainly quercetin and kaempferol and ranged from 0.3 to 143 mg/100 g fw, with the highest level found in Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr. C. caudatus H.B.K. had the greatest total phenols among the vegetables analysed, with 1.52 mg GAE/100 g fw. P. indica Less. and C. caudatus H.B.K. had the highest antioxidant activity as measured by ferric cyanide reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging, and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Therefore, S. androgynus (L) Merr, C. caudatus H.B.K., and P. pinnata were identified as potentially rich sources of dietary flavonoids and antioxidants.