Oral microbial profile variation during canine ligature-induced peri-implantitis development.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Dental implants have become well-established in oral rehabilitation for fully or partially edentulous patients. However, peri-implantitis often leads to the failure of dental implants. The aim of this study was to understand the core microbiome associated with peri-implantitis and evaluate potential peri-implantitis pathogens based on canine peri-implantitis model. RESULTS:In this study, three beagle dogs were used to build peri-implantitis models with ligature-induced strategy. The peri-implant sulcular fluids were collected at four different phases based on disease severity during the peri-implantitis development. Microbial compositions during peri-implantitis development were monitored and evaluated. The microbes were presented with operational taxonomic unit (OTU) classified at 97% identity of the high-throughput 16S rRNA gene fragments. Microbial diversity and richness varied during peri-implantitis. At the phylum-level, Firmicutes decreased and Bacteroides increased during peri-implantitis development. At the genus-level, Peptostreptococcus decreased and Porphyromonas increased, suggesting peri-implantitis pathogens might be assigned to these two genera. Further species-level and co-occurrence network analyses identified several potential keystone species during peri-implantitis development, and some OTUs were potential peri-implantitis pathogens. CONCLUSION:In summary, canine peri-implantitis models help to identify several potential keystone peri-implantitis associated species. The canine model can give insight into human peri-implantitis associated microbiota.
Project description:Dental implants are commonly used to replace missing teeth. However, the dysbiotic polymicrobial communities of peri-implant sites are responsible for peri-implant diseases, such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. In this study, we analyzed the microbial characteristics of oral plaque from peri-implant pockets or sulci of healthy implants (n = 10), peri-implant mucositis (n = 8) and peri-implantitis (n = 6) sites using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. An increase in microbial diversity was observed in subgingival sites of ailing implants, compared with healthy implants. Microbial co-occurrence analysis revealed that periodontal pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, were clustered into modules in the peri-implant mucositis network. Putative pathogens associated with peri-implantitis were present at a moderate relative abundance in peri-implant mucositis, suggesting that peri-implant mucositis an important early transitional phase during the development of peri-implantitis. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Eubacterium was increased at peri-implantitis locations, and co-occurrence analysis revealed that Eubacterium minutum was correlated with Prevotella intermedia in peri-implantitis sites, which suggests the association of Eubacterium with peri-implantitis. This study indicates that periodontal pathogens may play important roles in the shifting of healthy implant status to peri-implant disease.
Project description:Dental implants are installed in an increasing number of patients. Mucositis and peri-implantitis are common microbial-biofilm-associated diseases affecting the tissues that surround the dental implant and are a major medical and socioeconomic burden. By metagenomic sequencing of the plaque microbiome in different peri-implant health and disease conditions (113 samples from 72 individuals), we found microbial signatures for peri-implantitis and mucositis and defined the peri-implantitis-related complex (PiRC) composed by the 7 most discriminative bacteria. The peri-implantitis microbiome is site specific as contralateral healthy sites resembled more the microbiome of healthy implants, while mucositis was specifically enriched for Fusobacterium nucleatum acting as a keystone colonizer. Microbiome-based machine learning showed high diagnostic and prognostic power for peri-implant diseases and strain-level profiling identified a previously uncharacterized subspecies of F. nucleatum to be particularly associated with disease. Altogether, we associated the plaque microbiome with peri-implant diseases and identified microbial signatures of disease severity.
Project description:Dental implants are one of the most frequently used treatment options for tooth replacement. Approximately 30% of patients with dental implants develop peri-implantitis, which is an oral inflammatory disease that leads to loss of the supporting tissues, predominately the bone. For the development of future therapeutic strategies, it is essential to understand the molecular pathophysiology of human dental peri-implant infections. Here, we describe the gene and protein expression patterns of peri-implantitis bone tissue compared with healthy peri-implant bone tissue. Furthermore, cells from the osteoblastic lineage derived from peri-implantitis samples were immortalized and characterized. We applied microarray, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and Western blot analyses. The levels of typical bone matrix molecules, including SPP1, BGLAP, and COL9A1, in patients with peri-implantitis were reduced, while the inflammation marker interleukin 8 (IL8) was highly expressed. RUNX2, one of the transcription factors of mature osteoblasts, was also decreased in peri-implantitis. Finally, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase immortalized cell line from peri-implantitis exhibited a more fibro-osteoblastic character than did the healthy control.
Project description:AIM:The aim of this case-series study is to evaluate the prevalence of mucositis, peri-implantitis, and survival and success rates of oxide-coated implants in subjects treated for periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-four subjects treated for generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) and five treated for generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) were orally rehabilitated with a total of 130 dental implants. Subjects were examined 2 to 4 weeks prior to extraction of non-retainable teeth and at insertion of superstructure. Additional examinations were performed during a 3-month recall schedule over a 3- to 6-year follow-up period. Radiographs were taken after insertion of the superstructure and 1, 3, and 5 years later. RESULTS:The results showed implant survival rates of 97.1% in GCP subjects versus 96.2% in GAP subjects. The implant success rate was 77.9% in GCP subjects and 38.5% in GAP subjects. In GCP subjects, mucositis was present in 7.7% and peri-implantitis in 12.5% of the implants. In GAP subjects, 28.0% of the implants showed mucositis and 32.0% peri-implantitis. Implant failure, mucositis, and peri-implantitis were more evident in GAP subjects. Peri-implantitis was more prevalent for implants in the maxilla and implants?>10 mm. After 5 years, the mean peri-implant bone loss in GAP subjects was 2.89 mm and in GCP subjects 1.38 mm. CONCLUSIONS:Periodontally diseased subjects treated in a supportive periodontal therapy can be successfully rehabilitated with oxide-coated dental implants for a follow-up period of 3- to 6-years. Implants in the maxilla and GAP subjects were more susceptible to mucositis and peri-implantitis, with lower implant survival and success rates.
Project description:The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a ligature-induced peri-implantitis model, the efficacy of three antimicrobial glassy coatings in the prevention of biofilm formation, intrasulcular bacterial growth and the resulting peri-implant bone loss.Mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from five beagle dogs. Four dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Eight weeks after, one control zirconia abutment and three with different bactericidal coatings (G1n-Ag, ZnO35, G3) were connected. After a plaque control period, bacterial accumulation was allowed and biofilm formation on abutments was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures. Microbial samples and peri-implant crestal bone levels of all implant sites were obtained before, during and after the breakdown period.During experimental induce peri-implantitis: colony forming units counts from intrasulcular microbial samples at implants with G1n-Ag coated abutment remained close to the basal inoculum; G3 and ZnO35 coatings showed similar low counts; and anaerobic bacterias counts at control abutments exhibited a logarithmic increase by more than 2. Bone loss during passive breakdown period was no statistically significant. Additional bone loss occurred during ligature-induce breakdown: 0.71 (SD 0.48) at G3 coating, 0.57 (SD 0.36) at ZnO35 coating, 0.74 (SD 0.47) at G1n-Ag coating, and 1.29 (SD 0.45) at control abutments; and statistically significant differences (p<0.001) were found. The lowest bone loss at the end of the experiment was exhibited by implants dressing G3 coated abutments (mean 2.1; SD 0.42).Antimicrobial glassy coatings could be a useful tool to ward off, diminish or delay peri-implantitis progression.
Project description:The prevention and control of peri-implantitis is a challenge in dental implant surgery. Dental implants with sustained antimicrobial coating are an ideal way of preventing peri-implantitis. This study reports development of a non- immunotoxicity multilayered coating on a titanium surface that had sustained antimicrobial activity and limited early biofilm formation. In this study, the broad spectrum AMP, Tet213, was linked to collagen IV through sulfo-SMPB and has been renamed as AMPCol. The multilayer AMPCol coatings were assembled on smooth titanium surfaces using a LBL technique. Using XPS, AFM, contact angle analysis, and QCM, layer-by-layer accumulation of coating thickness was measured and increased surface wetting compared to controls was confirmed. Non-cytotoxicity to HaCaT and low erythrocyte hemolysis by the AMPCol coatings was observed. In vivo immunotoxicity assays showed IP administration of AMPCol did not effect serum immunoglobulin levels. This coating with controlled release of AMP decreased the growth of both a Gram-positive aerobe (Staphylococcus aureus) and a Gram-negative anaerobe (Porphyromonas gingivalis) up to one month. Early S. aureus biofilm formation was inhibited by the coating. The excellent long-term sustained antimicrobial activity of this multilayer coating is a potential method for preventing peri-implantitis through coated on the neck of implants before surgery.
Project description:Peri-implantitis is a steadily rising disease and is caused by oral bacterial pathogens able to form biofilm on implant surfaces and peri-implant tissues, making antibiotics treatment less effective. The use of commercial probiotics against oral pathogens could serve as an alternative to prevent biofilm formation. <i>Streptococcus intermedius</i> is one of the early colonizers of biofilm formation in dental implants. The aim of this study was to model the interaction between <i>S. intermedius</i> and <i>Streptococcus salivarius</i> strain K12, a probiotic bacterium producing bacteriocins. <i>S. intermedius</i> was co-cultured with <i>S. salivarius</i> K12 in an in vitro model simulating the biofilm formation in a dental implant composed by a titanium cylinder system. Biofilm formation rate was assessed by Real-Time PCR quantification of bacterial count and expression levels of <i>luxS</i> gene, used in response to cell density in the biofilm. Biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, <i>luxS</i> expression patterns were found to be already expressed within the first 12 h. More importantly, <i>S. salivarius</i> K12 was able to counter the biofilm formation in a titanium cylinder under the tested condition. In conclusion, our dental implant model may be useful for exploring probiotic-pathogen interaction to find an alternative to antibiotics for peri-implantitis treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to the risk of peri-implantitis, following dental implant placement, this study aimed to evaluate risk indicators associated with marginal bone loss from a retrospective open cohort study of 4,591 dental implants, placed in private practice, with 5- to 10-year follow-up. Furthermore, the prevalence of mucositis and peri-implantitis among the study cohort was evaluated, comparing strict versus relaxed criteria for bleeding on probing. METHODS:Periapical radiographs were used to evaluate changes in crestal bone level. Peri-implant soft tissue was evaluated using an ordinal mucosal index in comparison with the conventional binary threshold for bleeding (i.e., present or not). Periodontal probing depth was not evaluated. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate bone level over time, and other risk indicators, at the patient and implant level. RESULTS:Risk indicators found to have a significant impact on bone level included: autoimmune disease, heavy smoking, bisphosphonate therapy, implant location, diameter and design, and the presence of a bone defect at site of implantation. The prevalence of mucositis at the implant level was 38.6% versus 14.2% at 6 to 7 years, when using strict versus relaxed criteria, respectively. The prevalence of peri-implantitis after 6 to 7 years was 4.7% and 3.6% when using strict versus relaxed criteria, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study identify several risk factors associated with bone loss. Furthermore, the prevalence of mucositis and peri-implantitis was shown to be lower at both the implant and the patient when using strict versus relaxed criteria based on the assessment of oral health surrounding dental implants.
Project description:Corrosion of titanium dental implants has been associated with implant failure and is considered one of the triggering factors for peri-implantitis. This corrosion is concerning, because a large amount of metal ions and debris are generated in this process, the accumulation of which may lead to adverse tissue reactions in vivo. The goal of this study is to investigate the mechanisms for implant degradation by evaluating the surface of five titanium dental implants retrieved due to peri-implantitis. The results demonstrated that all the implants were subjected to very acidic environments, which, in combination with normal implant loading, led to cases of severe implant discoloration, pitting attack, cracking and fretting-crevice corrosion. The results suggest that acidic environments induced by bacterial biofilms and/or inflammatory processes may trigger oxidation of the surface of titanium dental implants. The corrosive process can lead to permanent breakdown of the oxide film, which, besides releasing metal ions and debris in vivo, may also hinder re-integration of the implant surface with surrounding bone.
Project description:Peri-implantitis is the pathological condition of connective tissue inflammation and the progressive loss of supporting bone around dental implants. One of the primary causes of peri mucositis evolving into peri-implantitis is bacterial infection, including infection from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Enhancing the surface smoothness of implants helps to prevent P. gingivalis adhesion to the implant's surface. Interaction analyses between bacteria and the surface roughness of zirconia (Zr) discs subjected to a glow discharge plasma (GDP) treatment compared with non-plasma-treated autoclaved control Zr discs were done. Examinations of the material prosperities revealed that the GDP-treated Zr group had a smoother surface for a better wettability. The GDP-treated Zr discs improved the proliferation of the osteoblast-like cells MG-63, and the osteoblastic differentiation was assessed through alkaline phosphatase detection and marker gene bone sialoprotein (Bsp) and osteocalcin (OC) induction. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a relatively low P. gingivalis adhesion on GDP-treated Zr disks, as well as lower colonization of P. gingivalis compared with the control. Our findings confirmed that the GDP treatment of Zr discs resulted in a significant reduction of P. gingivalis adhesion and growth, demonstrating a positive correlation between surface roughness and bacteria adhesion. Therefore, the GDP treatment of Zr dental implants can provide a method for reducing the risk of peri-implantitis.