How COVID-19 induces cytokine storm with high mortality.
ABSTRACT: The newly emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, but has rapidly spread all over the world. Some COVID-19 patients encounter a severe symptom of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with high mortality. This high severity is dependent on a cytokine storm, most likely induced by the interleukin-6 (IL-6) amplifier, which is hyper-activation machinery that regulates the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and stimulated by the simultaneous activation of IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and NF-κB signaling in non-immune cells including alveolar epithelial cells and endothelial cells. We hypothesize that IL-6-STAT3 signaling is a promising therapeutic target for the cytokine storm in COVID-19, because IL-6 is a major STAT3 stimulator, particularly during inflammation. We herein review the pathogenic mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.
Project description:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a deadly respiratory illness associated with refractory hypoxemia and pulmonary edema. The recent pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 is associated with severe pneumonia and inflammatory cytokine storm in the lungs. The anti-inflammatory phytomedicine nimbolide (NIM) may not be feasible for clinical translation due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and lack of suitable delivery systems. To overcome these barriers, we have developed nimbolide liposomes conjugated with iRGD peptide (iRGD-NIMLip) for targeting lung inflammation. It was observed that iRGD-NIMLip treatment significantly inhibited oxidative stress and cytokine storm compared to nimbolide free-drug (f-NIM), nimbolide liposomes (NIMLip), and exhibited superior activity compared to dexamethasone (DEX). iRGD-NIMLip abrogated the LPS induced p65 NF-κB, Akt, MAPK, Integrin β3 and β5, STAT3, and DNMT1 expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate that iRGD-NIMLip could be a promising novel drug delivery system to target severe pathological consequences observed in ARDS and COVID-19 associated cytokine storm.
Project description:In response to the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), global efforts are focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions. For the treatment of COVID-19, selective lung-localizing strategies hold tremendous potential, as SARS-CoV-2 invades the lung via ACE2 receptors and causes severe pneumonia. Similarly, recent reports have shown the association of COVID-19 with decreased 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) and increased cytokine levels. This mechanism, which involves the activation of inflammatory NF-κB- and SREBP2-mediated inflammasome signaling pathways, is believed to play a crucial role in COVID-19 pathogenesis, inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. To resolve those clinical conditions observed in severe SARS-CoV-2 patients, we report 25-HC and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) nanovesicles (25-HC@DDAB) as a COVID-19 drug candidate for the restoration of intracellular cholesterol level and suppression of cytokine storm. Our data demonstrate that 25-HC@DDAB can selectively accumulate the lung tissues and effectively downregulate NF-κB and SREBP2 signaling pathways in COVID-19 patient-derived PBMCs, reducing inflammatory cytokine levels. Altogether, our findings suggest that 25-HC@DDAB is a promising candidate for the treatment of symptoms associated with severe COVID-19 patients, such as decreased cholesterol level and cytokine storm. Graphical abstract
Project description:Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid used to treat asthma and has been repurposed as a treatment for mildly ill COVID-19 patients, but its precise mechanism of action is unclear. Herein, we report that ciclesonide blocks the coronavirus-induced production of the cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 by increasing IκBα protein levels and significantly decreasing p65 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, we found that the combination of ciclesonide and dbq33b, a potent tylophorine-based coronavirus inhibitor that affects coronavirus-induced NF-κB activation a little, additively and synergistically decreased coronavirus-induced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 cytokine levels, and synergistically inhibited the replication of both HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, the combination of ciclesonide and dbq33b merits consideration as a treatment for COVID-19 patients who may otherwise be overwhelmed by high viral loads and an NF-κB-mediated cytokine storm.
Project description:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) erupted in Hubei Province of China in December 2019 and has become a pandemic. Severe COVID-19 patients who suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction have high mortality. Several studies have shown that this is closely related to the cytokine release syndrome (CRS), often loosely referred to as cytokine storm. IL-6 is one of the key factors and its level is positively correlated with the severity of the disease. The molecular mechanisms for CRS in COVID-19 are related to the effects of the S-protein and N-protein of the virus and its ability to trigger NF-κB activation by disabling the inhibitory component IκB. This leads to activation of immune cells and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Other mechanisms related to IL-6 include its interaction with GM-CSF and interferon responses. The pivotal role of IL-6 makes it a target for therapeutic agents and studies on tocilizumab are already ongoing. Other possible targets of treating CRS in COVID-19 include IL-1β and TNF-α. Recently, reports of a CRS like illness called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in children have surfaced, with a variable presentation which in some cases resembles Kawasaki disease. It is likely that the immunological derangement and cytokine release occurring in COVID-19 cases is variable, or on a spectrum, that can potentially be governed by genetic factors. Currently, there are no approved biological modulators for the treatment of COVID-19, but the urgency of the pandemic has led to numerous clinical trials worldwide. Ultimately, there is great promise that an anti-inflammatory modulator targeting a cytokine storm effect may prove to be very beneficial in reducing morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients.
Project description:IL-1β is a key mediator of the cytokine storm linked to high morbidity and mortality from COVID-19, and IL-1β blockade with anakinra and canakinumab during COVID-19 infection has entered clinical trials. Using mass cytometry of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we identified effector memory CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells and CD4<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>low/-</sup>CD161<sup>+</sup> T cells, specifically those positive for the chemokine receptor CCR6, as the circulating immune subtypes with the greatest response to IL-1β. This response manifested as increased phosphorylation and, thus, activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and was also seen in other subsets, including CD11c<sup>+</sup> myeloid dendritic cells, classical monocytes, two subsets of natural killer cells (CD16<sup>-</sup>CD56<sup>bright</sup>CD161<sup>-</sup> and CD16<sup>-</sup>CD56<sup>dim</sup>CD161<sup>+</sup>), and lineage<sup>-</sup> (Lin<sup>-</sup>) cells expressing CD161 and CD25. IL-1β also induced a rapid but less robust increase in the phosphorylation of the kinase p38 as compared to that of NF-κB in most of these immune cell subsets. Prolonged IL-1β stimulation increased the phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 and to a lesser extent that of STAT1 and STAT5 across various immune cell types. IL-1β-induced production of IL-6 likely led to the activation of STAT1 and STAT3 at later time points. Interindividual heterogeneity and inhibition of STAT activation by anakinra raise the possibility that assays measuring NF-κB phosphorylation in response to IL-1β in CCR6<sup>+</sup> T cell subtypes could identify those patients at higher risk of cytokine storm and most likely to benefit from IL-1β-neutralizing therapies.
Project description:Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a threat on the fatal ARDS with an incidence rate of 41.8%, or irreversible pulmonary fibrosis, without specific effective therapeutic drugs. The infection causes dysregulation of the immune system with a cytokine storm in lung tissue. To define the drug candidate of Virofree to COVID-19 induced-ARDS, we treated 66.67 ug/ml and 500 ug/ml in epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, and compared the PBS control group to obtain Virofree expression profiles. Overall design: Examination of 2 different concentrations of Virofree in BEAS-2B cells.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Infection with COVID-19 potentially can result in severe outcomes and death from "cytokine storm syndrome", resulting in novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) with severe dyspnea, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fulminant myocarditis and multiorgan dysfunction with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. No published treatment to date has been shown to adequately control the inflammation and respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19, apart from oxygen therapy and assisted ventilation. We evaluated the effects of using high dose oral and/or IV glutathione in the treatment of 2 patients with dyspnea secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia.<h4>Methods</h4>Two patients living in New York City (NYC) with a history of Lyme and tick-borne co-infections experienced a cough and dyspnea and demonstrated radiological findings consistent with novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). A trial of 2 g of PO or IV glutathione was used in both patients and improved their dyspnea within 1 h of use. Repeated use of both 2000 mg of PO and IV glutathione was effective in further relieving respiratory symptoms.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Oral and IV glutathione, glutathione precursors (N-acetyl-cysteine) and alpha lipoic acid may represent a novel treatment approach for blocking NF-κB and addressing "cytokine storm syndrome" and respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic and international health emergency by the World Health Organization. Patients with obesity with COVID-19 are 7 times more likely to need invasive mechanical ventilation than are patients without obesity (OR 7.36; 95% CI: 1.63-33.14, p = 0.021). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the main causes of death related to COVID-19 and is triggered by a cytokine storm that damages the respiratory epithelium. Interleukins that cause the chronic low-grade inflammatory state of obesity, such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant peptide (MCP)-1, and, in particular, IL-17A and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), also play very important roles in lung damage in ARDS. Therefore, obesity is associated with an immune state favourable to a cytokine storm. Our hypothesis is that serum concentrations of TNF-? and IL-17A are more elevated in patients with obesity and COVID-19, and consequently, they have a greater probability of developing ARDS and death. The immunobiology of IL-17A and TNF-? opens a new fascinating field of research for COVID-19.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 is a type of beta-CoV that develops acute pneumonia, which is an inflammatory condition. A cytokine storm has been recognized as one of the leading causes of death in patients with COVID-19. ALI and ARDS along with multiple organ failure have also been presented as the consequences of acute inflammation and cytokine storm. It has been previously confirmed that SARS-CoV, as another member of the beta-CoV family, activates NLRP3 inflammasome and consequently develops acute inflammation in a variety of ways through having complex interactions with the host immune system using structural and nonstructural proteins. Numerous studies conducted on Tranilast have further demonstrated that the given drug can act as an effective anti-chemotactic factor on controlling inflammation, and thus, it can possibly help the improvement of the acute form of COVID-19 by inhibiting some key inflammation-associated transcription factors such as NF-κB and impeding NLRP3 inflammasome. Several studies have comparably revealed the direct effect of this drug on the prevention of inappropriate tissue's remodeling; inhibition of neutrophils, IL-5, and eosinophils; repression of inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammation site; restriction of factors involved in acute airway inflammation like IL-33; and suppression of cytokine IL-13, which increase mucosal secretions. Therefore, Tranilast may be considered as a potential treatment for patients with the acute form of COVID-19 along with other drugs.
Project description:Aim/objective/introduction:Cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is inevitable in severe and critically ill patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This review aimed to discuss current therapeutic options for the management of CRS in COVID-19. Background:Cytokine storm is caused by the colossal release of proinflammatory cytokines [e.g., IL (interleukin)-2, IL-6, IL-8 TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-?, etc.] causing dysregulated, hyperimmune response. This immunopathogenesis leads to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Targeting cytokine storm with the therapies that are already available in India with the support of published guidelines and consensus can assist in achieving a better outcome in COVID-19. Review results:We predominantly included published guidelines or consensus recommendations about the management of cytokine storm in COVID-19. From the existing literature evidence, it is observed that among the currently available agents, low-dose corticosteroids and heparin can be beneficial in managing cytokine storm. The use of serine protease inhibitors such as ulinastatin has been advised by some experts. Though therapies such as high-dose vitamin C and interleukin-6 inhibitors (e.g., tocilizumab) have been advised, the evidence regarding their use for cytokine storm in COVID-19 is limited. Therapies such as Janus kinase inhibitors (JAK) inhibitors and Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1) antagonists are still in research. Besides, pharmaceutical treatments, use of blood purification strategies, and convalescent plasma may be life-saving options in some of the critically ill COVID-19 patients. For these therapies, there is a need to generate further evidence to substantiate their use in CRS management. Conclusion:Current management of COVID-19 is preventive and supportive. Different therapies can be used to prevent and treat the cytokine storm. More research is needed for further supporting the use of these treatments in COVID-19. How to cite this article:Mehta Y, Dixit SB, Zirpe KG, Ansari AS. Cytokine Storm in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Expert Management Considerations. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(6):429-434.