Pathology Associated With Streptococcus spp. Infection in Baboons (Papio spp.).
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus spp. are a source of morbidity and mortality in captive nonhuman primate populations. However, little is known about the lesions associated with naturally occurring streptococcal infections in baboons (Papio spp.). The pathology database of the Southwest National Primate Research Center was searched for all baboon autopsies from 1988 to 2018 in which Streptococcus spp. were cultured. Baboons on experimental protocol were excluded. The gross autopsy and histopathology reports were reviewed. Archived specimens were retrieved and reviewed as needed for confirmation or clarification. Fifty-six cultures were positive for Streptococcus spp. in 54 baboons with evidence of bacterial infection. Associated gross lesions included purulent exudate, fibrinous to fibrous adhesions, hemorrhage, mucosal thickening, organomegaly, and abscessation. Histologic lesions included suppurative inflammation, abscessation, necrosis, hemorrhage, fibrin accumulation, and thrombosis. Lungs and pleura (n = 31) were the most commonly infected organ followed by the central nervous system (n = 16), spleen (n = 15), soft tissues (n = 12), air sacs, liver, peritoneum, adrenal glands, heart, lymph nodes, uterus, kidneys, biliary system, bones, ears, umbilical structures, mammary glands, pancreas, placenta, and salivary glands. Infections by non-?-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. predominated in the lungs and air sacs; the most common isolate was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infections by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. predominated in the soft tissues and reproductive tract. Naturally occurring ?-hemolytic and non-?-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. infections cause morbidity and mortality in captive baboon populations. The lesions associated with streptococcal infection are similar to those reported in human infection. Thus, the baboon may represent an underutilized model for studying Streptococcus spp. as pathogens.
Project description:Babesia spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasites that infect mammalian red blood cells. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of Babesia infection in a colony of captive baboons and to evaluate potential experimental routes of the transmission of the hemoparasite. DNA was extracted from the blood of baboons and tested for infection with Babesia by PCR and primers that amplify the 18s rRNA gene of the parasite. The overall prevalence of infection of Babesia in the baboon population was 8.8% (73 of 830). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced DNA from 2 baboons revealed that the Babesia isolate found in captive baboons was a novel species most closely related (97% to 99%) to B. leo. Blood from a Babesia-infected donor baboon was inoculated intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously into 3 naive baboons. The intravenously inoculated baboon was PCR-positive at 7 d after inoculation; the 2 baboons inoculated by other routes became PCR-positive at 10 d after inoculation. All 3 baboons remained PCR-positive for Babesia through day 31. Baboons experimentally inoculated with the new Babesia isolate did not exhibit clinical signs of babesiosis during the experiments. We demonstrated that captive baboons are infected with a novel Babesia isolate. In addition we showed that Babesia can be transmitted in the absence of the organism's definitive host (ticks) by transfer of infected blood through intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous routes to naive baboons.
Project description:The Old World non-human primates (NHP) - baboons (Papio spp.) share similarities with humans regarding fetal and placental development and some pregnancy-related complications. Information about the mechanism of birth and complications arising during parturition in these species is relatively sparse. In this manuscript, we add information from a series of pathological and observational cases to highlight insights and selected complications of birth in Papio spp, based on video-recording of the delivery process, X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound evaluations in pregnant baboons. Additionally, we abstracted pathology records obtained from perinatal loss in a large baboon colony during a 17 year period. The presented cases provide important information for the management of pregnancy and delivery in Papio spp.
Project description:Baboons naturally infected with simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) are a potentially useful model system for the study of vaccination against human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV). Here we expanded the number of available full-length baboon STLV-1 sequences from one to three and related the T cell responses that recognize the immunodominant Tax protein to the tax sequences present in two individual baboons. Continuously growing T cell lines were established from two baboons, animals 12141 and 12752. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of complete STLV genome sequences from these T cell lines revealed them to be closely related but distinct from each other and from the baboon STLV-1 sequence in the NCBI sequence database. Overlapping peptides corresponding to each unique Tax sequence and to the reference baboon Tax sequence were used to analyze recognition by T cells from each baboon using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Individual baboons expressed more gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to Tax peptides corresponding to their own STLV-1 sequence than in response to Tax peptides corresponding to the reference baboon STLV-1 sequence. Thus, our analyses revealed distinct but closely related STLV-1 genome sequences in two baboons, extremely low heterogeneity of STLV sequences within each baboon, no evidence for superinfection within each baboon, and a ready ability of T cells in each baboon to recognize circulating Tax sequences. While amino acid substitutions that result in escape from CD8+ T cell recognition were not observed, premature stop codons were observed in 7% and 56% of tax sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from animals 12141 and 12752, respectively.IMPORTANCE It has been estimated that approximately 100,000 people suffer serious morbidity and 10,000 people die each year from the consequences associated with human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection. There are no antiviral drugs and no preventive vaccine. A preventive vaccine would significantly impact the global burden associated with HTLV infections. Here we provide fundamental information on the simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) naturally transmitted in a colony of captive baboons. The limited viral sequence heterogeneity in individual baboons, the identity of the viral gene product that is the major target of cellular immune responses, the persistence of viral amino acid sequences that are the major targets of cellular immune responses, and the emergence in vivo of truncated variants in the major target of cellular immune responses all parallel what are seen with HTLV infection of humans. These results justify the use of STLV-infected baboons as a model system for vaccine development efforts.
Project description:Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques is often characterized by high viremia and CD4 T cell depletion. By contrast, SIV infection in African nonhuman primate natural hosts is typically nonpathogenic despite active viral replication. Baboons are abundant in Africa and have a geographical distribution that overlaps with natural hosts, but they do not harbor SIVs. Previous work has demonstrated baboons are resistant to chronic SIV infection and/or disease in vivo but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using in vitro SIVmac infections, we sought to identify SIV restriction factors in baboons by comparing observations to the pathogenic rhesus macaque model. SIVmac replicated in baboon PBMC but had delayed kinetics compared to rhesus PBMC. However, SIVmac replication in baboon and rhesus isolated CD4 cells were similar to the kinetics seen for rhesus PBMC, demonstrating intracellular restriction factors do not play a strong role in baboon inhibition of SIVmac replication. Here, we show CD8 T cells contribute to the innate SIV-suppressive activity seen in naïve baboon PBMC. As one mechanism of restriction, we identified higher production of MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and RANTES by baboon PBMC. Contact between CD4 and CD8 T cells resulted in maximum production of these chemokines and suppression of viral replication, whereas neutralization of CCR5-binding chemokines in baboon PBMC increased viral loads. Our studies indicate baboon natural restriction of SIVmac replication is largely dependent on CD4-extrinsinc mechanisms mediated, in part, by CD8 T cells.
Project description:Simian hemorrhagic fever virus is an arterivirus that naturally infects species of African nonhuman primates causing acute or persistent asymptomatic infections. Although it was previously estimated that 1% of baboons are SHFV-positive, more than 10% of wild-caught and captive-bred baboons tested were SHFV positive and the infections persisted for more than 10 years with detectable virus in the blood (100-1000 genomes/ml). The sequences of two baboon SHFV isolates that were amplified by a single passage in primary macaque macrophages had a high degree of identity to each other as well as to the genome of SHFV-LVR, a laboratory strain isolated in the 1960s. Infection of Japanese macaques with 100PFU of a baboon isolate consistently produced high level viremia, pro-inflammatory cytokines, elevated tissue factor levels and clinical signs indicating coagulation defects. The baboon virus isolate provides a reliable BSL2 model of viral hemorrhagic fever disease in macaques.
Project description:It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.
Project description:Baboons (genus Papio) are distributed over most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Six distinct morphotypes, with clearly defined geographic distributions, are recognized (the olive, chacma, yellow, Guinea, Kinda, and hamadryas baboons). The evolutionary relationships among baboon forms have long been a controversial issue. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the modern baboon morphotypes are mitochondrially paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The discordance between mitochondrial lineages and morphology is indicative of extensive introgressive hybridization between ancestral baboon populations. To gain insights into the evolutionary relationships among morphotypes and their demographic history, we performed an analysis of nuclear variation in baboons. We sequenced 13 noncoding, putatively neutral, nuclear regions, and scored the presence/absence of 18 polymorphic transposable elements in a sample of 45 baboons belonging to five of the six recognized baboon forms. We found that the chacma baboon is the sister-taxon to all other baboons and the yellow baboon is the sister-taxon to an unresolved northern clade containing the olive, Guinea, and hamadryas baboons. We estimated that the diversification of baboons occurred entirely in the Pleistocene, the earliest split dating ?1.5 million years ago, and that baboons have experienced relatively large and constant effective population sizes for most of their evolutionary history (?30,000 to 95,000 individuals).
Project description:Oral Campylobacter species are rarely reported to cause extraoral infections. Here we present three cases of extraoral abscess caused by an oral Campylobacter sp. and a Streptococcus sp. The Campylobacter species were all isolated anaerobically and identified by sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The cases included a breast abscess caused by Campylobacter rectus and a non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in a patient with lymphoma, a liver abscess caused by Campylobacter curvus and an alpha-hemolytic streptococcus in a patient with complicated ovarian cancer, and a postobstructive bronchial abscess caused by C. curvus and group C beta-hemolytic Streptococcus constellatus in a patient with lung cancer. The abscesses were drained or resected, and the patients were treated with antibiotics with full resolution of the lesions. The C. curvus cases are likely the first reported infections by this organism, and the C. rectus case represents the second such reported extraoral infection.
Project description:Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus for which non-human primates are the permissive host. The baboon (Papio spp.) is an old world monkey that is used in a variety of research investigations; however, natural infection of SV40 among baboons has not been thoroughly examined or reported. Initially, we were interested in determining the prevalence of SV40 infection among a captive colony of baboons based on the presence of antibodies to SV40 large T-antigen (Tag). An overall seroprevalence rate of >50% was found after screening sera from 142 baboons in the colony based on ELISA. Endpoint titer values for serum antibody binding to SV40 Tag reached as high as 1280 for 5 out of 142 baboons. Peptide binding assays revealed that a range of SV40 Tag epitopes are immunogenic in the baboon, and that individual animals differ in their humoral immune responses to SV40 Tag based on epitope recognition. Specificity to SV40 Tag and not some other primate polyomavirus encoded large Tag was further examined by serologic reactivity to peptide epitopes unique to SV40 Tag. Additional serology was performed to assess SV40 Tag reactivity by Western blot and whether antibodies were capable of neutralizing SV40 infectivity in vitro. Although antibodies with high levels of SV40 neutralization were observed in a number of the baboons, there was a lack of correlation between viral neutralization and antibodies to SV40 Tag. Further examination using molecular-based diagnosis and SV40 Tag specific real-time quantitative PCR determined that some of the baboons appeared to be exposed to SV40. DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products confirmed that SV40 Tag specific sequences were detected in baboons.
Project description:Blood smear evaluation of two baboons (Papio cynocephalus) experiencing acute hemolytic crises following experimental stem cell transplantation revealed numerous intraerythrocytic organisms typical of the genus Babesia. Both animals had received whole-blood transfusions from two baboon donors, one of which was subsequently found to display rare trophozoites of Entopolypoides macaci. An investigation was then undertaken to determine the prevalence of hematozoa in baboons held in our primate colony and to determine the relationship, if any, between the involved species. Analysis of thick and thin blood films from 65 healthy baboons (23 originating from our breeding facility, 26 originating from an out-of-state breeding facility, and 16 imported from Africa) for hematozoa revealed rare E. macaci parasites in 31%, with respective prevalences of 39, 35, and 12%. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene sequences amplified from peripheral blood of a baboon chronically infected with E. macaci demonstrated this parasite to be most closely related to Babesia microti (97.9% sequence similarity); sera from infected animals did not react in indirect fluorescent-antibody tests with Babesia microti antigen, however, suggesting that they represent different species. These results support an emerging view that the genus Entopolypoides Mayer 1933 is synonymous with that of the genus Babesia Starcovici 1893 and that the morphological variation noted among intracellular forms is a function of alteration in host immune status. The presence of an underrecognized, but highly enzootic, Babesia sp. in baboons may result in substantial, unanticipated impact on research programs. The similarity of this parasite to the known human pathogen B. microti may also pose risks to humans undergoing xenotransplantation, mandating effective screening of donor animals.