Distinct infrastructure of lipid networks in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in overweight humans.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Adipose tissue plays important roles in health and disease. Given the unique association of visceral adipose tissue with obesity-related metabolic diseases, the distribution of lipids between the major fat depots located in subcutaneous and visceral regions may shed new light on adipose tissue-specific roles in systemic metabolic perturbations. OBJECTIVE:We sought to characterize the lipid networks and unveil differences in the metabolic infrastructure of the 2 adipose tissues that may have functional and nutritional implications. METHODS:Paired visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained from 17 overweight patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Ultra-performance LC-MS was used to measure 18,640 adipose-derived features; 520 were putatively identified. A stem cell model for adipogenesis was used to study the functional implications of the differences found. RESULTS:Our analyses resulted in detailed lipid metabolic maps of the 2 major adipose tissues. They point to a higher accumulation of phosphatidylcholines, triacylglycerols, and diacylglycerols, although lower ceramide concentrations, in subcutaneous tissue. The degree of unsaturation was lower in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) phospholipids, indicating lower unsaturated fatty acid incorporation into adipose tissue. The differential abundance of phosphatidylcholines we found can be attributed at least partially to higher expression of phosphatidylethanolamine methyl transferase (PEMT). PEMT-deficient embryonic stem cells showed a dramatic decrease in adipogenesis, and the resulting adipocytes exhibited lower accumulation of lipid droplets, in line with the lower concentrations of glycerolipids in VAT. Ceramides may inhibit the expression of PEMT by increased insulin resistance, thus potentially suggesting a functional pathway that integrates ceramide, PEMT, and glycerolipid biosynthetic pathways. CONCLUSIONS:Our work unveils differential infrastructure of the lipid networks in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and suggests an integrative pathway, with a discriminative flux between adipose tissues.
Project description:CONTEXT:Adipose tissue inflammation and dysregulated energy homeostasis are key mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. Distinct adipose tissue depots strongly differ in their metabolic profiles; however, comprehensive studies of depot-specific perturbations among patients with cancer are lacking. OBJECTIVE:We compared transcriptome profiles of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from patients with colorectal cancer and assessed the associations of different anthropometric measures with depot-specific gene expression. DESIGN:Whole transcriptomes of VAT and SAT were measured in 233 patients from the ColoCare Study, and visceral and subcutaneous fat area were quantified via CT. RESULTS:VAT compared with SAT showed elevated gene expression of cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Increased fat area was associated with downregulated lipid and small molecule metabolism and upregulated inflammatory pathways in both compartments. Comparing these patterns between depots proved specific and more pronounced gene expression alterations in SAT and identified unique associations of integrins and lipid metabolism-related enzymes. VAT gene expression patterns that were associated with visceral fat area poorly overlapped with patterns associated with self-reported body mass index (BMI). However, subcutaneous fat area and BMI showed similar associations with SAT gene expression. CONCLUSIONS:This large-scale human study demonstrates pronounced disparities between distinct adipose tissue depots and reveals that BMI poorly correlates with fat mass-associated changes in VAT. Taken together, these results provide crucial evidence for the necessity to differentiate between distinct adipose tissue depots for a correct characterization of gene expression profiles that may affect metabolic health of patients with colorectal cancer.
Project description:Metabolic and transcriptomic differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments, particularly in the context of obesity, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the differential functions of their metabolic compositions.Biochemical differences between adipose tissues (VAT compared with SAT) in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were investigated by using mass spectrometry metabolomics and gene expression profiling. Metabolite compositions were compared between VAT, SAT, and serum metabolites. The relation between patients' tumor stage and metabolic profiles was assessed.Presurgery blood and paired VAT and SAT samples during tumor surgery were obtained from 59 CRC patients (tumor stages I-IV) of the ColoCare cohort. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure 1065 metabolites in adipose tissue (333 identified compounds) and 1810 metabolites in serum (467 identified compounds). Adipose tissue gene expression was measured by using Illumina's HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChips.Compared with SAT, VAT displayed elevated markers of inflammatory lipid metabolism, free arachidonic acid, phospholipases (PLA2G10), and prostaglandin synthesis-related enzymes (PTGD/PTGS2S). Plasmalogen concentrations were lower in VAT than in SAT, which was supported by lower gene expression of FAR1, the rate-limiting enzyme for ether-lipid synthesis in VAT. Serum sphingomyelin concentrations were inversely correlated (P = 0.0001) with SAT adipose triglycerides. Logistic regression identified lipids in patients' adipose tissues, which were associated with CRC tumor stage.As one of the first studies, we comprehensively assessed differences in metabolic, lipidomic, and transcriptomic profiles between paired human VAT and SAT and their association with CRC tumor stage. We identified markers of inflammation in VAT, which supports prior evidence regarding the role of visceral adiposity and cancer.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Accelerated transmembrane transport of long-chain fatty acids dependent on fatty acid transporters is responsible for lipid accumulation and, eventually, the development of metabolic syndrome. This study determined the content of lipids (ceramide [CER], diacylglycerol [DAG], triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid [FFA]) and the expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue of women with morbid obesity without metabolic syndrome (MetSx-) or with metabolic syndrome (MetSx+) and compared the results with those of lean controls without metabolic syndrome. METHODS:Lipid content and fatty acid composition in each lipid subclass were estimated by gas liquid chromatography. For total, plasma membrane, and mitochondrial expression of fatty acid transporters, subfractionation with subsequent Western blot technique was used. RESULTS:A greater content of triacylglycerol in VAT of participants with obesity (MetSx-) was found. However, only the MetSx+ subjects had increased content of CER in VAT in relation to subcutaneous adipose tissue in MetSx+ and lean individuals. This was accompanied by increased total and membrane expression of FAT/CD36 in VAT in MetSx+ subjects. Accordingly, mitochondrial expression of FAT/CD36 and plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein was decreased in both groups of subjects with obesity. CONCLUSIONS:Metabolic syndrome is associated with the accumulation of CER in VAT, possibly related to increased FAT/CD36 protein expression.
Project description:The prevalence of abdominal obesity exceeds that of general obesity. We sought to determine the prevalence of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral obesity and to characterize the different patterns of fat distribution in a community-based sample.Participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 3,348, 48% women, mean age 52 years) underwent multidetector computed tomography; subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes were assessed. Sex-specific high SAT and VAT definitions were based on 90th percentile cut points from a healthy referent sample. Metabolic risk factors were examined in subgroups with elevated SAT and VAT.The prevalence of high SAT was 30% (women) and 31% (men) and that for high VAT was 44% (women) and 42% (men). Overall, 27.8% of the sample was discordant for high SAT and high VAT: 19.9% had SAT less than but VAT equal to or greater than the 90th percentile, and 7.9% had SAT greater than but VAT less than the 90th percentile. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher among women and men with SAT less than the 90th percentile and high VAT than in those with high SAT but VAT less than the 90th percentile, despite lower BMI and waist circumference. Findings were similar for hypertension, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol.Nearly one-third of our sample has abdominal subcutaneous obesity, and >40% have visceral obesity. Clinical measures of BMI and waist circumference may misclassify individuals in terms of VAT and metabolic risk.
Project description:Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio), and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.045, P = 0.499), whereas VAT (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (r = 0.214, P = 0.001) remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (? = 0.204, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (? = 0.163, P = 0.008) but not with SAT (? = 0.097, P = 0.111). Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults.
Project description:BACKGROUND:White adipose tissue (WAT) browning confers beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. However, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not as susceptible to browning as subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). AIM:Interpreting the heterogeneity of VAT and SAT in brown remodeling and provide promising lipid targets to promote WAT browning. METHODS:We first investigated the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation by CL316,243 on systemic metabolism. Then, high-coverage targeted lipidomics approach with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was utilized to provide extensive detection of lipid metabolites in VAT and SAT. RESULTS:CL316,243 notably ameliorated the systemic metabolism and induced brown remodeling of SAT but browning resistance of VAT. Comprehensive lipidomics analysis revealed browning heterogeneity of VAT and SAT with more dramatic alteration of lipid classes and species in VAT rather than SAT, though VAT is resistant to browning. Adrenergic stimulation differentially affected glycerides content in VAT and SAT and boosted the abundance of more glycerophospholipids species in VAT than in SAT. Besides, CL316,243 increased sphingolipids in VAT without changes in SAT, meanwhile, elevated cardiolipin species more prominently in VAT than in SAT. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated the browning heterogeneity of WAT and identified potential lipid biomarkers which may provide lipid targets for overcoming VAT browning resistance.
Project description:Objectives:Lipodystrophies are characterized by regional or generalized loss of adipose tissue and severe metabolic complications. The role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in the development of metabolic derangements in lipodystrophy is unknown. The study aim was to investigate VAT contribution to metabolic disease in lipodystrophy versus healthy controls. Methods:Analysis of correlations between VAT volume and biomarkers of metabolic disease in 93 patients and 93 age/sex-matched healthy controls. Results:Patients with generalized lipodystrophy (n = 43) had lower VAT compared with matched controls, while those with partial lipodystrophy (n = 50) had higher VAT versus controls. Both groups with lipodystrophy had lower leg fat mass versus controls (p < 0.05 for all; unpaired t-test). In both generalized and partial lipodystrophy, there was no correlation between VAT and glucose, triglycerides or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p > 0.05 for all; Spearman correlation). In controls matched to patients with generalized or partial lipodystrophy, VAT correlated with glucose (R = 0.42 and 0.36), triglycerides (R = 0.36 and 0.60) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (R = -0.34 and -0.64) (p < 0.05 for all; Spearman correlation). Conclusions:In contrast to healthy controls, metabolic derangements in lipodystrophy did not correlate with VAT volume. These data suggest that, in lipodystrophy, impaired peripheral subcutaneous fat deposition may exert a larger effect than VAT accumulation on the development of metabolic complications. Interventions aimed at increasing functional subcutaneous adipose tissue may provide metabolic benefit.
Project description:Cardiometabolic diseases are primarily linked to enlarged visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, some data suggest heterogeneity within the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) depot with potential metabolic differences between the superficial SAT (sSAT) and deep SAT (dSAT) compartments. We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of these three depots with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition and gene expression. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected from 75 obese women undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. FA composition and gene expression were determined with gas chromatography and quantitative real-time-PCR, respectively. Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) activity was estimated by product-to-precursor FA ratios. All polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) with 20 carbons were consistently lower in VAT than either SAT depots, whereas essential PUFA (linoleic acid, 18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3) were similar between all three depots. Lauric and palmitic acid were higher and lower in VAT, respectively. The SCD-1 product palmitoleic acid as well as estimated SCD-1 activity was higher in VAT than SAT. Overall, there was a distinct association pattern between lipid metabolizing genes and individual FAs in VAT. In conclusion, SAT and VAT are two distinct depots with regard to FA composition and expression of key lipogenic genes. However, the small differences between sSAT and dSAT suggest that FA metabolism of SAT is rather homogenous.
Project description:Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2)) under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44?6, PC-O 44?4, PC-O 42?4, PC-O 40?4, and PC-O 40?3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.
Project description:The current study tested the hypothesis that glucose utilization differs between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and investigated potential mechanisms for such a finding.VAT burden correlates better with cardiovascular risk than does SAT burden. Beyond volumetric measurement, glucose uptake in adipose tissue (AT) might reflect metabolic activity and provide pathophysiologic insight and aid risk stratification.We retrospectively studied tissue-specific glucose uptake in vivo in clinically obtained whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans in humans. We also assessed glucose uptake in vitro, using stromal vascular cells isolated from SAT and VAT of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluated the expression of multiple genes involved in cellular glucose metabolism, including glucose transporters (GLUT-1, -3, and -4) and hexokinases (HK-1 and -2) in SAT and VAT of obese C57BL/6 mice.We analyzed whole-body FDG-PET scans from 31 obese and 26 lean patients. VAT exhibited higher FDG uptake compared with SAT (p < 0.0001) independent of age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, and medications. To investigate mechanisms underlying this observation, we studied glucose uptake in the stromal vascular cell fraction of AT, which is rich in inflammatory cells. Stromal vascular cells from VAT of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice exhibited higher glucose uptake than those from SAT (p = 0.01). Evaluation of expression of glucose transporters (GLUT-1, -3, and -4) and hexokinases (HK-1 and -2), revealed increased expression of HK-1 in VAT-derived compared with SAT-derived stromal vascular cells, and also in visceral versus subcutaneous unfractionated AT.In humans in vivo, VAT has increased glucose uptake compared with SAT, as determined noninvasively with FDG PET imaging. Differential stromal metabolic activity may be 1 mechanism underlying differences in metabolic activity of visceral and subcutaneous AT.