Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in children in upper Egypt using assemblage- specific PCR technique.
ABSTRACT: Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal protozoan parasite, causing diarrheal illness in humans worldwide. Yet, the distribution of G. duodenalis genotypes among human patients and their clinical relevance remains controversial. This study aimed to detect G. duodenalis in children in Upper Egypt and identify causative genotypes and elucidate a possible correlation between genotype and clinical presentation. One hundred sixty-five children, regardless of symptoms, were tested for giardiasis. Giardia positive stool samples (40/165) were subjected to PCR amplification targeting the tpi gene with positive PCR results in only 35 cases (87.5%). Assemblage-specific amplification of genotypes (A, B, and the zoonotic E strains) revealed predominantly G. duodenalis Assemblage A (45.7%). Assemblage B and mixed A and B infections were detected in 31.4% and 22.8% of children, respectively. Assemblage E was not detected. G. duodenalis assemblage A was dominant in children who complained of diarrhea and abdominal cramps. In contrast, asymptomatic children with positive stool samples display a higher frequency of assemblage B and mixed infections. The study highlights the predominance of Giardia Assemblage A in our study locality. This study is the first for this endemic area to use the copro-PCR technique for diagnosis and genotyping of giardiasis. Study results show the value of simple species-specific primers for genotyping in communities with little access to laboratory resources. Further genetic studies are needed to clarify the association between parasite genetic diversity and patient symptomatology.
Project description:The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country.In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013-January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and ?-giardin (BG) genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed.Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%), AII (15.3%), BIII (4.0%), AI (0.8%), and AIII (0.8%). Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability observed in other molecular surveys. BIV was the most prevalent genetic variant of G. duodenalis found in individuals with symptomatic giardiasis in the population under study.Human giardiasis is an ongoing public health problem in Spain affecting primarily young children under four years of age but also individuals of all age groups. Our typing and sub-typing results demonstrate that assemblage B is the most prevalent G. duodenalis assemblage circulating in patients with clinical giardiasis in Central Spain. Our analyses also revealed a large genetic variability in assemblage B (but not assemblage A) isolates of the parasite, corroborating the information obtained in similar studies in other geographical regions. We believe that molecular data presented here provide epidemiological evidence at the population level in support of the existence of genetic exchange within assemblages of G. duodenalis.
Project description:Giardiasis is considered the most common intestinal parasitic disease in humans worldwide. In Cuba, this infection has particularly a strong clinical impact on the child population. Giardia duodenalis is a highly diverse protozoan, which comprises a complex of eight morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. The present study used triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes as genetic markers for the identification of G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in correlation with clinical and epidemiological data in children attended at the Paediatric Hospital "William Soler" and at Pedro Kouri Institute, between 2015 and 2016. A prevalence of 8% of G. duodenalis infection was recorded in stool samples after concentration techniques from 68 children out of 847 analysed. A 100% detection of Giardia DNA was achieved by a SSU-rRNA PCR, whereas DNA from 63 of 68 (92.6%) was successfully amplified by tpi-PCR. By this assemblage-specific tpi-PCR 32 (50.8%) assemblage B, 17 (27.0%) assemblage A and 14 (22.2%) mixed infection (A + B) were identified. Assemblage B was significantly (P < 0.02) more frequently found in children with diarrhoea. Sequence analysis of the tpi gene of Giardia isolates from symptomatic children showed that assemblage A belonged to the sub-assemblage AII, and 4 sub assemblages BIV and 1 sub assemblage BIII were also recorded. Only 2 discordant genotyping results were observed by phylogenetic comparison of SSU-rRNA and tpi sequences. Further studies with novel molecular tools for a better discrimination at the sub-assemblage level are needed to identify the dynamics of spread of giardiasis and to verify possible correlations between Giardia genetic diversity and clinical manifestation.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is the etiologic agent of giardiasis in humans and other mammals worldwide. The burden of disease is high among children in developing countries where sanitation is inadequate. However, the epidemiology and genetic diversity of this parasite is poorly understood in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in asymptomatic children in Oromia Special Zone, central Ethiopia.A total of 286 fresh fecal specimens were collected from children and screened using microscopy and PCR. The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was 10.8 % (31/286) and 16.8 % (48/286) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The infection rate by the study area, sex and age group difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Genotyping results showed that 22.9 % (11/48) of the isolates belonged to assemblage A while 77.1 % (37/48) belonged to assemblage B. Although double peaks were observed at the chromatogram level, no mixed assemblage or sub-assemblage infections were demonstrated. Isolates of assemblage A mostly belonged to the sub-assemblage AII and showed similarity with previously described isolates. However, there was great genetic variability within assemblage B that showed heterogeneous nucleotide positions. Fifteen of them were new genotypes: 5 at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), 2 at the β-giardin (bg), and 8 at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes.Giardia duodenalis mainly assemblage B infection was predominant among the asymptomatic children in the study area. The high polymorphism found in isolates of assemblage B warrants a more defining tool to discriminate assemblage B at the sub-assemblage level. The findings of the present study indicate that there is a need to carry out national screening programs aiming to detect asymptomatic infections to minimize the reservoir of the disease.
Project description:Giardiasis, caused by Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis, Giardia lamblia), is a significant zoonotic parasitic disease of animals and humans worldwide. Accurate genotyping of G. duodenalis is essential for efficient control and management of giardiasis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and assemblages of giardiasis in pigs in Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, and for the first time study multilocus genotypes (MLGs) in pigs using multilocus genotyping technology in this region.Of 560 faecal samples collected from five farms in Shaanxi Province, 45 were positive for G. duodenalis and significant differences in prevalence were observed among different locations. Differences in prevalence were also detected in pigs of different age groups, with the highest prevalence in sows and the lowest in boars. Two assemblages, A and E, were identified, and a mixed infection of both A and E was identified in one faecal sample. Assemblage E was predominant and widely distributed in all investigated areas and age groups. Genetic viability was detected for both assemblages, and four different multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) within assemblage E were found, MLGE1-MLGE4.Giardia duodenalis was detected in pigs from Shaanxi Province, northwestern China, and genetic diversity was observed in these infections. Both assemblages A and E were detected, and four distinct MLGs within assemblage E were identified. These findings provide new data for controlling G. duodenalis infection in pigs.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is one of the main enteric pathogens associated with diarrheal disease. In developing countries, giardiasis is a major public health concern, particularly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis causing human infections in Shushtar County, Southwestern Iran. Individual faecal specimens were collected from 1,163 individuals (male/female ratio: 0.9; age range 2-75 years) with (n = 258) and without (n = 905) gastrointestinal symptoms living in rural and urban settings during the period 2017-2018. Conventional (sucrose flotation and microscopy) methods were used for the initial detection of G. duodenalis cysts in faecal specimens. Microscopy-positive samples were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (ssu rRNA) gene of the parasite. A multilocus genotyping (MLG) scheme targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and the beta-giardin (bg) genes was used for genotyping purposes. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 7.7% (90/1,163) of samples by microscopy, of which 82 were confirmed by ssu-PCR. Successful amplification and sequencing results were obtained for 23.2% (19/82), 9.8% (8/82), and 8.5% (7/82) of the confirmed samples at the tpi, gdh, and bg loci, respectively. MLG data for the three loci were available for two samples only. Out of the 24 samples genotyped at any loci, 50% (12/24) were identified as assemblage A and the remaining half as assemblage B. Overall, AII was the most prevalent sub-assemblage detected (41.7%, 10/24), followed by BIII (25.0%, 6/24), discordant BIII/BIV (5/24) or AII/AIII (2/24) sequences, and BIV (1/24). No significant correlation was demonstrated between a given assemblage/sub-assemblage and the occurrence of clinical symptoms. No genotypes adapted to animal hosts other than humans (e.g. assemblages C-F) were found circulating in the investigated human population, suggesting that transmission of human giardiasis in this Iranian region is primarily of anthroponotic nature. Further molecular-based studies are needed to confirm and expand these results, and to ascertain the presence and public health relevance of the parasite in environmental (e.g. drinking water) samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated parasite that causes diarrhea in humans and other animals. Although G. duodenalis is found in companion animals worldwide, information regarding the prevalence and genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in pet chipmunks in China is limited. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of G. duodenalis in pet chipmunks in Sichuan province, southwestern China, as well as to assess zoonotic potential of revealed assemblages. RESULTS:A total of 279 fecal samples were collected from pet chipmunks in seven pet shops and one breeding facility in Sichuan province, southwestern China. The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 8.6% (24/279), as determined by nested PCR detection of the beta giardin (bg) gene. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were determined using multilocus genotyping of the bg, triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci. Two assemblages were identified: potentially zoonotic assemblage A (54.2%, 13/24) and rodent-specific assemblage G (45.8%, 11/24). A total of 24, 17 and 17 sequences of the bg, gdh and tpi loci, respectively, were successfully obtained, which formed four, four and three subtypes, respectively. Moreover, four assemblage A (MLGs A1-A4) and three assemblage G (MLGs G1-G3) multilocus genotypes were identified. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigated G. duodenalis in pet chipmunks in China. Detection of assemblage A in pet chipmunks and in previous studies in humans suggests a possible role of chipmunks as a reservoir for human giardiasis in Sichuan Province, China.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is a common and widespread intestinal protozoan parasite of both humans and animals. Previous epidemiological and molecular studies have identified Giardia infections in different animals and humans, but only limited information is available about the occurrence and genotypes of Giardia in cattle in China. In this study, we determined the occurrence of giardiasis and genetically characterized G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Henan Province, central China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 7.2% (128/1777) on microscopic analysis, with the highest infection rate (22.7%) in calves aged less than 1 month. G. duodenalis assemblages and subtypes were identified with multilocus genotyping based on the SSU rRNA, ?-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Two assemblages were detected in the successfully sequenced samples: assemblage A (n?=?58), assemblage E (n?=?21), with a mixed E and A assemblage (n?=?2). Four novel subtypes of the gdh gene and seven of the bg gene were found among the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates. Using the nomenclature for the multilocus genotype (MLG) model, nine novel multilocus genotypes E (MLGs E1-E9) and three MLGs A (a novel subtype AI, previously detected subtype AII-1, and a combination of both) were identified. MLG AII-1 identified in this study may be an important zoonotic subtype. The dairy cattle in Henan are a potential public health concern.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic intestinal protozoan worldwide So far, seven assemblages have recognized for G. duodenalis (A-G) and there are the firm findings which assemblages A and B have zoonotic potential and assemblage E in livestock. In the presented work, the G. duodenalis isolate were determined genetically by the single PCR ssu-rRNA and nested PCR of triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes in asymptomatic and symptomatic sheep and goats from Ahvaz, south west of Iran. The results revealed that only assemblage E, livestock-associated G. duodenalis was present in sheep and goat isolates. The results also presented 19.8 and 15.9 % prevalence of G. duodenalis infection sheep and goats under 12 month age, respectively. There was a significant relationship between formless stool and existence of isolates. We suggest although G. duodenalis is prevalent in sheep and goats but, these animals have no zoonotic risk for giardiasis in Ahvaz, Iran, but this parasite may play a role on enteric disorder of sheep and goats.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries.We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and ?-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene.The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study.Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly, the elevated degree of genetic diversity observed within assemblage B is consistent with the occurrence of intra-assemblage recombination in G. duodenalis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a flagellate parasite which has been considered the most common protozoa infecting human worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates have revealed the existence of eight groups (Assemblage A to H) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify assemblage's related risk factors of G. duodenalis among Orang Asli in Malaysia. Stool samples were collected from 611 individuals aged between 2 and 74 years old of whom 266 were males and 345 were females. Socioeconomic data were collected through a pre-tested questionnaire. All stool samples were processed with formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining techniques for the primary identification of G. duodenalis. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a triosephosphate isomerase gene using nested-PCR assay. RESULTS: Sixty-two samples (10.2%) were identified as assemblage A and 36 (5.9%) were assemblage B. Risk analysis based on the detected assemblages using univariate and logistic regression analyses identified subjects who have close contact with household pets i.e. dogs and cats (OR?=?2.60; 95% CI?=?1.42, 4.78; P?=?0.002) was found to be significant predictor for assemblage A. On the other hand, there were three significant risk factors caused by assemblage B: (i) children ?15 years old (OR?=?2.33; 95% CI?=?1.11, 4.87; P?=?0.025), (ii) consuming raw vegetables (OR?=?2.82; 95% CI?=?1.27, 6.26; P?=?0.011) and (iii) the presence of other family members infected with giardiasis (OR?=?6.31; 95% CI?=?2.99, 13.31; P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlighted that G. duodenalis infection among Orang Asli was caused by both assemblages with significant high prevalence of assemblage A. Therefore, taking precaution after having contact with household pets and their stool, screening and treating infected individuals, awareness on the importance of good health practices and washing vegetables are the practical intervention ways in preventing giardiasis in Orang Asli community.