Regulating soil bacterial diversity, community structure and enzyme activity using residues from golden apple snails.
ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the golden apple snail (GAS, Pomacea canaliculata), which is a serious agricultural pest in Southeast Asia, can provide a soil amendment for the reversal of soil acidification and degradation. However, the impact of GAS residue (i.e., crushed, whole GAS) on soil bacterial diversity and community structure remains largely unknown. Here, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to measure bacterial abundance and community structure in soils amended with GAS residue and lime. The results suggest that adding GAS residue resulted in a significant variation in soil pH and nutrients (all P?
Project description:Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbiological processes (that is, nitrification and denitrification). Soil amended with biochar (charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass) has been demonstrated to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and affect greenhouse gas emissions, for example, reduce N2O emissions. Despite several studies on variations in the general microbial community structure due to soil biochar amendment, hitherto the specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in mitigating soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. We performed a microcosm study with a water-saturated soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil.
Project description:Negative plant-soil feedback (NPSF) frequently cause replant failure in agricultural ecosystems, which has been restricting the sustainable development of agriculture. Biochar application has appealing effects on soil improvement and potential capacity to affect NPSF, but the process is poorly understood. Here, our study demonstrated that biochar amendment can effectively alleviate the NPSF and this biochar effect is strongly linked to soil microorganism in a sanqi (Panax notoginseng) production system. High-throughput sequencing showed that the bacterial and fungal communities were altered with biochar amendment, and bacterial community is more sensitive to biochar amendment than the fungal community. Biochar amendment significantly increased the soil bacterial diversity, but the fungal diversity was not significantly different between biochar-amended and non-amended soils. Moreover, we found that biochar amendment significantly increased the soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, available phosphorus, available potassium, and C/N ratio. The correlation analysis showed that these increased soil chemical variables have a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial diversity. Further analysis of the soil microbial composition demonstrated that biochar soil amendment enriched the beneficial bacterium Bacillus and Lysobacter but suppressed pathogens Fusarium and Ilyonectria. In addition, we verified that biochar had no direct effect on the pathogen Fusarium solani, but can directly enrich biocontrol bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In short, biochar application can mitigate NPSF is mostly due to the fact that biochar soil amendment modified the soil microbiome, especially inhibited pathogens by enriching beneficial bacterium with antagonistic activity against pathogen.
Project description:In this study, the addition of sulfamethazine (SMT) to landfill refuse decreased nitrogen intermediates (e.g. N2O and NO) and dinitrogen (N2) gas fluxes to <0.5??g-N/kg-refuse·h-1, while the N2O and N2 flux were at ~1.5 and 5.0??g-N/kg-refuse·h-1 respectively in samples to which oxytetracycline (OTC) had been added. The ARG (antibiotic resistance gene) levels in the refuse increased tenfold after long-term exposure to antibiotics, followed by a fourfold increase in the N2 flux, but SMT-amended samples with the largest resistome facilitated the denitrification (the nitrogen accumulated as NO gas at ~6??g-N/kg-refuse·h-1) to a lesser extent than OTC-amended samples. Further, deep sequencing results show that long-term OTC exposure partially substituted Hyphomicrobium, Fulvivirga, and Caldilinea (>5%) for the dominant bacterial hosts (Rhodothermus, ~20%) harboring nosZ and norB genes that significantly correlated with nitrogen emission pattern, while sulfamethazine amendment completely reduced the relative abundance of the "original inhabitants" functioning to produce NOx gas reduction. The main ARG carriers (Pseudomonas) that were substantially enriched in the SMT group had lower levels of denitrifying functional genes, which could imply that denitrification is influenced more by bacterial dynamics than by abundance of ARGs under antibiotic pressures.
Project description:Bioremediation offers a sustainable approach for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the environment; however, information regarding the microbial communities involved remains limited. In this study, microbial community dynamics and the abundance of the key gene (PAH-RHD?) encoding a ring hydroxylating dioxygenase involved in PAH degradation were examined during degradation of phenanthrene in a podzolic soil from the site of a former timber treatment facility. The 10,000-fold greater abundance of this gene associated with Gram-positive bacteria found in phenanthrene-amended soil compared to unamended soil indicated the likely role of Gram-positive bacteria in PAH degradation. In contrast, the abundance of the Gram-negative PAHs-RHD? gene was very low throughout the experiment. While phenanthrene induced increases in the abundance of a small number of OTUs from the Actinomycetales and Sphingomonadale, most of the remainder of the community remained stable. A single unclassified OTU from the Micrococcaceae family increased ~20-fold in relative abundance, reaching 32% of the total sequences in amended microcosms on day 7 of the experiment. The relative abundance of this same OTU increased 4.5-fold in unamended soils, and a similar pattern was observed for the second most abundant PAH-responsive OTU, classified into the Sphingomonas genus. Furthermore, the relative abundance of both of these OTUs decreased substantially between days 7 and 17 in the phenanthrene-amended and control microcosms. This suggests that their opportunistic phenotype, in addition to likely PAH-degrading ability, was determinant in the vigorous growth of dominant PAH-responsive OTUs following phenanthrene amendment. This study provides new information on the temporal response of soil microbial communities to the presence and degradation of a significant environmental pollutant, and as such has the potential to inform the design of PAH bioremediation protocols.
Project description:We collected urban soil samples impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a sorbent-based remediation field trial to address concerns about unwanted side-effects of 2% powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) activated carbon amendment on soil microbiology and pollutant biodegradation. After three years, total microbial cell counts and respiration rates were highest in the GAC amended soil. The predominant bacterial community structure derived from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) shifted more strongly with time than in response to AC amendment. DGGE band sequencing revealed the presence of taxa with closest affiliations either to known PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus jostii RHA-1, or taxa known to harbor PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus erythropolis, in all soils. Quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction yielded similar dioxygenases gene copy numbers in unamended, PAC-, or GAC-amended soil. PAH availability assessments in batch tests showed the greatest difference of 75% with and without biocide addition for unamended soil, while the lowest PAH availability overall was measured in PAC-amended, live soil. We conclude that AC had no detrimental effects on soil microbiology, AC-amended soils retained the potential to biodegrade PAHs, but the removal of available pollutants by biodegradation was most notable in unamended soil.
Project description:The amendment of crop residues produced under elevated CO2 (eCO2) may alter soil microbial community structure and their functions on residue decomposition and carbon (C) cycling in soil. The key to understanding this process is to elucidate the structure of prokaryotic communities that metabolize crop residues derived from eCO2. A soil incubation experiment was conducted to explore the response of soil microbial community to the amendment of 13C-labeled soybean residues produced under ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 . The residues were applied to a Mollisol, followed by 13C-DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) and Illumina sequencing on soil prokaryotic community over time. The structure of residue-metabolizing community differed in response to the amendment of eCO2- and aCO2-derived residues after 28 days of incubation. In particular, genera Actinomadura, Nocardia, Non-omuraea, and Shimazuella were the dominant members of the residue-metabolizing bacteria, which contributed to this difference. The relative abundances of genera Actinomadura, Nocardia and Shimazuella were 118-144%, 71-113%, and 2-4-fold higher in the Mollisol amended with aCO2-derived than eCO2-derived residue. In contrast, the relative abundance of Non-omuraea was 87-90% greater in the eCO2-residue treatment. However, during the incubation period, there was no difference between the two residue treatments in the community structure as a whole without SIP. These results implied that a pioneering prokaryotic community metabolized the residue initially prior to the entire community. Those bacteria genera being inhibited with the amendment of the eCO2-derived residue, compared to aCO2-derived residue, were likely preferential to metabolize recalcitrant C, which might be associated with changes of chemical composition of the residue under eCO2.
Project description:We examined the effect of biochar on the water-soluble arsenic (As) concentration and the extent of organochlorine degradation in a co-contaminated historic sheep-dip soil during a 180-d glasshouse incubation experiment. Soil microbial activity, bacterial community and structure diversity were also investigated. Biochar made from willow feedstock (Salix sp) was pyrolysed at 350 or 550°C and added to soil at rates of 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 (representing 30 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1). The isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH (lindane), underwent 10-fold and 4-fold reductions in concentration as a function of biochar treatment. Biochar also resulted in a significant reduction in soil DDT levels (P < 0.01), and increased the DDE:DDT ratio. Soil microbial activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01) under all biochar treatments after 60 days of treatment compared to the control. 16S amplicon sequencing revealed that biochar-amended soil contained more members of the Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Dyadobacter and Pseudomonadaceae which are known bioremediators of hydrocarbons. We hypothesise that a recorded short-term reduction in the soluble As concentration due to biochar amendment allowed native soil microbial communities to overcome As-related stress. We propose that increased microbiological activity (dehydrogenase activity) due to biochar amendment was responsible for enhanced degradation of organochlorines in the soil. Biochar therefore partially overcame the co-contaminant effect of As, allowing for enhanced natural attenuation of organochlorines in soil.
Project description:Regulatory pressure along with environmental and human health concerns drive the development of soil fumigation alternatives such as soil biosolarization (SBS). SBS involves tarping soil that is at field capacity with a transparent film following amendment with certain organic materials. Heating via the greenhouse effect results in an increase of the soil temperature. The organic amendments can promote microbial activity that can enhance pest inactivation by depleting oxygen, producing biopesticidal fermentation products, and competing with pests. The properties of the organic amendments can heavily influence the type and magnitude of these effects. This study evaluated the viability of chitin as a novel SBS soil amendment to influence soil fungal and bacterial microbial communities, including control of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (FOL). Changes to FOL and the broader soil microbiota were monitored in response to biosolarization using 0.1% (by dry weight) amendment with chitin (Rootguard). FOL suppression was only observed in chitin amended soils that were incubated at room temperature, not under solarized conditions. Conversely, it decreased solarization efficacy in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer. The presence of chitin also showed increase in FOL under anaerobic and fluctuating temperature regime conditions. Biosolarization with chitin amendment did exhibit an impact on the overall soil microbial community. The fungal genus Mortierella and the bacterial family Chitinophagaceae were consistently enriched in biosolarized soils with chitin amendment. This study showed low potential FOL suppression due chitin amendment at the studied levels. However, chitin amendment showed a higher impact on the fungal community than the bacterial community. The impact of these microbial changes on crop protection and yields need to be studied in the long-term.
Project description:Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, predominantly as urea, is a major source of reactive N in the environment, with wide ranging effects including increased greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere and aquatic eutrophication. The soil microbial community is the principal driver of soil N cycling; thus, improved understanding of microbial community responses to urea addition has widespread implications. We used next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities in eight contrasting agricultural soil types amended with 0, 100, or 500 ?g N g-1 of urea and incubated for 21 days. We hypothesized that urea amendment would have common, direct effects on the abundance and diversity of members of the microbial community associated with nitrification, across all soils, and would further affect the broader heterotrophic community resulting in decreased diversity and variation in abundances of specific taxa. Significant (P < 0.001) differences in bacterial community diversity and composition were observed by site, but amendment with only the greatest urea concentration significantly decreased Shannon indices. Expansion in the abundances of members of the families Microbacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, and Nitrosomonadaceae were also consistently observed among all soils (linear discriminant analysis score ? 3.0). Analysis of nitrifier genera revealed diverse, soil-specific distributions of oligotypes (strains), but few were correlated with nitrification gene abundances that were reported in a previous study. Our results suggest that the majority of the bacterial and archaeal community are likely unassociated with N cycling, but are significantly negatively impacted by urea application. Furthermore, these results reveal that amendment with high concentrations of urea may reduce nitrifier diversity, favoring specific strains, specifically those within the nitrifying genera Nitrobacter, Nitrospira, and Nitrosospira, that may play significant roles related to N cycling in soils receiving intensive urea inputs.
Project description:Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major greenhouse gas, and its concentration in the atmosphere is increasing continuously, hence there is an urgent need to reduce its level in the atmosphere. Soils offer a large natural sink to store CO2. This study focuses on sequestering CO2 in the agricultural soils as inorganic carbon, which can be accomplished by adding alkaline-earth silicates. Wollastonite is used in this study as a soil amendment, to sequester CO2 via the geochemical route of mineral carbonation. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mixing a wide range of dosages of wollastonite, as a soil amendment, on the growth performance of two leguminous plants frequently used in agricultural sector: soybean and alfalfa. The plants were grown with different wollastonite dosages (3-20 kg·m-2 for soybean and 3-40 kg·m-2 for alfalfa), for a duration of 14 weeks in a microplot experiment in Ontario, Canada. The second objective was to find evidence of enhanced weathering of wollastonite in soil, in addition to the augmentation of inorganic carbon content in soil. For this, mineralogical assessment of the soils was performed using XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. Wollastonite increased the soybean yield by two-fold in the plot amended with 10 kg·m-2. At all dosages, wollastonite increased the alfalfa growth in terms of height and above-ground biomass dry weight, as well as root biomass. The rate of CO2 sequestration, at optimum wollastonite dosage, reached 0.08 kg CO2·m-2·month-1. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses indicated accumulation of calcite in wollastonite-amended soil and formation of other weathering products. The results obtained from this study help to understand the impact of wollastonite soil amendment on agronomy, and will aid in implementing such negative emissions technology by informing farmers and industry alike that the use of wollastonite contributes toward global climate change mitigation while supporting crop yield. The findings of this study add to the existing body of knowledge on enhanced weathering as an atmospheric CO2 removal technology, providing further evidence that wollastonite weathering in agricultural soils can lead to significant capacity for CO2 sequestration as inorganic carbon, while concurrently promoting plant growth.