Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain T2.3D-1.1, Isolated from 121.8 Meters Deep in the Subsurface of the Iberian Pyrite Belt.
ABSTRACT: Shewanella sp. strain T2.3D-1.1 was isolated from the deep subsurface of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. We report its draft genome sequence, consisting of 49 scaffolds, with a chromosome of ?4.6?Mb and a 23.8-kb plasmid. The chromosome annotation identified 4,068 coding DNA sequences, 1 rRNA operon, and 108 tRNA genes.
Project description:Rhizobium sp. strain T2.30D-1.1 was isolated from the deep subsurface of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. We report its draft genome, consisting of 60 contigs with a chromosome of ≈4.6 Mb and a plasmid of 179 kb. The annotation revealed 4,526 coding DNA sequences, 45 tRNA genes, and 1 rRNA operon.
Project description:Rhodoplanes sp. strain T2.26MG-98 was isolated from the deep subsurface of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. We report its draft genome, consisting of 214 contigs with a chromosome of ?5.6?Mb and a 53.7-kb plasmid. The chromosome annotation identified 4,994 coding DNA sequences, 1 rRNA operon, and 57 tRNA genes.
Project description:Despite being considered an extreme environment, several studies have shown that life in the deep subsurface is abundant and diverse. Microorganisms inhabiting these systems live within the rock pores and, therefore, the geochemical and geohydrological characteristics of this matrix may influence the distribution of underground biodiversity. In this study, correlative fluorescence and Raman microscopy (Raman-FISH) was used to analyze the mineralogy associated with the presence of members of the genus <i>Acidovorax</i>, an iron oxidizing microorganisms, in native rock samples of the Iberian Pyrite Belt subsurface. Our results suggest a strong correlation between the presence of <i>Acidovorax</i> genus and pyrite, suggesting that the mineral might greatly influence its subsurface distribution.
Project description:The draft genome of Brevundimonas sp. strain T2.26MG-97, isolated at a depth of 492.6 m in the subsurface of the Iberian Pyrite Belt, is reported here. It consists of 262 scaffolds with a total genome length of 3.68 Mbp, where 3,549 coding DNA sequences have been annotated.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Tessaracoccus sp. strain T2.5-30, which consists of a chromosome with 3.2 Mbp, 70.4% G+C content, and 3,005 coding DNA sequences. The strain was isolated from a rock core retrieved at a depth of 139.5 m in the subsurface of the Iberian Pyritic Belt (Spain).
Project description:The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) hosts one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic mine wastes and pit lakes. The mineralogical and textural characteristics of the IPB ores have favored the oxidation and dissolution of metallic sulfides, mainly pyrite, and the subsequent formation of acidic mining drainages. This work reports the physical properties, hydrogeochemical characteristics, and microbial diversity of two pit lakes located in the IPB. Both pit lakes are acidic and showed high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals. Concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals were higher in the Nuestra Señora del Carmen lake (NSC) by one order of magnitude than in the Concepción (CN) lake. The hydrochemical characteristics of NSC were typical of acid mine waters and can be compared with other acidic environments. When compared to other IPB acidic pit lakes, the superficial water of CN is more diluted than that of any of the others due, probably, to the strong influence of runoff water. Both pit lakes showed chemical and thermal stratification with well defined chemoclines. One particular characteristic of NSC is that it has developed a chemocline very close to the surface (2 m depth). Microbial community composition of the water column was analyzed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. The microorganisms detected in NSC were characteristic of acid mine drainage (AMD), including iron oxidizing bacteria (Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) and facultative iron reducing bacteria and archaea (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidiphilium, Actinobacteria, Acidimicrobiales, Ferroplasma) detected in the bottom layer. Diversity in CN was higher than in NSC. Microorganisms known from AMD systems (Acidiphilium, Acidobacteria and Ferrovum) and microorganisms never reported from AMD systems were identified. Taking into consideration the hydrochemical characteristics of these pit lakes and the spatial distribution of the identified microorganisms, a model explaining their geomicrobiology is advanced.
Project description:The control of pyrite (FeS2) oxidation from a source is a problem of great concern on treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Compared with air and water, the effect of light on pyrite oxidation has not attracted enough attention. However, we found that pyrite photocorrosion in the light promoted the oxidation of pyrite. Herein, we introduce a method of coating pyrite with graphene oxide (GO), which can inhibit the oxidation and photocorrosion of pyrite while it can also degrade organic pollutants. The characterization results show that a covalent bond forms between the GO and pyrite. The stable and uniform GO coating prevents the permeation of O2 and H2O and promotes the transfer of photogenerated electrons. Moreover, it changes the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) levels of GO-pyrite. All of these are vital for preventing the corrosion of pyrite and promoting its photocatalytic ability. More importantly, the effect of CB and VB levels on the oxidized species was discussed. The inhibition of photocorrosion is achieved by the reaction of GO with the photoinduced h+, •OH, and •O2 -. The study provides insights for source treatment of AMD under light and the reuse of massive abandoned pyrite.
Project description:The mass-independent minor oxygen isotope compositions (?'17O) of atmospheric O2 and [Formula: see text] are primarily regulated by their relative partial pressures, [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] Pyrite oxidation during chemical weathering on land consumes [Formula: see text] and generates sulfate that is carried to the ocean by rivers. The ?'17O values of marine sulfate deposits have thus been proposed to quantitatively track ancient atmospheric conditions. This proxy assumes direct [Formula: see text] incorporation into terrestrial pyrite oxidation-derived sulfate, but a mechanistic understanding of pyrite oxidation-including oxygen sources-in weathering environments remains elusive. To address this issue, we present sulfate source estimates and ?'17O measurements from modern rivers transecting the Annapurna Himalaya, Nepal. Sulfate in high-elevation headwaters is quantitatively sourced by pyrite oxidation, but resulting ?'17O values imply no direct tropospheric [Formula: see text] incorporation. Rather, our results necessitate incorporation of oxygen atoms from alternative, 17O-enriched sources such as reactive oxygen species. Sulfate ?'17O decreases significantly when moving into warm, low-elevation tributaries draining the same bedrock lithology. We interpret this to reflect overprinting of the pyrite oxidation-derived ?'17O anomaly by microbial sulfate reduction and reoxidation, consistent with previously described major sulfur and oxygen isotope relationships. The geologic application of sulfate ?'17O as a proxy for past [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] should consider both 1) alternative oxygen sources during pyrite oxidation and 2) secondary overprinting by microbial recycling.
Project description:Pyrite, the most abundant metal sulphide on Earth, is known to spontaneously form hydrogen peroxide when exposed to water. In this study the hypothesis that pyrite-induced hydrogen peroxide is transformed to hydroxyl radicals is tested.Using a combination of electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping techniques and scavenging reactions involving nucleic acids, the formation of hydroxyl radicals in pyrite/aqueous suspensions is demonstrated. The addition of EDTA to pyrite slurries inhibits the hydrogen peroxide-to-hydroxyl radical conversion, but does not inhibit the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Given the stability of EDTA chelation with both ferrous and ferric iron, this suggests that the addition of the EDTA prevents the transformation by chelation of dissolved iron species.While the exact mechanism or mechanisms of the hydrogen peroxide-to-hydroxyl radical conversion cannot be resolved on the basis of the experiments reported in this study, it is clear that the pyrite surface promotes the reaction. The formation of hydroxyl radicals is significant because they react nearly instantaneously with most organic molecules. This suggests that the presence of pyrite in natural, engineered, or physiological aqueous systems may induce the transformation of a wide range of organic molecules. This finding has implications for the role pyrite may play in aquatic environments and raises the question whether inhalation of pyrite dust contributes to the development of lung diseases.
Project description:Pyrite oxidation by mixed mesophilic acidophiles was conducted under conditions of controlled and non-controlled redox potential to investigate the role of sessile microbes in pyrite oxidation. Microbes attached on pyrite surfaces by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and their high coverage rate was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The dissolution of pyrite was negligible if the redox potential was controlled below 650 mV (near the rest potential of pyrite), even though the bacteria were highly active and a high coverage rate was observed on pyrite surfaces. However, with un-controlled redox potential the rate of pyrite oxidation increased greatly with an increasing redox potential. This study demonstrates that sessile microbes play a limited role in pyrite oxidation at a redox potential below 650 mV, and highlight the importance of solution redox potential for pyrite oxidation. This has implications for acid mine drainage control and pyrite oxidation control in biometallurgy practice.