Expression of collagen type 1 alpha 1 indicates lymph node metastasis and poor outcomes in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung.
ABSTRACT: Background:Squamous cell carcinomas of the lung are an extremely common and deadly form of non-small cell lung cancers. Clinical management of the disease is dependent on staging and metastatic status. Metastasis to the lymph node is especially crucial to diagnose as it occurs at an earlier stage. However, lymphadenectomies are invasive and tumor cells may be overlooked during evaluation.There are limited approved biomarkers for predicting lymph node metastasis with squamous cell carcinomas of the lung (LSCC). Methods:Genome data of 60 tumor-adjacent samples were downloaded from Genome Expression Omnibus. We identified over-expressed HUB genes using Cytoscape as key prognostic markers. The selected markers were further evaluated based on gene ontology and overall expression levels compared to normal tissue using The Cancer Genome Atlas. We further validated these results using clinical biopsy tissue taken from squamous cell carcinoma patients. Results:Analysis of the genome expression data resulted in 13 relevant hub genes that were differentially expressed in cancerous samples. All of these genes are associated with collagen biosynthesis within the tumor microenvironment. We chose Collagen Type 1 Alpha 1 (COL1A1) as the most relevant prognostic marker due to its high number of pathway connections and over expression in the tumor microenvironment compared to the other 12 genes. Additionally, based on analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas, tumors with higher levels of COL1A1 expression are associated with poorer overall survival. Finally, evaluation of clinical biopsy samples suggests that overexpression of COL1A1 in the LSCC microenvironment highly correlates with lymph node metastasis. These results suggest COL1A1 is a clinically relevant marker that should be used to justify lymphadenectomies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the most common type in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and the development and progression of LSCC are multistep processes accompanied by changes of molecular biology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and regional lymph node metastasis in LSCC, and provide a set of genes that may be useful for the development of novel diagnostic markers and/or more effective therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A total number of 10 patients who underwent surgery for primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited for microarray analysis. LSCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were analysed by Illumina mRNA microarrays, and LSCC tissues with regional lymph node metastasis and LSCC tissues without regional lymph node metastasis were analyzed in the same manner. The most frequently differently expressed genes screened by microarrays were also validated by qRT-PCR in another 42 patients diagnosed for LSCC. RESULTS: Analysed by Illumina mRNA microarrays, there were 361 genes significantly related to tumorigenesis while 246 genes significantly related to regional lymph node metastasis in LSCC. We found that the six genes (CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4) were most frequently differently expressed functional genes related to tumorigenesis while eIF3a and RPN2 were most frequently differently expressed functional genes related to regional lymph node metastasis in LSCC. The expressions of these genes were also validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: The research revealed a gene expression signature of tumorigenesis and regional lymph node metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Of the total, the deregulation of several genes (CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4, EIF3a and RPN2) were potentially associated with disease development and progression. The result will contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of LSCC and help to improve diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and regional lymph node metastasis in LSCC, and provide a set of genes that may be useful for the development of novel diagnostic markers and/or more effective therapeutic strategies. Methods: A total number of 10 patients who underwent surgery for primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited for microarray analysis. LSCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were analysed by Illumina mRNA microarrays,and LSCC tissues with regional lymph node metastasis and LSCC tissues without regional lymph node metastasis were analyzed in the same manner.The most frequently differently expressed genes screened by microarrays were also validated by qRT-PCR in another 42 patients diagnosed for LSCC . Results: Analysed by Illumina mRNA microarrays,there were 361 genes significantly related to tumorigenesis while 246 genes significantly related to regional lymph node metastasis in LSCC. We found that the six genes (CDK1,CDK2,CDK4,MCM2,MCM3,MCM4) were most frequently differently expressed functional genes related to tumorigenesis while eIF3a and RPN2 were most frequently differently expressed functional genes related to regional lymph node metastasis in LSCC. The expressions of these genes were also validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions: The research revealed a gene expression signature of tumorigenesis and regional lymph node metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.Of the total, the deregulation of several genes (CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4, EIF3a and RPN2) were potentially associated with disease development and progression. The result will contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of LSCC and help to improve diagnosis and treatment. A total number of 10 patients who underwent surgery for primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited for microarray analysis. LSCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were analysed by Illumina mRNA microarrays,and LSCC tissues with regional lymph node metastasis and LSCC tissues without regional lymph node metastasis were analyzed in the same manner.The most frequently differently expressed genes screened by microarrays were also validated by qRT-PCR in another 42 patients diagnosed for LSCC .
Project description:The burgeoning functions of many microRNAs (miRs) have been well study in cancer. However, the level and function of miR-1205 in laryngeal squamous cell cancer remains unknown. In the current research, we validated that miR-1205 was notably downregulated in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) samples in comparison with tissues adjacent to LSCC, and correlated with T stage, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis indicates that high expression of miR-1205 has a favorable prognosis for patients with LSCC. Functional assays show that enforced miR-1205 expression attenuates the migration, growth, and invasion of LSCC cells. And E2F1 is verified to be a target of miR-1205, while E2F1 binds to miR-1205 promoter and transcriptionally inhibits miR-1205 expression. Overexpression of E2F1 reverses the inhibitory impacts of miR-1205 on LSCC cells in part. Importantly, E2F1 is abnormally increased in LSCC tissues, and its protein levels were inversely relevant to miR-1205 expression. High E2F1 protein level is in connection with clinical stage, T stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. Consequently, reciprocal regulation of miR-1205 and E2F1 plays a crucial role in the progression of LSCC, suggesting a new miR-1205/E2F1-based clinical application for patients of LSCC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated the association between B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11A (BCL11A) rs11886868 and rs4671393 polymorphism, plasma BCL11A concentration, and the hazard of developing laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). PARTICIPANTS AND METHOD:In this research, 330 LSCC patients, 310 healthy controls, and 155 vocal leukoplakia patients were genotyped for the BCL11A (rs11886868 C/T and rs4671393 A/G) genotypes by pyrosequencing; the BCL11A concentration was measured using ELISA. RESULTS:LSCC Patients had a notably higher occurrence of CT at rs11886868 (OR = 2.64, P = 0.025) than the control group; they also had higher GG at rs4671393 (OR = 2.53, P = 0.018). Advanced (III and IV) stage LSCC patients had a notably greater frequency of CT at rs11886868 than those with initial (I and II) stage LSCC (OR = 2.71, P = 0.044 vs. OR = 2.58, P = 0.051). Additionally, there was a 1.59 fold increase in susceptibility for initial stage LSCC related to the G allele (AG/GG) at rs4671393 (P = 0.005); while for patients of advanced stage LSCC the OR was 1.73 (P = 0.002). Moreover, the OR of lymph node metastasis patients at rs4671393 G alleles was 2.41 (P < 0.01); it was 1.38 (P = 0.035) in patients without lymph metastasis. Patients with high incidences of the rs4671393 variation genotype had high plasma BCL11A levels. CONCLUSIONS:BCL11A rs11886868 and rs4671393 genotype variations and correspondingly high BCL11A plasma levels are related to LSCC, besides, differences in plasma levels and genotype distribution may be related to lymph node metastasis status and the stage of LSCC.
Project description:The present study investigated the prognostic significance of Wnt family member 5a (Wnt5a) and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2) expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). The protein expression levels of Wnt5a and Ror2 were analyzed in specimens from 137 patients with LSCC, using immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and pairs of LSCC and adjacent tissue samples, and examined the associations between the two markers and various clinicopathological parameters. The Wnt5a and Ror2 expression levels were significantly higher in LSCC tissues than in normal tissue samples (Wnt5a, P=0.015; Ror2, P=0.039), and were significantly associated with high tumor stage (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (Wnt5a, P=0.029; Ror2, P=0.018), and with each other (P=0.002). Patients with LSCC with high Wnt5a or Ror2 expression had poorer prognosis compared with those with low Wnt5a (P=0.022) or Ror2 (P=0.038) expression. Thus, Wnt5a and Ror2 may affect LSCC development, and are potential biomarkers in LSCC.
Project description:Background and objectives: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common head and neck tumors. The molecular mechanism of LSCC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TP53, MDM2, MDM4, MTHFR, CASP8, and CCR5 genes in LSCC, and to assess their correlations with patient survival. Materials and Methods: 49 LSCC patients were enrolled in this study. PCR and qRT-PCR were used to detect, identify, and quantify HPV. SNPs were genotyped using PCR and PCR-RFLP. Results: By analyzing the interactions of the SNPs of the genes with clinical parameters, the majority of patients with lymph node status (N1,2) were identified as carriers of MDM2 T/G, CASP8 ins/del, CCR5 wt/wt SNP. Cluster analysis showed that patients with MDM2 T/T SNP survive longer than patients identified as CASP8 ins/ins, MTHFR C/C, and MDM4 A/A variant carriers; meanwhile, LSCC patients with MDM2 T/T polymorphic variant had the best survival. Multivariate analysis showed that HPV-positive patients without metastasis in regional lymph nodes (N0) and harboring CASP8 ins/del variant had the best survival. Meanwhile, HPV-negative patients with identified metastasis in lymph nodes (N1 and N2) and CASP8 ins/del variant had poor survival. Conclusions: This finding suggests patients survival prognosis and tumor behavior are different according HPV status, SNP variants, and clinical characteristics of the LSCC.
Project description:Regional lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis are critical in the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). This study investigated the roles of miR-144-3p and E26 transformation specific-1 (ETS-1) in the invasion and migration of LSCC cells. The effects of miR-144-3p and ETS-1 on FaDu and Hep2 cell growth, migration and invasion were determined. Suppression of ETS-1 by miR-144-3p was confirmed using luciferase assays; the effects of ETS-1 silencing were determined using a xenograft tumor model. The expression of ETS-1 was analyzed in 71 paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies and eight fresh frozen biopsies obtained from LSCC patients. miR-144-3p inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of FaDu and Hep2 cells in part through suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition as determined by increased E-cadherin and ?-catenin and reduced fibronectin and vimentin expression. Additionally, ETS-1 is a molecular target of miR-144-3p, and silencing ETS-1 expression inhibited FaDu and Hep2 cell invasion and migration as well as reduced Hep2 xenograft tumor volume. In LSCC, the expression of ETS-1 is upregulated with disease progression, and higher ETS-1 expression, which was negatively associated with miR-144-3p levels, adversely corresponded with prognoses. Thus, upregulated ETS-1 levels may promote LSCC metastasis, resulting in poor patient prognosis.
Project description:Lymph nodes are initial sites of tumor metastasis, yet whether the lymph node microenvironment actively promotes tumor metastasis remains unknown. We show here that VEGF-C/PI3K?-driven remodeling of lymph nodes promotes tumor metastasis by activating integrin ?4?1 on lymph node lymphatic endothelium. Activated integrin ?4?1 promotes expansion of the lymphatic endothelium in lymph nodes and serves as an adhesive ligand that captures vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)(+) metastatic tumor cells, thereby promoting lymph node metastasis. Experimental induction of ?4?1 expression in lymph nodes is sufficient to promote tumor cell adhesion to lymphatic endothelium and lymph node metastasis in vivo, whereas genetic or pharmacological blockade of integrin ?4?1 or VCAM-1 inhibits it. As lymph node metastases accurately predict poor disease outcome, and integrin ?4?1 is a biomarker of lymphatic endothelium in tumor-draining lymph nodes from animals and patients, these results indicate that targeting integrin ?4?1 or VCAM to inhibit the interactions of tumor cells with the lymph node microenvironment may be an effective strategy to suppress tumor metastasis.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignant tumor of the head and neck and frequently metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes. Aggressive local invasion and metastasis of OSCC are significant factors for poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated whether ephrin-B2 expressed in OSCC contributed to tumor progression and lymph node metastasis. Clinical specimens from patients with OSCC had robust ephrin-B2-positive tumor cells and ephrin-B2 protein level was associated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor survival outcomes. We also determined that ephrin-B2 protein level was increased in OSCC cell lines compared to normal human oral keratinocytes and that its levels were associated with the migratory and invasive potential of OSCC cell lines. Transfection of an EFNB2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) into SAS-L1 cells significantly reduced proliferation, attachment, migration, and invasion through phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, FAK, ERK1/2, p38, AKT, and JNK1/2 pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of EFNB2 significantly suppressed adhesion and transmigration of SAS-L1 cells toward human lymphatic endothelial cells. In addition, the growth rate of tumor xenografts and cervical lymph node metastases of OSCC were suppressed by local injection of EFNB2 siRNA. These results suggest that ephrin-B2 overexpression and activation of the ephrin-B2 reverse signaling pathway in tumor microenvironment in OSCC facilitates progression and lymph node metastasis via enhancement of malignant potential and interaction with surrounding cells.
Project description:Background and aim: Understanding the molecular biological mechanisms underlying laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) invasion and metastasis is crucial for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. We aimed to examine the expression of the tumor suppressor microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p) and its target gene, forkhead box C1 (FOXC1), in human LSCC and explore their roles in the malignant behaviors of LSCC Hep-2 and TU-177 cells. Methods: The regulatory effects of miR-204-5p on the 3' untranslated region of FOXC1 predicted by bioinformatics were tested by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression in 43 fresh samples of LSCC and corresponding adjacent normal mucosa (ANM). FOXC1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. miR-204-5p mimics and FOXC1 siRNA were transfected into LSCC cell lines Hep-2 and TU-177 to observe malignant behavior. miR-204-5p mimics were injected into Hep-2 or TU-177 xenograft tumors in nude mice to examine tumor growth.Results: The miR-204-5p mRNA level was lower in all 43 LSCC samples than in the ANM samples, but the FOXC1 level was higher in the LSCC samples than in the ANM samples. The miR-204-5p level was lower for stage III and IV cancer and lymph node N+ status samples than for stage I and II cancer and N0 status samples. FOXC1 mRNA and protein levels were higher for N+ than for N0 LSCC. The miR-204-5p mRNA levels were lower in Hep-2 and TU-177 cells than in ANM tissues, but FOXC1 mRNA levels were higher in Hep-2 and TU-177 cells than in ANM tissues. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated the targeted regulatory effects of miR-204-5p on the FOXC1 3' UTR. Cell proliferation and colony formation was facilitated with miR-204-5p mimics and FOXC1 siRNA, with weaker cell migration and invasion than the controls. Moreover, miR-204-5p overexpression or FOXC1 knockdown inhibited the EMT process in LSCC cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that injection of miR-204-5p into Hep-2 and TU-177 xenograft tumors in nude mice significantly inhibited tumor growth. Conclusions: miR-204-5p is involved in the invasion and metastasis of LSCC. It has a targeted regulatory effect on FOXC1 expression; malignant LSCC behaviors, including cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, are suppressed, and tumor growth in vivo is inhibited. This suggests that miR-204-5p may be a target for molecular therapy of LSCC in the future.