Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of co-administered trastuzumab and pertuzumab.
ABSTRACT: Given the increasing use of combination therapy with multiple monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), there is a clinical need for multiplexing assays. For the frequently co-administered anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) mAbs trastuzumab and pertuzumab, we developed a high-throughput and robust hybrid ligand-binding liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS quantitative assay. Nanomolar concentrations of trastuzumab and pertuzumab were determined in 10 µL serum samples after extraction by affinity purification through protein A beads, followed by on-bead reduction, alkylation, and trypsin digestion. After electrospray ionization, quantification was obtained by multiple reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS using SILuMab as an internal standard. The method was validated according to the current guidelines from the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Assay linearity was established in the ranges 0.250-250 ?g/mL for trastuzumab and 0.500-500 ?g/mL for pertuzumab. The method was accurate and selective for the simultaneous determination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab in clinical samples, thereby overcoming the limitation of ligand binding assays that cannot quantify mAbs targeting the same receptor. Furthermore, this method requires a small blood volume, which reduces blood collection time and stress for patients. The assay robustness was verified in a clinical trial where trastuzumab and pertuzumab concentrations were determined in 670 serum samples. As we used commercially available reagents and standards, the described generic bioanalytical strategy can easily be adapted to multiplex quantifications of other mAb combinations in non-clinical and clinical samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:NeoSphere showed significantly higher pathologic complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel compared with trastuzumab plus docetaxel, pertuzumab plus trastuzumab, or pertuzumab plus docetaxel. We assessed associations between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) pathway-related biomarkers and clinical outcome in response to these regimens. METHODS:Tumor, serum, and whole blood samples were collected at baseline and post neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. Associations between biomarkers and pCR, and between biomarkers and clinical variables were assessed in the overall and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative populations. Changes in serum marker levels between baseline and post-neoadjuvant treatment were examined. RESULTS:No markers were associated with pCR across all groups; however, significant associations were observed for two markers in individual groups. High HER2 was significantly associated with higher pCR rates (P?=?0.001) and a significant treatment interaction (P?=?0.0236) with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel (odds ratio 2.07, P?=?0.01). Low serum transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?) was associated with higher pCR rates with pertuzumab plus trastuzumab (P?=?0.04) without a significant treatment interaction. Presence of truncated HER2 did not affect pCR. A non-significant decreased pCR benefit was observed consistently across groups in patients with mutated PIK3CA while the treatment benefit from pertuzumab was maintained when comparing the trastuzumab plus docetaxel and pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel groups. Notably, PIK3CA exon 9 mutations were associated with residual disease (pooled groups), which was not found for exon 20 mutations. Serum HER2 extracellular domain levels were significantly increased between baseline and post-neoadjuvant treatment in the non-trastuzumab-treated group, and decreased in the trastuzumab-containing groups (likely due to trastuzumab's mechanism of action). Differences in biomarker profiles according to ER status were observed. CONCLUSIONS:The observed associations of HER2 protein levels with sensitivity to pertuzumab, and of PIK3CA exon 9 mutation to lack of sensitivity to HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody treatment, warrant further investigation. Previously reported findings of truncated forms of HER2 as resistance markers to HER2-targeted treatment could not be confirmed in NeoSphere. Conventional HER2 assessment should continue and HER2 remains the only biomarker suitable for patient selection in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00545688 . Registered on 16 October 2007.
Project description:The phase III trial of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer included a substudy to determine whether pertuzumab affected the corrected QT (QTc) interval or other electrocardiogram parameters.Triplicate 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements and serum samples were collected before (-30 and -15 min) and after (0-15 and 60-75 min) pertuzumab/placebo infusions (Cycles 1 and 3), and at 72 h post-infusion (Cycle 1). Fridericia's correction was applied to QT measurements (QTcF) and change from baseline (?QTcF) calculated. Statistical analyses were performed on baseline-adjusted, placebo-corrected QTcF values (??QTcF). Linear mixed-effects modeling evaluated potential exposure-response relationships between ?QTcF and observed pertuzumab concentrations.Thirty-seven female patients participated in the substudy. QTcF values in both groups were within the normal range and below critical thresholds of clinical concern. No pertuzumab-treated patient showed abnormal electrocardiogram morphology. In Cycle 1, mean ??QTcF (90 % CI) values at 0-15 min, 60-75 min, and 72 h post-infusion were -6.96 (-13.69, -0.23), -6.35 (-13.57, 0.88), and -4.08 (-12.64, 4.48), all of which were <5 ms, with upper CI limits <10 ms. One Cycle 3 post-infusion mean ??QTcF value exceeded 5 ms. Other electrocardiogram parameters were within normal ranges. Concentration-QTc modeling showed no apparent relationship between ?QTcF and pertuzumab concentrations.Cardiac monitoring and concentration-QTc modeling demonstrated that pertuzumab, combined with trastuzumab and docetaxel, had no clinically relevant effects on QTcF and other electrocardiogram parameters.
Project description:Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are monoclonal antibodies that bind to distinct subdomains of the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Adding these monoclonal antibodies to the treatment regimen of HER2-positive breast cancer has changed the paradigm for treatment in that form of cancer. Synergistic activity has been observed with the combination of these two antibodies leading to hypotheses regarding the mechanism(s) and to the development of bispecific antibodies to maximize the clinical effect further. Although the individual crystal structures of HER2-trastuzumab and HER2-pertuzumab revealed the distinct binding sites and provided the structural basis for their anti-tumor activities, detailed structural information on the HER2-trastuzumab-pertuzumab complex has been elusive. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of HER2-trastuzumab-pertuzumab at 4.36 Å resolution. Comparison with the binary complexes reveals no cooperative interaction between trastuzumab and pertuzumab, and provides key insights into the design of novel, high-avidity bispecific molecules with potentially greater clinical efficacy.
Project description:Pertuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to the HER2 receptor, represents a promising new anti-HER2 agent with a novel mechanism of action targeting the inhibition of HER2 dimerization. Nonclinical and clinical data to date indicate that pertuzumab provides a broader HER2 blockade through the inhibition of HER2 heterodimerization. In preclinical experiments, pertuzumab has demonstrated superior antitumor effects when combined with other anti-HER2 treatments such as trastuzumab, compared to when used as monotherapy. Trastuzumab and pertuzumab monoclonal antibodies bind to distinct epitopes on the HER2 receptor without competing with each other, resulting in distinctive mechanisms for disrupting HER2 signaling. These mechanisms are complementary and result in augmented therapeutic efficacy when pertuzumab and trastuzumab are given in combination. Clinically, pertuzumab may have optimal therapeutic effects when given to patients with HER2-positive cancers, in combination with trastuzumab. This observation is supported by recent clinical trials in the metastatic as well as neoadjuvant setting. Intravenous pertuzumab had an acceptable tolerability profile when added to trastuzumab and chemotherapy. This overview will review recent advances in the clinical development of this HER2-targeted therapy.
Project description:We sequenced untreated BT474 cells, BT474 cells treated for three days with trastuzumab or trastuzumab + pertuzumab, as well as two BT474-derived trastuzumab-resistant pools and two BT474-derived trastuzumab + pertuzumab resistant pools. Resistant pools were generated by culturing BT474 cells in gradually increasing doses of trastuzumab and trastuzumab + pertuzumab over the course of several months and continually maintained in drug. Overall design: Examination of mRNA profiles of 1) BT474 cells 2) BT474 cells treated for three days with trastuzumab 3) BT474 cells treated for three days with trastuzumab + pertuzumab 4) two trastuzumab-resistant cell pools 5) two trastuzumab+pertuzumab resistant cell pools
Project description:Pertuzumab (Perjeta) is an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody that is used for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancers in combination with trastuzumab (Herceptin) and docetaxel and showed promising clinical outcomes. Pertuzumab is suggested to block heterodimerization of HER2 with EGFR and HER3 that abolishes canonical function of HER2. However, evidence on the exact mode of action of pertuzumab in homodimerization of HER2 are limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of pertuzumab and its combination with trastuzumab on HER2 homodimerization, phosphorylation and whole gene expression profile in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably overexpressing human HER2 (CHO-K6). CHO-K6 cells were treated with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and their combination, and then HER2 homodimerization and phosphorylation at seven pY sites were investigated. The effects of the monoclonal antibodies on whole gene expression and the expression of cell cycle stages, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis were studied by cDNA microarray. Results showed that pertuzumab had no significant effect on HER2 homodimerization, however, trastuzumab increased HER2 homodimerization. Interestingly, pertuzumab increased HER2 phosphorylation at Y1127, Y1139, and Y1196 residues, while trastuzumab increased HER2 phosphorylation at Y1196. More surprisingly, combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab blocked the phosphorylation of Y1005 and Y1127 of HER2. Our results also showed that pertuzumab, but not trastuzumab, abrogated the effect of HER2 overexpression on cell cycle in particular G1/S transition, G2/M transition, and M phase, whereas trastuzumab abolished the inhibitory effect of HER2 on apoptosis. Our findings confirm that pertuzumab is unable to inhibit HER2 homodimerization but induces HER2 phosphorylation at some pY sites that abolishes HER2 effects on cell cycle progress. These data suggest that the clinical effects of pertuzumab may mostly through the inhibition of HER2 heterodimers, rather than HER2 homodimers and that pertuzumab binding to HER2 may inhibit non-canonical HER2 activation and function in non-HER-mediated and dimerization-independent pathway(s).
Project description:Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2), is the poster child for antibody-based targeted therapy in breast cancer. Pertuzumab, another humanized monoclonal antibody, binds to a different domain of HER2 and prevents the formation of HER2:HER3 dimers, which is the most potent heterodimer in the HER family. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab has synergistic activity, and is associated with improved clinical outcomes. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy originally as first-line therapy for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer in 2012, and more recently as neoadjuvant therapy for localized disease in 2013. Pertuzumab is the first neoadjuvant drug to receive accelerated approval by the FDA based on pathological complete response as the primary end point. In this article, we review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and current role of pertuzumab in the management of breast cancer, as well as ongoing clinical trials and future directions regarding the utility of pertuzumab as a personalized therapeutic option for HER2-positive breast cancer. In the coming years, we anticipate increased utilization of neoadjuvant trials for drug development, biomarker discovery, and validation, and envision conduct of personalized breast cancer clinics in which therapies will be routinely selected based on genetic alterations in the tumor. Regardless of the targeted therapy combinations employed based on tumor genomic profile, trastuzumab and pertuzumab will likely continue to form the backbone of the personalized regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer.
Project description:Importance:Taxanes with trastuzumab and pertuzumab for initial treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer is associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. While continued use of trastuzumab in therapeutic combinations after disease progression is standard, the efficacy of continuing pertuzumab is unknown. Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab in combination with gemcitabine and trastuzumab after prior treatment with pertuzumab for ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This is a phase 2 single-arm clinical trial of dual anti-ERBB2 therapy after prior treatment with pertuzumab. The study took place at a single academic center from March 2015 to April 2017 among women with ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer, prior pertuzumab-based treatment, and 3 or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens. Data were analyzed between January 2019 and March 2019. Intervention:Treatment consisted of gemcitabine, 1200 mg/m2 (later amended to 1000 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks, plus trastuzumab (8-mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg) and pertuzumab (840-mg loading dose, then 420 mg) once every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was 3-month PFS. Based on prior trials, a target rate of 70% or higher was selected as the promising progression-free rate at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included safety, tolerability, and overall survival. Results:A total of 45 patients (median [range] age, 57.1 [31.7-77.2] years) were enrolled; 22 (49%) were treated in the second-line setting, and 23 (51%) were treated in the third-line setting or beyond. Of these, 22 (49%) received prior trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). At a median (range) follow-up of 27.6 (8.3-36.0) months, 3-month PFS was 73.3% (95% CI, 61.5%-87.5%). Overall, median PFS was 5.5 months (95% CI, 5.4-8.2 months). Treatment was well tolerated, with no occurrences of febrile neutropenia or symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Conclusions and Relevance:In this phase 2 trial, treatment with gemcitabine, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab after prior pertuzumab-based therapy for ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer was associated with a 3-month PFS rate of 73.3% and was well tolerated. Continuation of pertuzumab beyond progression was associated with apparent clinical benefit. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02252887.
Project description:The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves the outcome in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. However, most cases of advanced disease eventually progress. Pertuzumab, an anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor dimerization, has a mechanism of action that is complementary to that of trastuzumab, and combination therapy with the two antibodies has shown promising activity and an acceptable safety profile in phase 2 studies involving patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.We randomly assigned 808 patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer to receive placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel (control group) or pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel (pertuzumab group) as first-line treatment until the time of disease progression or the development of toxic effects that could not be effectively managed. The primary end point was independently assessed progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, progression-free survival as assessed by the investigator, the objective response rate, and safety.The median progression-free survival was 12.4 months in the control group, as compared with 18.5 months in the pertuzumab group (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.75; P<0.001). The interim analysis of overall survival showed a strong trend in favor of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel. The safety profile was generally similar in the two groups, with no increase in left ventricular systolic dysfunction; the rates of febrile neutropenia and diarrhea of grade 3 or above were higher in the pertuzumab group than in the control group.The combination of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel, as compared with placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel, when used as first-line treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, significantly prolonged progression-free survival, with no increase in cardiac toxic effects. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00567190.).
Project description:Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to HER2 and is used in combination with another HER2-specific monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, for the treatment of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Pertuzumab binds to an HER2 binding site distinct from that of trastuzumab, and its affinity is enhanced when trastuzumab is present. We aim to exploit this enhanced affinity of pertuzumab for its HER2 binding epitope and adapt this antibody as a PET imaging agent by radiolabeling with (89)Zr to increase the sensitivity of HER2 detection in vivo. Here, we investigate the biodistribution of (89)Zr-pertuzumab in HER2-expressing BT-474 and HER2-nonexpressing MDA-MB-231 xenografts to quantitatively assess HER2 expression in vivo. In vitro cell binding studies were performed resulting in retained immunoreactivity and specificity for HER2-expressing cells. In vivo evaluation of (89)Zr-pertuzumab was conducted in severely combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneously inoculated with BT-474 and MDA-MB-231 cells. (89)Zr-pertuzumab was systemically administered and imaged at 7 days postinjection (p.i.) followed by terminal biodistribution studies. Higher tumor uptake was observed in BT-474 compared to MDA-MB-231 xenografts with 47.5 ± 32.9 and 9.5 ± 1.7% ID/g, respectively at 7 days p.i (P = 0.0009) and blocking studies with excess unlabeled pertuzumab showed a 5-fold decrease in BT-474 tumor uptake (P = 0.0006), confirming the in vivo specificity of this radiotracer. Importantly, we observed that the tumor accumulation of (89)Zr-pertuzumab was increased in the presence of unlabeled trastuzumab, at 173 ± 74.5% ID/g (P = 0.01). Biodistribution studies correlate with PET imaging quantification using max SUV (r = 0.98, P = 0.01). Collectively, these results illustrate that (89)Zr-pertuzumab as a PET imaging agent may be beneficial for the quantitative and noninvasive assessment of HER2 expression in vivo especially for patients undergoing trastuzumab therapy.