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Multiheme hydroxylamine oxidoreductases produce NO during ammonia oxidation in methanotrophs.

ABSTRACT: Aerobic and nitrite-dependent methanotrophs make a living from oxidizing methane via methanol to carbon dioxide. In addition, these microorganisms cometabolize ammonia due to its structural similarities to methane. The first step in both of these processes is catalyzed by methane monooxygenase, which converts methane or ammonia into methanol or hydroxylamine, respectively. Methanotrophs use methanol for energy conservation, whereas toxic hydroxylamine is a potent inhibitor that needs to be rapidly removed. It is suggested that many methanotrophs encode a hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (mHAO) in their genome to remove hydroxylamine, although biochemical evidence for this is lacking. HAOs also play a crucial role in the metabolism of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizers by converting hydroxylamine to nitric oxide (NO). Here, we purified an HAO from the thermophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV and characterized its kinetic properties. This mHAO possesses the characteristic P460 chromophore and is active up to at least 80 °C. It catalyzes the rapid oxidation of hydroxylamine to NO. In methanotrophs, mHAO efficiently removes hydroxylamine, which severely inhibits calcium-dependent, and as we show here, lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases, which are more prevalent in the environment. Our results indicate that mHAO allows methanotrophs to thrive under high ammonia concentrations in natural and engineered ecosystems, such as those observed in rice paddy fields, landfills, or volcanic mud pots, by preventing the accumulation of inhibitory hydroxylamine. Under oxic conditions, methanotrophs mainly oxidize ammonia to nitrite, whereas in hypoxic and anoxic environments reduction of both ammonia-derived nitrite and NO could lead to nitrous oxide (N2O) production.

SUBMITTER: Versantvoort W 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7533708 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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