Sodium sulfite (SoS) as decontamination strategy for Fusarium-toxin contaminated maize and its impact on immunological traits in pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium sulfite (SoS) treatment of maize and its impact on the porcine immune system in the presence of an LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Control maize (CON) and Fusarium-toxin contaminated maize (FUS) were wet-preserved (20% moisture) for 79 days with (+) or without (-) SoS and then included at 10% in a diet, resulting in four experimental groups: CON-, CON+, FUS-, and FUS+ with deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations of 0.09, 0.05, 5.36, and 0.83 mg DON/kg feed, respectively. After 42-day feeding trial (weaned barrows, n = 20/group), ten pigs per group were challenged intraperitoneally with either 7.5 ?g LPS/kg BW or placebo (0.9% NaCl), observed for 2 h, and then sacrificed. Blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen were collected for phenotyping of different T cell subsets, B cells, and monocytes. Phagocytic activity and intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed in both polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using flow cytometry. Our results revealed that the impact of DON was more notable on CD3+CD4+CD8+ T cells in lymphoid tissues rather than in blood T cells. In contrast, SoS treatment of maize altered leukocyte subpopulations in blood, e.g., reduced the percentage and fluorescence signal of CD8high T cells. Interestingly, SoS treatment reduced the amount of free radicals in basal ROS-producing PMNs only in LPS-challenged animals, suggesting a decrease in basal cellular ROS production (pSoS*LPS = 0.022).
Project description:We investigated the effects of feeding sodium sulfite (SoS) treated uncontaminated and Fusarium contaminated maize in a porcine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge model. Eighty piglets (7.59 ± 0.92 kg body weight [BW]) were equally assigned to one of four experimental diets containing 10% maize, either uncontaminated and untreated (CON-, 0.09 mg deoxynivalenol [DON]/kg diet) or uncontaminated and SoS-treated (CON+, wet-preserved with 5 g SoS/kg maize; 0.05 mg DON/kg diet), or prepared with 10% of a Fusarium contaminated maize containing mainly deoxynivalenol (DON), either contaminated and untreated (FUS-, 5.36 mg DON/kg diet), or contaminated and SoS-treated (FUS+, wet-preserved with 5 g SoS/kg maize; 0.83 mg DON/kg diet). At day 42 of experiment, ten pigs of each group were injected intraperitoneally with either 7.5 µg LPS/kg BW or placebo (0.9% NaCl). At 120 min after injection, blood samples were collected to analyse TNF-?, hematological profile, clinical biochemistry as well as the redox status. A significant increase in body temperature and cytokine TNF-? concentration was observed in the LPS-injected piglets. Results for hematology, clinical chemistry and redox status indicate no effects of SoS treatment, with exception of neutrophil counts being significantly more pronounced after feeding the SoS treated FUS maize. In conclusion, SoS treatment of maize did not modulate the LPS-induced acute inflammation.
Project description:The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of feedstuffs and is supposed to interfere with immune responses. As the relevance for growing bulls is less clear than for other livestock, the trial was designed according to the dose-response principal with a control group fed a diet with background contamination (CON, 0.36 mg DON per kilogram dry matter [DM]) and three groups with increasing concentrations of DON (mg/kg DM); FUS I, 3.01; FUS II, 5.66; FUS III, 8.31. Half of each treatment group was vaccinated against BVDV at days 1 and 21 of the 70 days lasting experiment. Sequential blood samples were collected for determination of antibody titers to BVDV and for hematological and clinical-chemical traits. Antibody response was strongest in group FUS II while group FUS III responded weakest. This group showed the lowest proportion of CD4+ T cells, but also the highest levels of liver lesion indicating enzyme activities in blood. BVDV-vaccination induced a pronounced decrease in red blood count indices, which occurred dose-dependently at a higher level in the FUS-fed groups. The obvious interactions between DON exposure and BVDV-vaccination require further elucidation.
Project description:The sensitivity of pigs to deoxynivalenol (DON) might be influenced by systemic inflammation (SI) which impacts liver. Besides following acute-phase proteins, our aim was to investigate both the hepatic fractional albumin (ALB) synthesis rate (FSR) and the ALB concentration as indicators of ALB metabolism in presence and absence of SI induced by LPS via pre- or post-hepatic venous route. Each infusion group was pre-conditioned either with a control diet (CON, 0.12 mg DON/kg diet) or with a DON-contaminated diet (DON, 4.59 mg DON/kg diet) for 4 wk. A depression of ALB FSR was observed 195 min after LPS challenge, independent of feeding group or LPS application route, which was not paralleled by a down-regulated ALB mRNA expression but by a reduced availability of free cysteine. The drop in ALB FSR only partly explained the plasma ALB concentrations which were more depressed in the DON-pre-exposed groups, suggesting that ALB levels are influenced by further mechanisms. The abundances of haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, pig major acute-phase protein, fibrinogen and LPS-binding protein mRNA were up-regulated upon LPS stimulation but not accompanied by increases in the plasma concentrations of these proteins, pointing at an imbalance between synthesis and consumption.
Project description:Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin that frequently contaminates human food and animal feed, resulting in intestinal diseases and systemic immunosuppression. Glycyrrhinic acid (GA) exhibits various pharmacological activities. To investigate the protective mechanism of GA for DON-induced inflammation and apoptosis in IPEC-J2 cells, RNA-seq analysis was used in the current study. The IPEC-J2 cells were treated with the control group (CON), 0.5??g/mL DON, 400??g/mL GA, and 400??g/mL GA+0.5??g/mL DON (GAD) for 6?h. Results showed that 0.5??g/mL DON exposure for 6?h could induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in IPEC-J2 cells. GA addition could specifically promote the proliferation of DON-induced IPEC-J2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, GA addition significantly increased Bcl-2 gene expression (P < 0.05) and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P < 0.01) and decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, the contents of malonaldehyde, IL-8, and NF-?B (P < 0.05), the relative mRNA abundances of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, COX-2, NF-?B, Bax, and caspase 3 (P < 0.01), and the protein expressions of Bax and TNF-?. Moreover, a total of 1576, 289, 1398, and 154 differentially expressed genes were identified in CON vs. DON, CON vs. GA, CON vs. GAD, and DON vs. GAD, respectively. Transcriptome analysis revealed that MAPK, TNF, and NF-?B signaling pathways and some chemokines played significant roles in the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis induced by DON. GA may alleviate DON cytotoxicity via the TNF signaling pathway by downregulating IL-15, CCL5, and other gene expressions. These results indicated that GA could alleviate DON-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis via the TNF signaling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells.
Project description:Deoxynivalenol (DON), along with 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), occur in grains and cereal products and is often hazardous to humans and livestock. In this study, 579 wheat samples and 606 maize samples intended for consumption were collected from China in 2017 and analyzed to determine the co-occurrence of type-B trichothecenes (DON, 3-ADON, and 15-ADON). All the wheat samples tested positive for DON, while 99.83% of the maize samples were DON-positive with mean DON concentrations of 165.87 and 175.30 ?g/kg, respectively. Per the Chinese standard limits for DON, 3.63% of wheat and 2.97% of the maize samples were above the maximum limit of 1000 ?g/kg. The DON derivatives (3-ADON and 15-ADON) were less frequently found and were present at lower levels than DON in wheat. 3-ADON and 15-ADON had incidences of 13.53% and 76.40%, respectively, in maize. By analyzing the distribution ratio of DON and its derivatives in wheat and maize, DON (95.51%) was the predominant toxin detected in wheat samples, followed by 3.97% for the combination of DON + 3-ADON, while DON + 3-ADON + 15-ADON and DON + 15-ADON were only found in 0.17% and 0.35% of wheat samples, respectively. Additionally, a large amount of the maize samples were contaminated with DON + 15-ADON (64.19%) and DON (22.11%). The samples with a combination of DON + 3-ADON and DON + 3-ADON + 15-ADON accounted for 1.32% and 12.21%, respectively. Only one maize sample did not contain all three mycotoxins. Our study shows the necessity of raising awareness of the co-occurrence of mycotoxin contamination in grains from China to protect consumers from the risk of exposure to DON and its derivatives.
Project description:The present study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and intestinal protective effects of baicalin-copper on deoxynivalenol-challenged piglets. Forty weaned piglets were randomly divided into four groups and assigned to different diets: (1) basal diet (Con), (2) 4?mg/kg deoxynivalenol of basal diet (DON), (3) 5?g/kg baicalin-copper of basal diet (BCU); and (4) 4?mg/kg?deoxynivalenol + 5?g/kg?baicalin-copper of basal diet (DBCU). The results showed that the ADFI and ADG of piglets in the DON group were markedly lower than those in the Con group, but the ADFI and ADG of the DBCU group were not significantly different from those of the Con group. In piglets fed a DON-contaminated diet, dietary supplementation with BCU significantly decreased the mRNA levels of P70S6K, 4E-BP1, and HSP70 in the liver, the protein expression of HO-1 in the jejunum, and the expression of p-Nrf2 and p-NF-?B in the ileum but increased Mn-SOD activity in serum. Dietary supplementation with BCU increased jejunal maltase, ZIP4 and MT mRNA levels, and serum concentrations of Arg, Val, Ile, Leu, Lys, and Tyr in DON-contaminated piglets. In summary, BCU can alleviate the growth impairment induced by DON and enhance antioxidant capacity and nutrition absorption in piglets fed DON-contaminated diets.
Project description:Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the key factor in various intestinal inflammation which could disrupt the epithelial barrier function. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a well-known mycotoxin, can induce intestinal injury. However, the combined enterotoxicity of LPS and DON has rarely been studied. In this study, IPEC-J2 cell monolayers were exposed to LPS and nontoxic-dose DON for 12 and 24 h to investigate the effects of DON on LPS-induced inflammatory response and tight junction variation, and specific inhibitor and CRISPR-Cas9 were used to explore the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced cellular inflammatory response, reflecting on more significant changes of inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, higher protein expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and procaspase-1. Moreover, nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression decreased, and distribution confused of tight junction proteins. We found that DON further enhanced LPS-induced phosphorylation and nucleus translocation of p65, and expression of LC3B-?. NF-?B inhibitor and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LC3B attenuated the effects of combination which indicated nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and tight junction disorder through activating NF-?B signaling pathway and autophagy-related protein LC3B. It further warns that ingesting low doses of mycotoxins may exacerbate the effects of intestinal pathogens on the body.
Project description:Dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) impairs the intestinal functions and performance in broiler chickens, whereas little is known about the effect of DON on the gastrointestinal microbiota. This study evaluated the impact of graded levels of dietary DON contamination on the cecal bacterial microbiota, their predicted metabolic abilities and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles in chickens. In using a single oral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge we further assessed whether an additional intestinal stressor would potentiate DON-related effects on the cecal microbiota. Eighty 1-day-old chicks were fed diets with increasing DON concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg DON per kg diet) for 5 weeks and were sampled after half of the chickens received an oral LPS challenge (1 mg LPS/kg bodyweight) 1 day before sampling. The bacterial composition was investigated by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. DON-feeding decreased (p < 0.05) the cecal species richness (Chao1) and evenness (Shannon) compared to the non-contaminated diet. The phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria tended to linearly increase and decrease with increasing DON-concentrations, respectively. Within the Firmicutes, DON decreased the relative abundance of Oscillospira, Clostridiaceae genus, Clostridium, and Ruminococcaceae genus 2 (p < 0.05), whereas it increased Clostridiales genus 2 (p < 0.05). Moreover, increasing DON levels linearly decreased a high-abundance Enterobacteriaceae genus and an Escherichia/Shigella-OTU (p < 0.05). Changes in the bacterial composition and their imputed metagenomic capabilities may be explained by DON-related changes in host physiology and cecal nutrient availability. The oral LPS challenge only decreased the abundance of an unassigned Clostridiales genus 2 (p = 0.03). Increasing dietary concentrations of DON quadratically increased the cecal total SCFA and butyrate concentration (p < 0.05), whereas a DON × LPS interaction indicated that LPS mainly increased cecal total SCFA, butyrate, and acetate concentrations in chickens fed the diets that were not contaminated with DON. The present findings showed that even the lowest level of dietary DON contamination had modulatory effects on chicken's cecal bacterial microbiota composition and diversity, whereas the additional oral challenge with LPS did not potentiate DON effects on the cecal bacterial composition.
Project description:Although hyperglycemia is causally related to adverse outcomes after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether excessive O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an important cardioprotective enzyme, was a mechanism for the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial I/R injury. Both acute hyperglycemia (AHG) and diabetes (DM)-induced chronic hyperglycemia increased cardiac dysfunction, infarct size and apoptosis index compared with normal saline (NS)+I/R rats (P<0.05). ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification was increased whereas its activity was decreased in AHG+I/R and DM+I/R rats. High glucose (HG, 30mmol/L) markedly increased ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification compared with Con group (5mmol/L) (P<0.05). ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification was increased by 62.9% in Con+PUGNAc group whereas it was decreased by 44.1% in Con+DON group compared with Con group (P<0.05). Accordingly, ALDH2 activity was decreased by 18.1% in Con+PUGNAc group whereas it was increased by 17.9% in Con+DON group. Moreover, DON decreased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), aldehydes, protein carbonyl accumulation and apoptosis index compared with HG+H/R group (P<0.05). Alda-1, a specific activator of ALDH2, significantly decreased ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification and improved infarct size, apoptosis index and cardiac dysfunction induced by I/R combined with hyperglycemia. These findings demonstrate that ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification is a key mechanism for the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial I/R injury and Alda-1 has therapeutic potential for inducing cardioprotection.
Project description:Deoxynivalenol (DON) belongs to the type B group of trichothecenes family, which is composed of sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by Fusarium and other fungi in grain. DON may cause various toxicities, such as cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity as well as teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. In the present study, we focus on a hypothesis that DON alters the expressions of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by inducing embryotoxicity in C57BL/6 mouse (5.0, 2.5, 1.0, and 0 mg/kg/day) and BeWo cell lines (0 and 50 nM; 3 h, 12 h and 24 h). Our results indicate that DON treatment in mice during pregnancy leads to ROS accumulation in the placenta, which results in embryotoxicity. At the same time Nrf2/HO-1 pathway is up-regulated by ROS to protect placenta cells from oxidative damage. In DON-treated BeWo cells, the level of ROS has time-effect and dose-effect relationships with HO-1 expression. Moderate increase in HO-1 protects the cell from oxidative damage, while excessive increase in HO-1 aggravates the oxidative damage, which is called in some studies the "threshold effect". Therefore, oxidative stress may be the critical molecular mechanism for DON-induced embryotoxicity. Besides, Nrf2/HO-1 pathway accompanied by the "threshold effect" also plays an important role against DON-induced oxidative damage in this process.