CircCSNK1G1 Contributes to the Development of Colorectal Cancer by Increasing the Expression of MYO6 via Competitively Targeting miR-455-3p.
ABSTRACT: Background:Numerous circular RNAs (circRNAs) are functionally investigated in various human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we explored the function of circCSNK1G1 and mechanism of action in CRC, aiming to provide evidence for circCSNK1G1 involving in CRC pathogenesis. Methods:The expression of circCSNK1G1, miR-455-3p and Myosin VI (MYO6) were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The functions of circCSNK1G1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cycle and migration/invasion were investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry assay and transwell assay, respectively. The targeted relationship between miR-455-3p and circCSNK1G1 or MYO6 predicted by bioinformatics analysis was validated using dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay. The role of circCSNK1G1 was also explored in nude mice in vivo. Results:The expression of circCSNK1G1 and MYO6 was elevated, while the expression of miR-455-3p was declined in CRC tissues and cells. Silencing circCSNK1G1 inhibited CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. MiR-455-3p was a target of circCSNK1G1, and miR-455-3p could bind to MYO6. CircCSNK1G1 positively regulated MYO6 expression by targeting miR-455-3p. Inhibition of miR-455-3p reversed the effects of circCSNK1G1 silencing in CRC cells. Besides, miR-455-3p restoration blocked CRC cell growth and metastasis, which were abolished by MYO6 overexpression. Moreover, circCSNK1G1 regulated the miR-455-3p/MYO6 axis to block tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion:CircCSNK1G1 participated in the progression of CRC partly by modulating the miR-455-3p/MYO6 network, which provided a theoretical basis for circCSNK1G1 involving in CRC pathogenesis, hinting that circCSNK1G1 might be a useful biomarker for CRC treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) poses a heavy threat to human health owing to its high incidence and mortality. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) were investigated to participate in the progression of CRC, whereas there was no revenant data on the CRC process regulated by hsa_circ_0000231. This study aimed to explore the effects of hsa_circ_0000231 on CRC progression and underneath regulatory mechanism. METHODS:The expression levels of hsa_circ_0000231, miR-502-5p, and Myosin VI (MYO6) mRNA were detected by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Western blot was employed to determine the protein expression levels of MYO6 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The effects of hsa_circ_0000231 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasive in CRC were determined by cell counting kit-8 proliferation (CCK-8) and colony formation assays, flow cytometry analysis, wound-healing assay, and transwell invasion assay, respectively. Glucose uptake and lactate production were severally illustrated by glucose assay kit and lactate assay kit. The relationship between miR-502-5p and hsa_circ_0000231 or MYO6 was predicted by circular RNA interactome or targetScan online databases, and identified by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. In vivo tumor formation assay was carried out to determine the effects of hsa_circ_0000231 knockdown on tumor growth in vivo. RESULTS:Hsa_circ_0000231 expression was dramatically upregulated while miR-502-5p was obviously downregulated in CRC tissues and cells compared with control groups. Hsa_circ_0000231 knockdown repressed the expression levels of MYO6 and PCNA protein. Functionally, hsa_circ_0000231 knockdown repressed cell glycolysis, proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis, whereas these effects were decreased by miR-502-5p inhibitor. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0000231 acted as a sponge of miR-502-5p and miR-502-5p bound to MYO6. Furthermore, hsa_circ_0000231 knockdown decreased tumor volume and weight of CRC in vivo. CONCLUSION:Hsa_circ_0000231 knockdown inhibited CRC progression and glycolysis by downregulating MYO6 expression through sponging miR-502-5p, which might provide a theoretical basis in further studying circ_0000231-directed therapy in CRC.
Project description:The aim of this work was to determine whether miR-455-3p regulates DNA methylation during chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The expression of miR-455-3p and de novo methyltransferase DNMT3A was assessed in micromass culture of hBMSCs, which induced chondrogenic differentiation in vitro, and in E16.5 mice in vivo. A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm whether miR-455-3p directly targets DNMT3A by interaction with the 3'-UTR. Using an Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC microarray, genome-wide DNA methylation of hBMSCs with or without overexpressed miR-455-3p was examined for 28 days during induced chondrogenic differentiation. Here, we showed that miR-455-3p was more expressed during the middle stage of hBMSC chondrogenic differentiation, and less expressed in the late stage. DNMT3A was less expressed in the middle stage and more expressed in the late stage, and was also more expressed in the palms of miR-455-3p deletion mice compared to those of wild-type mice. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-455-3p directly targets DNMT3A 3'-UTR. miR-455-3p overexpression inhibits the degenerate process during chondrogenic differentiation, while deletion of miR-455-3p in mice accelerated cartilage degeneration. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis showed miR-455-3p overexpression regulates DNA methylation of cartilage-specific genes. GO analysis revealed PI3K-Akt signaling pathway was most hypomethylated. Our data show that miR-455-3p can regulate hMSC chondrogenic differentiation by affecting DNA methylation. Overexpression of miR-455-3p and DNA methylation inhibitors can thus potentially be utilized to optimize chondrogenic differentiation.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Few studies have examined the regulatory role of P21-activated kinases (PAKs), a family of serine/threonine kinases, in OA. The aim of this study was to determine whether miR-455-3p can regulate cartilage degeneration in OA by targeting PAK2. MiR-455-3p knockout mice showed significant degeneration of the knee cartilage. MiR-455-3p expression increased and PAK2 expression decreased in the late stage of human adipose-derived stem cell (hADSC) chondrogenesis and in chondrocytes affected by OA. Furthermore, in both miR-455-3p-overexpressing chondrocytes and PAK2-suppressing chondrocytes, cartilage-specific genes were upregulated, and hypertrophy-related genes were downregulated. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-455-3p regulates PAK2 expression by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of PAK2 mRNA. IPA-3, a PAK inhibitor, inhibited cartilage degeneration due to OA. Moreover, suppressing PAK2 promoted R-Smad activation in the TGF/Smad signaling pathway in chondrocytes. Altogether, our results suggest that miR-455-3p promotes TGF-?/Smad signaling in chondrocytes and inhibits cartilage degeneration by directly suppressing PAK2. These results thus indicate that miR-455-3p and PAK2 are novel potential therapeutic agents and targets, respectively, for the treatment of OA.
Project description:Lacking of treatment methods for the patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) underscores the pivotal needs to further understand its biology as well as to find better biomarkers and develop novel therapeutic strategies. Increasing evidences support that aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and may serve as biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes of various cancers. In current study, we found that miR-455-3p and miR-196a-5p were intensively overexpressed in TNBC compared with the hormone receptor (HR) positive breast cancer whereas miR-425-5p was down-regulated by miRNA microarray analysis. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of miR-455-3p in TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 was higher than that in HR positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7(p<0.01). Functional experiments in vitro showed that miR-455-3p enhanced cell proliferative, invasive and migrational abilities in TNBC cell lines. miRNA targets prediction showed SMAD2, LTBR and etoposide induced 2.4 (EI24) were potential target genes of miR-455-3p, and then it was confirmed by qRT-PCR assay. Dual luciferase reporter assay showed the specific binding of miR-455-3p to 3' UTR of EI24 in TNBC. Then we found miR-455-3p inhibited the EI24 expression at the levels of mRNA and protein. Through small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting EI24 gene, there were strengthened capabilities of invasion and migration of TNBC cells, and increased expression of EI24 had the inverse effects. In conclusion, the data suggest that miRNA455-3p promotes invasion and migration by targeting tumor suppressor EI24 and might be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in TNBC.
Project description:The purpose of our study is to understand the protective role of miR-455-3p against abnormal amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, amyloid beta (A?) formation, defective mitochondrial biogenesis/dynamics and synaptic damage in AD progression. In-silico analysis of miR-455-3p has identified the APP gene as a putative target. Using mutant APP cells, miR-455-3p construct, biochemical and molecular assays, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses, we studied the protective effects of miR-455-3p on - 1) APP regulation, amyloid beta (A?)(1-40) & (1-42) levels, mitochondrial biogenesis & dynamics; 3) synaptic activities and 4) cell viability & apoptosis. Our luciferase reporter assay confirmed the binding of miR-455-3p at the 3'UTR of APP gene. Immunoblot, sandwich ELISA and immunostaining analyses revealed that the reduced levels of the mutant APP, A?(1-40) & A?(1-42), and C99 by miR-455-3p. We also found the reduced levels of mRNA and proteins of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1?, NRF1, NRF2, and TFAM) and synaptic genes (synaptophysin and PSD95) in mutant APP cells; on the other hand, mutant APP cells that express miR-455-3p showed increased mRNA and protein levels of biogenesis and synaptic genes. Additionally, expression of mitochondrial fission proteins (DRP1 and FIS1) were decreased while the fusion proteins (OPA1, Mfn1 and Mfn2) were increased by miR-455-3p. Our TEM analysis showed a decrease in mitochondria number and an increase in the size of mitochondrial length in mutant APP cells transfected with miR-455-3p. Based on these observations, we cautiously conclude that miR-455-3p regulate APP processing and protective against mutant APP-induced mitochondrial and synaptic abnormalities in AD.
Project description:A non-invasive and early-detectable peripheral biomarker is urgently needed for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study is a step forward to verify the biomarker properties of human microRNA-455-3p (Hsa-miR-455-3p) in AD patients. Our previous findings on mild cognitive impaired subjects, AD patients and AD cells and mouse models unveiled the miR-455-3p as a potential peripheral biomarker for AD. In the current study, we verified the differential expression of miR-455-3p in postmortem AD brains obtained from NIH NeuroBioBank, and fibroblasts and B-lymphocytes from both familial and sporadic AD patients from Coriell Cell Repository of National Institutes on Aging. Total RNA was extracted from the fibroblasts, B-lymphocytes and AD postmortem brains, and expression of miR-455-3p was measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase RT-PCR. Our real-time RT-PCR analysis showed a significant (P = 0.0002) upregulation of miR-455-3p expression in AD postmortem brains compared to healthy control samples. Expression of miR-455-3p was also upregulated in the fibroblasts from AD patients, however a significant difference in miR-455-3p level was observed in the cells from sporadic AD patients (P = 0.014) compared to healthy controls. Similarly, in B-lymphocytes, miR-455-3p level was also higher (P = 0.044) especially in sporadic AD cases compared to controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated the significant area under ROC curve (AUROC) value of miR-455-3p in AD postmortem brain (AUROC = 0.792; P = 0.001) and AD fibroblasts cells (AUROC = 0.861; P = 0.03), whereas in B-lymphocytes AUROC value of miR-455-3p was not significant. Further, in-silico analysis for miRNA targets predictions showed the binding capacity of miR-455-3p with several AD associated key genes such as APP, NGF, USP25, PDRG1, SMAD4, UBQLN1, SMAD2, TP73, VAMP2, HSPBAP1, and NRXN1. Hence, these observations further revealed that miR-455-3p is a potential biomarker for AD and its possible therapeutic target for AD.
Project description:The purpose of our study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) as early detectable peripheral biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To achieve our objective, we assessed miRNAs in serum samples from AD patients and Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects relative to healthy controls. We used Affymetrix microarray analysis and validated differentially expressed miRNAs using qRT-PCR. We further validated miRNA data using AD postmortem brains, amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice and AD cell lines. We identified a gradual upregulation of four miRNAs: miR-455-3p, miR-4668-5p, miR-3613-3p and miR-4674. A fifth miRNA, mir-6722, was down-regulated in persons with AD and mild cognitive impairment compared with controls. Validation analysis by qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation of only miR-455-3p (P?=?0.007) and miR-4668-5p (P?=?0.016) in AD patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis of the AD postmortem brains with different Braak stages also showed upregulation of miR-455-3p (P?=?0.016). However, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curve analysis revealed a significant area under curve (AUC) value only for miR-455-3p in the serum (AUROC?=?0.79; P?=?0.015) and brains (AUROC?=?0.86; P?=?0.016) of AD patients. Expression analysis of amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice also revealed high level of mmu-miR-455-3p (P?=?0.004) in the cerebral cortex (AD-affected) region of brain and low in the non-affected area, i.e. cerebellum. Furthermore, human and mouse neuroblastoma cells treated with the amyloid-?(1-42) peptide also showed a similarly higher expression of miR-455-3p. Functional analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs via the miR-path indicated that miR-455-3p was associated in the regulation of several biological pathways. Genes associated with these pathways were found to have a crucial role in AD pathogenesis. An increase in miR-455-3p expression found in AD patients and A? pathologies unveiled its biomarker characteristics and a precise role in AD pathogenesis.
Project description:GATA3 is a basic and essential transcription factor that regulates many pathophysiological processes and is required for the development of mammary luminal epithelial cells. Loss-of-function GATA3 alterations in breast cancer are associated with poor prognosis. Here, we sought to understand the tumor-suppressive functions GATA3 normally performs. We discovered a role for GATA3 in suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer by activating miR-455-3p expression. Enforced expression of miR-455-3p alone partially prevented EMT induced by transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) both in cells and tumor xenografts by directly inhibiting key components of TGF-? signaling. Pathway and biochemical analyses showed that one miRNA-455-3p target, the TGF-?-induced protein ZEB1, recruits the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex to the promotor region of miR-455 to strictly repress the GATA3-induced transcription of this microRNA. Considering that ZEB1 enhances TGF-? signaling, we delineated a double-feedback interaction between ZEB1 and miR-455-3p, in addition to the repressive effect of miR-455-3p on TGF-? signaling. Our study revealed that a feedback loop between these two axes, specifically GATA3-induced miR-455-3p expression, could repress ZEB1 and its recruitment of NuRD (MTA1) to suppress miR-455, which ultimately regulates TGF-? signaling. In conclusion, we identified that miR-455-3p plays a pivotal role in inhibiting the EMT and TGF-? signaling pathway and maintaining cell differentiation. This forms the basis of that miR-455-3p might be a promising therapeutic intervention for breast cancer.
Project description:The aims of the present study are to determine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production, and to identify the role of microRNA-455-3p (miR-455-3p) during those processes. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the expression of miR-455-3p, eNOS protein and the NO production was detected after administration with 50??M NaHS. The results indicated that H2S could augment the expression of miR-455-3p and eNOS protein, leading to the increase of NO level. We also found that overexpression of miR-455-3p in HUVECs increased the protein levels of eNOS whereas inhibition of miR-455-3p decreased it. Moreover, H2S and miR-455-3p could no longer increase the protein level of eNOS in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, MG-132. In vivo, miR-455-3p and eNOS expression were considerably increased in C57BL/6 mouse aorta, muscle and heart after administration with 50??mol/kg/day NaHS for 7 days. We also identified that H2S levels and miR-455-3p expression increased in human atherosclerosis plaque while H2S levels decreased in plasma of atherosclerosis patients. Our data suggest that the stability of eNOS protein and the NO production could be regulated by H2S through miR-455-3p.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The plasticity of cancer stem cells (CSCs)/tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) suggests that multiple CSC/T-IC subpopulations exist within a tumor and that multiple oncogenic pathways collaborate to maintain the CSC/T-IC state. Here, we aimed to identify potential therapeutic targets that concomitantly regulate multiple T-IC subpopulations and CSC/T-IC-associated pathways. METHODS:A chemoresistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was employed to identify microRNAs that contribute to ESCC aggressiveness. The oncogenic effects of microRNA-455-3p (miR-455-3p) on ESCC chemoresistance and tumorigenesis were examined by in vivo and in vitro chemoresistance, tumorsphere formation, side-population, and in vivo limiting dilution assays. The roles of miR-455-3p in activation of the Wnt/?-catenin and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad pathways were determined by luciferase and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS:We found that miR-455-3p played essential roles in ESCC chemoresistance and tumorigenesis. Treatment with a miR-455-3p antagomir dramatically chemosensitized ESCC cells and reduced the subpopulations of CD90+ and CD271+ T-ICs via deactivation of multiple stemness-associated pathways, including Wnt/?-catenin and TGF-? signaling. Importantly, miR-455-3p exhibited aberrant upregulation in various human cancer types, and was significantly associated with decreased overall survival of cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that miR-455-3p functions as an oncomiR in ESCC progression and may provide a potential therapeutic target to achieve better clinical outcomes in cancer patients.