Timing of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy Following Breast-Conserving Surgery for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis
ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate the effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy timing after breast conserving surgery (BCS) on recurrence and survival of women with early-stage breast cancer. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 900 patients who underwent BCS followed by both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Of these, 488 women received chemotherapy first (CT-first group) while the other 412 received radiotherapy first (RT-first group). Locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and further confirmed with propensity-score matching (PSM) and the Cox proportional hazards model. The optimal cut-off value of interval time from surgery to the start of chemotherapy was calculated by Maxstat. Results The median follow-up was 7.1 years. In pre-match analysis, the CT-first group had a significantly higher 8-year DFS than the RT-first group (90.4% vs. 83.1%, P = 0.005). PSM analysis of 528 patients indicated that the 8-year DFS (91.0% vs. 83.3%, P = 0.005) and DM (8.6% vs. 14.6%, P = 0.017) were significantly better in the CT-first group, but that the OS (P = 0.096) and LRR (P = 0.434) were similar. We found the optimal cut-off value of interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 12 weeks. Patients starting chemotherapy later than 12 weeks after surgery had significantly inferior survival outcomes. Conclusion For women with breast cancer who require both chemotherapy and radiotherapy after BCS, adjuvant chemotherapy should be started within 12 weeks. Delaying the initiation of radiotherapy, for administration of long-course chemotherapy, does not compromise outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma (MSSCC) is a relatively rare head and neck cancer with poorly defined prognosis, and the present study aimed to investigate the outcomes for MSSCC according to different treatments. METHODS:Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital pathology database was reviewed from 2007 to 2017, and 98 patients with pathologically confirmed MSSCC were enrolled. Retrospective analysis and follow-up were performed for each patient. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed using Cox's regression model. RESULTS:For all the 98 cases of MSSCC, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 31.0% and 29.3%, respectively. Among 98 patient, 33 patients were treated with systemic treatment (NON-SUR), 19 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy followed by surgery (CT/RT+SUR), 38 patients received surgery followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (SUR+RT/CT), and 8 patients were performed surgery alone (SUR).The OS rate for each group was 27.3%, 57.9%, 30.6% and 37.5%, respectively, while the DFS was 21.2%, 36.8%, 31.6% and 25.0%, respectively. The OS rate of CT/RT+SUR was significantly higher than that of NON-SUR and SUR+CT/RT groups (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking, low differentiation, and advanced T stage were independent risk factors for OS, while low differentiation and advanced N stage for DFS. CONCLUSIONS:Surgery-based treatment is still the first-line therapeutic strategy for MSSCC. And neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery is highly recommended for MSSCC patients, especially those with advanced tumors or requesting high quality of life.
Project description:The Dutch guidelines advise to start radiation therapy (RT) within 5 weeks following breast-conserving surgery (BCS). However, much controversy exists regarding timing of RT. This study investigated its effect on 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) in a Dutch population-based cohort.All women diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IIIA breast cancer in 2003 treated with BCS+RT were included. Two populations were studied. Population 1 excluded patients receiving chemotherapy before RT. Analyses were stratified for use of adjuvant systemic therapy (AST). Population 2 included patients treated with chemotherapy, and compared chemotherapy before (BCS-chemotherapy-RT) and after RT (BCS-RT-chemotherapy). DFS was estimated using multivariable Cox regression. Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) were secondary outcomes.Population 1 (n=2759) showed better DFS and DMFS for a time interval of >55 than a time interval of <42 days. Patients treated with AST showed higher DFS for >55 days (hazards ratio (HR) 0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.94)) and 42-55 days (HR 0.64 (95% CI: 0.45-0.91)) than <42 days. Results were similar for DMFS, while timing did not affect LRRFS and OS. For patients without AST, timing was not associated with DFS, DMFS and LLRFS, but 10-year OS was significantly lower for 42-55 and >55 days compared to <42 days. In population 2 (n=1120), timing did not affect survival in BCS-chemotherapy-RT. In BCS-RT-chemotherapy, DMFS was higher for >55 than <42 days.Starting RT shortly after BCS seems not to be associated with a better long-term outcome. The common position that RT should start as soon as possible following surgery in order to increase treatment efficacy can be questioned.
Project description:Radiotherapy is the standard treatment for cervical cancer, but causes radiotherapy-induced complications. Recently, chemotherapy has been more extensively utilized. Here, we perform a large-scale comparison of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. From 2002 to 2008, 2,268 patients were grouped according to adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy before and/or after surgery, and we compared the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates, recurrence rates, side effects, quality of life (QoL), and sexual activity. There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for the 5-year OS and DFS rates (OS: p = 0.053, DFS: p = 0.095), although marginally improved outcomes were observed in the chemotherapy group (OS: 86.5% vs. 82.8%; DFS: 84.5% vs. 81.4%). However, patients with early-stage disease, clinical response, and younger age had increased 5-year OS and DFS rates following chemotherapy compared to radiotherapy (p<0.05). The chemotherapy group exhibited significantly lower 5-year recurrence and distant failure rates compared to the radiotherapy group (p<0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively). Nausea and vomiting were the most frequent short-term complications of chemotherapy, whereas bowel and urinary complications were more frequent in the radiotherapy group. Compared to the chemotherapy group, patients who received radiotherapy reported a lower QoL, less frequent sexual activity, and more severe menopausal symptoms (p<0.05). Cervical cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, especially those with early-stage disease, clinical responses, and younger ages, have more positive outcomes, fewer complications, better QoL and sexual activity, suggesting that chemotherapy may be a valuable alternative option for selected patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neoadjuvant radiotherapy has been shown to improve marginal negative resection and local control of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, whether it improves overall survival (OS) in patients with non-metastatic PDAC remains controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the benefits of only surgery, neoadjuvant radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and surgery plus chemotherapy for OS in patients with non-metastatic PDAC. METHODS:PDAC diagnosed by surgical histopathology in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 2004 and 2016 was selected. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the prognosis of patients with different treatments. Cox proportional risk model was used to analyze independent predictors of OS. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to analyze the tumor prognosis of different treatment methods. RESULTS:Before PSM analysis, the OS of surgery plus chemotherapy (HRs?=?0.896, 95%CIs, 0.827-0.970; P?=?0.007) were significantly better than the other three treatments for stage T1-3N0M0 PDAC patients. For stage T1-3N?+?M0 patients, adjuvant radiotherapy (HRs?=?0.613, 95% CIs, 0.579-0.649; P?<?0.001) had significantly better OS than surgery plus chemotherapy and neoadjuvant radiotherapy. For stage T4N0M0 patients, neoadjuvant radiotherapy (HRs?=?0.482, 95% CIs, 0.347-0.670; P?<?0.001) had significantly better OS than surgery plus chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy. For stage T4N?+?M0 patients, neoadjuvant radiotherapy (HRs?=?0.338, 95% CIs, 0.215-0.532; P?<?0.001) had significantly longer OS than adjuvant radiotherapy and surgery plus chemotherapy. Even after PSM, Chemotherapy plus surgery was still the best treatment for T1-3N0M0 patients. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy had the best prognosis among T1-3N?+?M0 patients, and neoadjuvant radiotherapy was the best treatment for T4 patients. CONCLUSIONS:For patients with non-metastatic PDAC, neoadjuvant radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and surgery plus chemotherapy were superior to only surgery in OS. For patients with stage T4 non-metastatic PDAC, neoadjuvant radiotherapy had the potential to be strongly recommended over adjuvant radiotherapy and surgery plus chemotherapy. However, neoadjuvant radiotherapy failed to benefit the survival of T1-3N0M0 stage patients, and surgery plus chemotherapy was preferred. For T1-3N?+?M0, neoadjuvant radiotherapy had no obvious advantage over adjuvant radiotherapy or surgery plus chemotherapy in OS, and adjuvant radiotherapy was more recommended.
Project description:Our goal was to determine the impact of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) on the subsequent risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the setting of adjuvant radiation therapy.This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review of patients with clinical stage I-III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, local surgery (breast conservation or mastectomy), and adjuvant radiation therapy between 1997 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed for clinical stage, tumor grade and subtype, neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen, type of surgery, pathologic stage, use of radiation therapy, date and location of recurrence, and date of death. Molecular subtypes were defined using immunohistochemistry and histologic grade. ypT0 and ypN0 were defined as no residual invasive disease in breast or nodes, respectively. LRR was defined as any failure within the breast, chest wall, or regional lymph nodes. Statistical analysis was performed; LRR and DFS rates over 30 months were determined from Kaplan-Meier plots.Ninety-four patients with TNBC were analyzed, of whom 72 received radiation therapy. This subgroup was isolated for further investigation. Median follow-up was 32.5 months in this group. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 36%, and presence or absence of disease in breast and/or nodes was significantly predictive of LRR. In TNBC patients who received radiation therapy, 30-month LRR was 22% in 41 patients with ypT+ versus 0% in 31 patients with ypT0 (P = .003), 23% in 31 patients with ypN+ versus 5% in 41 patients with ypN0 (P = .016), and 20% in 46 patients with residual disease in breast or nodes versus 0% in 26 patients with pCR (P = .015). The difference in the rate of LRR between those who underwent lumpectomy versus mastectomy did not reach significance (8% vs 17%, respectively). Furthermore, patients with residual disease had a higher rate of DFS events (hazard ratio, 3.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-9.41; P = .006). The difference in DFS was not significantly associated with the type of surgery received.Patients with TNBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy who have residual disease in the breast or lymph nodes at the time of surgery have significantly higher rates of locoregional failure and lower DFS compared with those with a pCR despite the use of adjuvant radiation therapy. Strategies to intensify therapy for patients with residual disease warrant further investigation.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Pathologic downstaging following chemotherapy for stage III-N2 NSCLC is a well-known positive prognostic indicator. However, the predictive factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in these patients are largely unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>Between 1998 and 2008, 153 patients with clinically or pathologically staged III-N2 NSCLC from two cancer centers in the United States were treated with induction chemotherapy and surgery. All had pathologic N0-1 disease, and none received postoperative radiotherapy. LRR were defined as recurrence at the surgical site, lymph nodes (levels 1-14 including supraclavicular), or both.<h4>Results</h4>Median follow-up was 39.3 months. Pretreatment N2 status was confirmed pathologically (18.2 %) or by PET/CT (81.8 %). Overall, the 5-year LRR rate was 30.8 % (n = 38), with LRR being the first site of failure in 51 % (22/+99877943). Five-year overall survival for patients with LRR compared with those without was 21 versus 60.1 % (p < 0.001). Using multivariate analysis, significant predictors for LRR were pN1 disease at time of surgery (p < 0.001, HR 3.43, 95 % CI 1.80-6.56) and a trend for squamous histology (p = 0.072, HR 1.93, 95 % CI 0.94-3.98). Five-year LRR rate for pN1 versus pN0 disease was 62 versus 20 %. Neither single versus multistation N2 disease (p = 0.291) nor initial staging technique (p = 0.306) were predictors for LRR. N1 status also was predictive for higher distant recurrence (p = 0.021, HR 1.91, 95 % CI 1.1-3.3) but only trended for poorer survival (p = 0.123, HR 1.48, 95 % CI 0.9-2.44).<h4>Conclusions</h4>LRR remains high in resected stage III-N2 NSCLC patients after induction chemotherapy and nodal downstaging, particularly in patients with persistent N1 disease.
Project description:This study was performed to determine optimal radiation dose in pN1 breast cancer patients who received breast conserving surgery (BCS) and anthracycline plus taxane (AT)-based chemotherapy.Retrospective chart reviews were performed in 1,147 patients who were treated between January 2006 and December 2010. The impact of radiation dose on treatment outcomes was evaluated.Median follow-up time was 66 months. The 5-year rate of disease-free survival (DFS) was 93.2%. Larger tumor size (> 20 mm), positive lymphovascular invasion, high histologic grade, and high ratio of positive nodes (> 0.1) were significantly associated with inferior DFS. By using the 4 factors related to DFS, patients were categorized into high-risk (with ? 3 factors) and low-risk (with < 3 factors) groups. In the high-risk group, higher radiation dose (> 60.3 GyEQD2) was significantly associated with better DFS than the lower dose (? 60.3 GyEQD2). However, the radiation dose did not impact DFS in the low-risk group.Dosing of radiation affects the outcome of post-BCS radiotherapy in pN1 breast cancer. Doses of over 60.3 GyEQD2 were associated with better outcome in the high-risk patients.
Project description:Background: The rates of locoregional and distant recurrence for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients underwent radical esophagectomy remain high. The purpose of this study is to explore an optimal postoperative therapeutic modality by investigating the efficacy of various adjuvant therapies in the treatment of ESCC. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 408 ESCC patients underwent thoracic esophagectomy and 3-field lymph node dissection from 2010 to 2015. Patients were classified into surgery alone (Group S), adjuvant chemotherapy (Group CT) and postoperative chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (Group CRT), respectively. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze prognostic factors and survival. Results: The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were similar among groups. Postoperative CT and CRT both were beneficial for patients with positive lymph nodes, particularly for those with 3 or more lymph nodes involvement and metastasis in the middle thoracic segment compared with surgery alone. The 3-year OS and DFS for patients with 3 or more lymph nodes involvement were 30.8%, 53.7%, 50.5% and 19.9%, 41.6%, 34.0% for Group S, CT, and CRT, respectively (p=0.04; p=0.004, respectively). There was no notable difference in OS and DFS between the adjuvant Group CT and CRT (p=0.42; p=0.49, respectively). Postoperative CRT significantly reduced the rates of distant metastasis and overall recurrence for patients with positive lymph nodes (p=0.042; p=0.01, respectively). Number of metastatic lymph nodes, extent of resection, and AJCC stage were independent predictors of survival. Grade 1-2 myelosuppression was experienced significantly more frequently by patients in Group CRT than those in Group CT (P=0.03). Late toxicities were rare and manageable overall. Conclusions: Postoperative CT and CRT both were associated with better survival for patients with positive lymph nodes, particularly for those with 3 or more lymph nodes involvement and metastasis in the middle thoracic segment. Postoperative CRT was significantly more effective at reducing the rates of distant metastasis and overall recurrence for patients with positive lymph nodes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in clinical stage II-III breast cancer patients with pathologically negative lymph nodes (LNs) (ypN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 260 patients with ypN0 who received NAC followed by BCS and RT. Elective nodal irradiation was delivered to 136 (52.3%) patients. The effects of ENI on survival outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 66.2 months (range, 15.6-127.4 months), 26 patients (10.0%) developed disease recurrence. The 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival and disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients were 95.5% and 90.5%, respectively. Pathologic T classification (0-is vs 1 vs 2-4) and the number of LNs sampled (<13 vs ≥13) were associated with DFS (P=0.0086 and 0.0012, respectively). There was no significant difference in survival outcomes according to ENI. Elective nodal irradiation also did not affect survival outcomes in any of the subgroups according to pathologic T classification or the number of LNs sampled. CONCLUSIONS: ENI may be omitted in patients with ypN0 breast cancer after NAC and BCS. But until the results of the randomised trials are available, patients should be put on these trials.
Project description:AIM:To determine whether the addition of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) to whole-breast irradiation (WBI) would improve outcomes over WBI alone in T1-2N1 breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant systematic therapy. METHODS:Data were obtained from two randomized controlled trials (NCT00174655 and NCT00312208). Univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analysis were performed to investigate predictors for overall survival and disease-free survival. A 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was applied to eliminate selection bias. RESULTS:With median follow-up 80 months (range: 3-155 months), the 5-year local regional recurrence in the WBI group was 2% vs. 5% (p = 0.28) in the WBI + supraclavicular radiotherapy, and the rate of 5-year distant metastasis in the WBI group was 7% vs. 13% in the WBI + supraclavicular radiotherapy (p = 0.0748); In addition, the 5-year local regional recurrence in the WBI group was 3% vs. 9% (p = 0.19) in the WBI + internal mammary irradiation (IMI); However, the rate of 5-year distant metastasis in the in the WBI group was significantly lower than that in the WBI + IMI (8% vs. 24%, p = 0.036). After PSM, cox-regression analysis indicated that neither RNI nor IMI in combination with WBI in T1-2N1 breast cancer was associated with an improved overall survival and disease-free survival when compared to WBI alone. CONCLUSION:The addition of RNI to WBI in T1-2N1 breast cancer after BCS and adjuvant systematic therapy did not improve outcomes in comparison with WBI alone. Further studies are still needed to identify patients who would most benefit from RNI in this patient population.