Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes Enhance Cell?Free Bone Regeneration by Altering Their miRNAs Profiles
ABSTRACT: Abstract Implantation of stem cells for tissue regeneration faces significant challenges such as immune rejection and teratoma formation. Cell?free tissue regeneration thus has a potential to avoid these problems. Stem cell derived exosomes do not cause immune rejection or generate malignant tumors. Here, exosomes that can induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are identified and used to decorate 3D?printed titanium alloy scaffolds to achieve cell?free bone regeneration. Specifically, the exosomes secreted by hMSCs osteogenically pre?differentiated for different times are used to induce the osteogenesis of hMSCs. It is discovered that pre?differentiation for 10 and 15 days leads to the production of osteogenic exosomes. The purified exosomes are then loaded into the scaffolds. It is found that the cell?free exosome?coated scaffolds regenerate bone tissue as efficiently as hMSC?seeded exosome?free scaffolds within 12 weeks. RNA?sequencing suggests that the osteogenic exosomes induce the osteogenic differentiation by using their cargos, including upregulated osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?146a?5p, Hsa?miR?503?5p, Hsa?miR?483?3p, and Hsa?miR?129?5p) or downregulated anti?osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?32?5p, Hsa?miR?133a?3p, and Hsa?miR?204?5p), to activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, identification of osteogenic exosomes secreted by pre?differentiated stem cells and the use of them to replace stem cells represent a novel cell?free bone regeneration strategy. Exosomes secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) pre?differentiated for a certain period of time can serve as inducers to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. They can decorate 3D printed titanium alloy scaffolds, which are further implanted into radial bone defect. They are found to enable the scaffolds to achieve efficient cell?free bone regeneration in vivo.
Project description:Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) hold great promise in bone regeneration. However, the exact mechanism of osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs remains unknown, especially the role of exosomes played in. The DPSCs were cultured and received osteogenic induction; then, exosomes from osteogenic-induced DPSCs (OI-DPSC-Ex) at different time intervals were isolated and sequenced for circular RNA (circRNA) expression profiles. Gradually, increased circular lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (circLPAR1) expression was found in the OI-DPSC-Ex coincidentally with the degree of osteogenic differentiation. Meanwhile, results from osteogenic differentiation examinations showed that the OI-DPSC-Ex had osteogenic effect on the recipient homotypic DPSCs. To investigate the mechanism of exosomal circLPAR1 on osteogenic differentiation, we verified that circLPAR1 could competently bind to hsa-miR-31, by eliminating the inhibitory effect of hsa-miR-31 on osteogenesis, therefore promoting osteogenic differentiation of the recipient homotypic DPSCs. Our study showed that exosomal circRNA played an important role in osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and provided a novel way of utilization of exosomes for the treatment of bone deficiencies.
Project description:Bone defects caused heavy social and economic burdens worldwide. Nel-like molecule, type 1 (NELL-1) could enhance the osteogenesis and the repairment of bone defects, while the specific mechanism remains to be elucidated. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been found to play critical roles in the tissue development and serve as biomarkers for various diseases. However, it remains unclear that the expression patterns of circRNAs and the roles of them played in recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing to investigate the expression profiles of circRNAs in recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenic differentiation and identified two key circRNAs, namely circRFWD2 and circINO80. These two circRNAs were confirmed to be up-regulated during recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenesis, and knockdown of them affected the positive effect of NELL-1 on osteogenesis. CircRFWD2 and circINO80 could interact with hsa-miR-6817-5p, which could inhibit the osteogenesis. Silencing hsa-miR-6817-5p could partially reverse the negative effect of si-circRFWD2 and si-circINO80 on the osteogenesis. Therefore, circRFWD2 and circINO80 could regulate the expression of hsa-miR-6817-5p and influence the recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. It opens a new window to better understanding the effects of NELL-1 on the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs and provides potential molecular targets and novel methods for bone regeneration efficiently and safely.
Project description:Osteolytic bone disease is the major complication associated with the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as mediators of MM-associated bone disease by inhibiting the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Here, we investigated a correlation between the EV-mediated osteogenic inhibition and MM vesicle content, focusing on miRNAs. By the use of a MicroRNA Card, we identified a pool of miRNAs, highly expressed in EVs, from MM cell line (MM1.S EVs), expression of which was confirmed in EVs from bone marrow (BM) plasma of patients affected by smoldering myeloma (SMM) and MM. Notably,we found that miR-129-5p, which targets different osteoblast (OBs) differentiation markers, is enriched in MM-EVs compared to SMM-EVs, thus suggesting a selective packaging correlated with pathological grade. We found that miR-129-5p can be transported to hMSCs by MM-EVs and, by the use of miRNA mimics, we investigated its role in recipient cells. Our data demonstrated that the increase of miR-129-5p levels in hMSCs under osteoblastic differentiation stimuli inhibited the expression of the transcription factor Sp1, previously described as a positive modulator of osteoblastic differentiation, and of its target the Alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), thus identifying miR-129-5p among the players of vesicle-mediated bone disease.
Project description:Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The present study aimed to investigate whether exosomes derived from miR-375-overexpressing human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) could enhance bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Exosomes enriched with miR-375 (Exo [miR-375]) were generated from hASCs stably overexpressing miR-375 after lentiviral transfection and identified with transmission electron microscopy, nanosight and western blotting. The construction efficiency of Exo (miR-375) was evaluated with qRT-PCR and incubated with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to optimize the effective dosage. Then, the osteogenic capability of Exo (miR-375) was investigated with ALP and ARS assays. Furthermore, dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were conducted to reveal the underlying mechanism of miR-375 in osteogenic regulation. Finally, Exo (miR-375) were embedded with hydrogel and applied to a rat model of calvarial defect, and ?-CT analysis and histological examination were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Exo (miR-375) in bone regeneration. RESULTS:miR-375 could be enriched in exosomes by overexpressing in the parent cells. Administration of Exo (miR-375) at 50 ?g/mL improved the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. With miR-375 absorbed by hBMSCs, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) was inhibited by binding to its 3'UTR, and recombinant IGFBP3 protein reduced the osteogenic effects triggered by Exo (miR-375). After incorporated with hydrogel, Exo (miR-375) displayed a slow and controlled release, and further in vivo analysis demonstrated that Exo (miR-375) enhanced the bone regenerative capacity in a rat model of calvarial defect. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our study demonstrated that exosomes derived from miR-375-overexpressing hASCs promoted bone regeneration.
Project description:Specific microRNAs (miRs) and the Wnt signaling pathway play critical roles in regulating bone development and homeostasis. Our previous studies revealed the ability of miR-335-5p to promote osteogenic differentiation by downregulating Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). The purpose of this study was to use nano-materials to efficiently deliver miR-335-5p into osteogenic cells for tissue engineering applications. We synthesized and screened a library of 12 candidate nano-lipidoids?of which L8 was identified as the preferred biodegradable lipidoid for miRNA molecule delivery into cells. We then investigated whether a lipidoid-miRNA formulation of miR-335-5-p (LMF-335) could successfully deliver miR-335-5-p into cells to promote osteogenesis in vitro and calvarial bone healing in vivo. Transfection of C3H10T1/2?cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with LMF-335 led to decreased expression of DKK1 and increased expression of the key osteogenic genes. LMF-335 and LMF-335-transfected BMSCs were then used in combination with silk scaffolds to evaluate healing of critical-size calvarial bone defects in mice. The results revealed significant new bone formation in the defects in LMF-335 groups as compared with control groups. In conclusion, this first report supports the notion that lipidoid delivery of miRNA can be used to induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and bone regeneration.
Project description:The instructive capabilities of extracellular matrix-inspired materials for osteoprogenitor differentiation have sparked interest in understanding modulation of other cell types within the bone regenerative microenvironment. We previously demonstrated that nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan (MC-GAG) scaffolds efficiently induced osteoprogenitor differentiation and bone healing. In this work, we combined adenovirus-mediated delivery of osteoprotegerin (AdOPG), an endogenous anti-osteoclastogenic decoy receptor, in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with MC-GAG to understand the role of osteoclast inactivation in augmentation of bone regeneration. Simultaneous differentiation of osteoprogenitors on MC-GAG and osteoclast progenitors resulted in bidirectional positive regulation. AdOPG expression did not affect osteogenic differentiation alone. In the presence of both cell types, AdOPG-transduced hMSCs on MC-GAG diminished osteoclast-mediated resorption in direct contact; however, osteoclast-mediated augmentation of osteogenic differentiation was unaffected. Thus, the combination of OPG with MC-GAG may represent a method for uncoupling osteogenic and osteoclastogenic differentiation to augment bone regeneration.
Project description:AIM:Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe disease with increased mortality and disability rates, posing heavy economic burden for society. Exosomes were uncovered to mediate intercellular communication after MI. This study aims to explore the effect and mechanism of lncRNA KLF3-AS1 in exosomes secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on pyroptosis of cardiomyocytes and MI. METHODS:Exosomes from hMSCs were isolated and identified. Exosomes from hMSCs with transfection of KLF3-AS1 for overexpression were injected into MI rat model or incubated with hypoxia cardiomyocytes. Effect of KLF3-AS1 on MI area, cell viability, apoptosis, and pyroptosis was determined. The relationship among miR-138-5p, KLF3-AS1, and Sirt1 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Normal cardiomyocytes were transfected with miR-138-5p inhibitor or sh-Sirt1 to clarify whether alteration of miR-138-5p or sh-Sirt1 can regulate the effect of KLF3-AS1 on cardiomyocytes. RESULTS:Exosomes from hMSCs were successfully extracted. Transfection of KLF3-AS1 exosome in rats and incubation with KLF3-AS1 exosome in hypoxia cardiomyocytes both verified that overexpression of KLF3-AS1 in exosomes leads to reduced MI area, decreased cell apoptosis and pyroptosis, and attenuated MI progression. KLF3-AS1 can sponge miR-138-5p to regulate Sirt1 expression. miR-138-5p inhibitor transfection and KLF3-AS1 exosome incubation contribute to attenuated pyroptosis and MI both in vivo and in vitro, while transfection of sh-Sirt1 could reverse the protective effect of exosomal KLF3-AS1 on hypoxia cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION:LncRNA KLF3-AS1 in exosomes secreted from hMSCs by acting as a ceRNA to sponge miR-138-5p can regulate Sirt1 so as to inhibit cell pyroptosis and attenuate MI progression.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate, the existence of a signature of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) during osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs from OA and healthy donors and to describe their possible implication in joint regeneration through modulation of molecular mechanisms involved in homeostatic control in OA pathophysiology.Following phenotypic assessment of BM-MSCs obtained from OA diagnosed patients (n?=?10) and non-OA (n?=?10), total small RNA was isolated after osteogenic induction for 1, 10 and 21 days, miRNA profiles were generated using a commercial expression array of 754 well-characterized miRNAs. MiRNAs, with consistent differential expression were selected for further validation by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis.A total of 246 miRNAs were differentially expressed (fold change???± 2, P ?0.05) between OA and non-OA BM-MSC samples; these miRNAs showed variable interactions depending on the cell and differentiation status. Two miRNAs, hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-335-5p out of 21 used for validation showed a significant downregulated expression during induced osteogenesis. In particular hsa-miR-335-5p, a critical regulator in bone homeostasis, was further studied. hsa-miR-335-5p downregulation in OA-MSCs, as well as their host coding gene, MEST, were also assessed.To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive assessment to date of miRNA expression profiling in BM-MSCs from OA patients and their role during osteogenic differentiation. We describe the existence of a correlation between miR-335-5p expression and OA indicating the putative role of this miRNA in OA features. These findings, may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MSCs mediated homeostatic control in OA pathophysiology that could be applicable in future therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Background:The periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) contain heterogeneous cell populations and possess stem-cell-like properties. PDLCs have attracted considerable attention as an option for periodontal regeneration. However, the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs remains obscure owing to variable osteo-inductive methods and whether PDLCs could be directly used for periodontal regeneration without stem cell enrichment is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to clarify the osteogenic differentiation capacity of PDLCs and test PDLCs as an alternative to stem cells for periodontal regeneration. Methods:We tested the performance of human PDLCs in osteo-inductive culture and transplantation in vivo while taking human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as positive control. Proliferation of PDLCs and hMSCs in osteo-inductive condition were examined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. The osteogenic differentiations of PDLCs and hMSCs were assessed by Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurement, von Kossa staining, Alizarin red S staining and quantitative RT-PCR of osteogenic marker gene including RUNX2, ALP, OCN, Col I, BSP, OPN. We transplanted osteo-inductive PDLCs and hMSCs with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) scaffolds to immunodeficient mice to explore their biological behaviors in vivo by histological staining and immunohistochemical evaluation. Results:After 14 days of osteo-induction, PDLCs exhibited significantly higher proliferation rate but lower colony-forming ability comparing with hMSCs. PDLCs demonstrated lower ALP activity and generated fewer mineralized nodules than hMSCs. PDLCs showed overall up-regulated expression of RUNX2, ALP, OCN, Col I, BSP, OPN after osteo-induction. Col I level of PDLCs in osteo-inductive group was significantly higher while RUNX2, ALP, OCN were lower than that of hMSCs. Massive fiber bundles were produced linking or circling the scaffold while the bone-like structures were limited in the PDLCs-loaded HA/TCP samples. The fiber bundles displayed strong positive Col I, but weak OCN and OPN staining. The in vivo results were consistent with the in vitro data, which confirmed strong collagen forming ability and considerable osteogenic potential of PDLCs. Conclusion:It is encouraging to find that PDLCs exhibit higher proliferation, stronger collagen fiber formation capacity, but lower osteogenic differentiation ability in comparison with hMSCs. This characteristic is essential for the successful periodontal reconstruction which is based on the synchronization of fiber formation and bone deposition. Moreover, PDLCs have advantages such as good accessibility, abundant source, vigorous proliferation and evident osteogenic differentiation capacity when triggered properly. They can independently form PDL-like structure in vivo without specific stem cell enrichment procedure. The application of PDLCs may offer a novel cytotherapeutic option for future clinical periodontal reconstruction.