Energy transmission in mechanically ventilated children: a translational study
ABSTRACT: Background Recurrent delivery of tidal mechanical energy (ME) inflicts ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) when stress and strain exceed the limits of tissue tolerance. Mechanical power (MP) is the mathematical description of the ME delivered to the respiratory system over time. It is unknown how ME relates to underlying lung pathology and outcome in mechanically ventilated children. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ME per breath with tidal volume (Vt) normalized to bodyweight correlates with underlying lung pathology and to study the effect of resistance on the ME dissipated to the lung. Methods We analyzed routinely collected demographic, physiological, and laboratory data from deeply sedated and/or paralyzed children
Project description:To determine the ability of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) to promote airway clearance in spontaneously breathing patients and those on mechanical ventilation.An artificial lung was used to simulate a spontaneously breathing patient (Group 1), and was then connected to a mechanical ventilator to simulate a patient on mechanical ventilation (Group 2). An 8.5 mm endotracheal tube (ETT) connected to the test lung, simulated the patient airway. Artificial mucus was instilled into the mid-portion of the ETT. A filter was attached at both ends of the ETT to collect the mucus displaced proximally (mouth-piece filter) and distally (lung filter). The IPV machine was attached to the proximal end of the ETT and was applied for 10-min each to Group 1 and 2. After each experiment, the weight of the various circuit components were determined and compared to their dry weights to calculate the weight of the displaced mucus.In Group 1 (spontaneously breathing model), 26.8% ± 3.1% of the simulated mucus was displaced proximally, compared to 0% in Group 2 (the mechanically ventilated model) with a P-value of < 0.01. In fact, 17% ± 1.5% of the mucus in Group 2 remained in the mid-portion of the ETT where it was initially instilled and 80% ± 4.2% was displaced distally back towards the lung (P < 0.01). There was an overall statistically significant amount of mucus movement proximally towards the mouth-piece in the spontaneously breathing (SB) patient. There was also an overall statistically significant amount of mucus movement distally back towards the lung in the mechanically ventilated (MV) model. In the mechanically ventilated model, no mucus was observed to move towards the proximal/mouth piece section of the ETT.This bench model suggests that IPV is associated with displacement of mucus towards the proximal mouthpiece in the SB patient, and distally in the MV model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Measurement of work of breathing (WOB) during mechanical ventilation is essential to assess the status and progress of intensive care patients. Increasing ventilator WOB is known as a risk factor for ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In addition, the minimization of WOB is crucial to facilitate the weaning process. Several studies have assessed the effects of varying inspiratory flow waveforms on the patient's WOB during assisted ventilation, but there are few studies on the different effect of inspiratory flow waveforms on ventilator WOB during controlled ventilation. METHODS:In this paper, we analyze the ventilator WOB, termed mechanical work (MW) for three common inspiratory flow waveforms both in normal subjects and COPD patients. We use Rohrer's equation for the resistance of the endotracheal tube (ETT) and lung airways. The resistance of pulmonary and chest wall tissue are also considered. Then, the resistive MW required to overcome each component of the respiratory resistance is computed for square and sinusoidal waveforms in volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), and decelerating waveform of flow in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). RESULTS:The results indicate that under the constant I:E ratio, a square flow profile best minimizes the MW both in normal subjects and COPD patients. Furthermore, the large I:E ratio may be used to lower MW. The comparison of results shows that ETT and lung airways have the main contribution to resistive MW in normals and COPDs, respectively. CONCLUSION:These findings support that for lowering the MW especially in patients with obstructive lung diseases, flow with square waveforms in VCV, are more favorable than decelerating waveform of flow in PCV. Our analysis suggests the square profile is the best choice from the viewpoint of less MW.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mechanical power (MP) is the energy delivered to the respiratory system over time during mechanical ventilation. Our aim was to compare the currently available methods to calculate MP during volume- and pressure-controlled ventilation, comparing different equations with the geometric reference method, to understand whether the easier to use surrogate formulas were suitable for the everyday clinical practice. This would warrant a more widespread use of mechanical power to promote lung protection. METHODS:Forty respiratory failure patients, sedated and paralyzed for clinical reasons, were ventilated in volume-controlled ventilation, at two inspiratory flows (30 and 60?L/min), and pressure-controlled ventilation with a similar tidal volume. Mechanical power was computed both with the geometric method, as the area between the inspiratory limb of the airway pressure and the volume, and with two algebraic methods, a comprehensive and a surrogate formula. RESULTS:The bias between the MP computed by the geometric method and by the comprehensive algebraic method during volume-controlled ventilation was respectively 0.053 (0.77, -?0.81) J/min and -?0.4 (0.70, -?1.50) J/min at low and high flows (r2?=?0.96 and 0.97, p?<?0.01). The MP measured and computed by the two methods were highly correlated (r2?=?0.95 and 0.94, p?<?0.01) with a bias of -?0.0074 (0.91, -?0.93) and -?1.0 (0.45, -?2.52) J/min at high-low flows. During pressure-controlled ventilation, the bias between the MP measured and the one calculated with the comprehensive and simplified methods was correlated (r2?=?0.81, 0.94, p?<?0.01) with mean differences of -?0.001 (2.05, -?2.05) and -?0.81 (2.11, -?0.48) J/min. CONCLUSIONS:Both for volume-controlled and pressure-controlled ventilation, the surrogate formulas approximate the reference method well enough to warrant their use in the everyday clinical practice. Given that these formulas require nothing more than the variables already displayed by the intensive care ventilator, a more widespread use of mechanical power should be encouraged to promote lung protection against ventilator-induced lung injury.
Project description:Tidal volume (VT) has been considered the main determinant of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Recently, experimental studies have suggested that mechanical power transferred from the ventilator to the lungs is the promoter of VILI. We hypothesized that, as long as mechanical power is kept below a safe threshold, high VT should not be injurious. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of different VT levels and respiratory rates (RR) on lung function, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), alveolar ultrastructure, and expression of genes related to inflammation [interleukin (IL)-6], alveolar stretch (amphiregulin), epithelial [club cell secretory protein (CC)16] and endothelial [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] cell injury, and extracellular matrix damage [syndecan-1, decorin, and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9] in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) under low-power mechanical ventilation. Twenty-eight Wistar rats received Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally. After 24 h, 21 animals were randomly assigned to ventilation (2 h) with low mechanical power at three different VT levels (n = 7/group): (1) VT = 6 mL/kg and RR adjusted to normocapnia; (2) VT = 13 mL/kg; and 3) VT = 22 mL/kg. In the second and third groups, RR was adjusted to yield low mechanical power comparable to that of the first group. Mechanical power was calculated as [(?[Formula: see text]/Est,L)/2]× RR (?P,L = transpulmonary driving pressure, Est,L = static lung elastance). Seven rats were not mechanically ventilated (NV) and were used for molecular biology analysis. Mechanical power was comparable among groups, while VT gradually increased. ?P,L and mechanical energy were higher in VT = 22 mL/kg than VT = 6 mL/kg and VT = 13 mL/kg (p < 0.001 for both). Accordingly, DAD score increased in VT = 22 mL/kg compared to VT = 6 mL/kg and VT = 13 mL/kg [23(18.5-24.75) vs. 16(12-17.75) and 16(13.25-18), p < 0.05, respectively]. VT = 22 mL/kg was associated with higher IL-6, amphiregulin, CC16, MMP-9, and syndecan-1 mRNA expression and lower decorin expression than VT = 6 mL/kg. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that VT was able to predict changes in IL-6 and CC16, whereas ?P,L predicted pHa, oxygenation, amphiregulin, and syndecan-1 expression. In the model of ARDS used herein, even at low mechanical power, high VT resulted in VILI. VT control seems to be more important than RR control to mitigate VILI.
Project description:Background:Secretions accumulate in endotracheal tubes' (ETT) lumens upon their placement in patients. The secretions impact airway resistance and pressure. Secretions potentiate prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Our primary objective in this study was to evaluate an ETT-clearing device (ETT-CD) in its ability to remove secretions from ex vivo ETT lumens. Methods:Forty ETTs, obtained from intensive care patients at extubation, were individually placed into a ventilator field performance testing simulator at 37°C. The pressure drop through the ETTs was measured at a flow rate of 60?L/min before and after cleaning with the ETT-CD and compared with unused, similarly sized controls tubes. The ETT-CD was inserted into an ETT until the tip reached Murphy's eye (hole in the side) of the ETT. The wiper, set back from the tip, was expanded by ETT-CD handle activation. As the ETT-CD was removed, the distal wiper extracted secretions from the ETT lumen. Results:Forty ETTs were tested with nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Before being cleared with the ETT-CD, the median pressure drop in the extubated 7.5?mm ETTs was 17.8?cm H2O; after ETT-CD use, it was 12.3. The cleared ETTs were significantly improved over the ETTs before being cleared (p < 0.001); however, there remained a significant difference between the cleared ETTs and the control tubes (p=0.005), indicating the clearing was not to the level of an unused ETT. Similar results were determined for the 8.0?mm ETTs. Conclusions:For the 7.5?mm and the 8.0?mm EETs, the ETT-CD improved effective patency of the ETTs over the uncleared ETTs, independent of occlusion location, tube size, or length of tube. However, there remained a significant difference between the cleared tubes and controls.
Project description:Background:Several studies have assessed predictors of weaning and extubation outcome in short-term mechanically ventilated patients, but there are only few studies on predictors of weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. Methods:Retrospective, single-center, observational study at a specialized national weaning center in Germany. Patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain data on demographics, comorbidities, respiratory indices, and the result of a prospectively documented, standardized spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) upon admission to the weaning center. Respiratory indices assessed were the ventilatory ratio (VR) and parameters derived from calculated mechanical power (MP). Predictors associated with failure of prolonged weaning and failure of the SBT were assessed using a binary logistic regression model. Results:A total of 263 prolonged mechanically ventilated, tracheotomized patients, treated over a 5-year period were analyzed. After 3 weeks of mechanical ventilation, patients with unsuccessful weaning failed a SBT more frequently and showed significantly increased values for inspiratory positive airway pressure, driving pressure, VR, absolute MP, and MP normalized to predicted body weight and dynamic lung-thorax compliance (LTC-MP). In the logistic regression analyses, variables independently correlated with weaning failure were female gender (adjusted odds ratio 0.532 [95% CI 0.291-0.973]; p = 0.040), obesity (body mass index ? 30?kg/m2) (2.595 [1.210-5.562]; p = 0.014), COPD (3.209 [1.563-6.589]; p = 0.002), LTC-MP (3.470 [1.067-11.284]; p = 0.039), PaCO2 on mechanical ventilation (1.101 [95% CI 1.034-1.173]; p = 0.003), and failure of the SBT (4.702 [2.250-9.825]; p < 0.001). In addition, female gender (0.401 [0.216-0.745]; p = 0.004), LTC-MP (3.017 [1.027-8.862]; p = 0.046), and PaCO2 on mechanical ventilation (1.157 [1.083-1.235]; p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for an unsuccessful SBT. Conclusions:In the present study, the derived predictors of weaning point to a crucial role of the workload imposed on respiratory muscles during spontaneous breathing. Mechanical power normalized to lung-thorax compliance was independently correlated with weaning outcome and may identify patients at high risk for weaning failure.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mechanical ventilation used in patients with acute lung injury can damage pulmonary epithelial cells through production of inflammatory cytokines and excess deposition of the extracellular matrix protein lumican. Lumican participates in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and transforming growth factor-?? (TGF-??) signaling during the fibroproliferative phase of acute lung injury, which involves a process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mechanisms regulating interactions between mechanical ventilation and lung injury are unclear. We hypothesized that lung damage and EMT by high tidal volume (Vt) mechanical stretch causes upregulation of lumican that modulates MIP-2 and TGF-?? through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway.<h4>Methods</h4>Male C57BL/6 mice (either wild type or lumican null) aged 3 months and weighing between 25 and 30 g were exposed to low Vt (6 mL/kg) or high Vt (30 mL/kg) mechanical ventilation with room air for 2 to 8 h. Nonventilated mice were used as control subjects.<h4>Results</h4>We found that high Vt mechanical ventilation increased microvascular permeability, neutrophil influx, production of free radicals, MIP-2 and TGF-?? proteins, positive staining of ?-smooth muscle actin and S100A4/fibroblast-specific protein-1, Masson trichrome staining and extracellular collagen, and activation of lumican and ERK1/2 in wild-type mice. Decreased staining of the epithelial marker E-cadherin was also observed. Mechanical stretch-augmented EMT was attenuated with lumican-deficient mice and pharmacologic inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by PD98059.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The data suggest that lumican promotes high Vt mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury and EMT through the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway.
Project description:The insertion of suction devices through endotracheal tubes (ETTs) increases airway resistance and the subsequent suctioning may reduce airway pressures and facilitate atelectasis. The aim of this study was to investigate how airway pressures and tidal volumes change when different combinations of suction equipment and ETT sizes are used, and to what extent unfavorable effects can be ameliorated by choice of ventilator settings.A mechanical ventilator was connected to a lung model by ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm or 7 mm internal diameter (ID) with a pressure transducer inserted distal to the ETT. The effects of suction procedures with bronchoscope and closed catheter systems were investigated during pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) and volume controlled ventilation (VCV). In each mode, the effects of changes in inspiration:expiration (I:E) ratio, trigger sensitivity and suction pressure were examined.The variables that contributed most to negative model airway pressures and loss of tidal volume during suctioning were (in descending order); 1) Small-size ETTs (7-8 mm ID) combined with large diameter suction devices (14-16 Fr); 2) inverse I:E ratio ventilation (in VCV); 3) negative ventilator trigger sensitivity; and 4) strong suction pressure. The pressure changes observed distal to the ETTs were not identical to those detected by the ventilator.Negative model airway pressure was induced by suctioning through small-size ETTs. The most extreme pressure and volume changes were ameliorated when conventional ventilator settings were used, such as PCV mode with short inspiration time and a trigger function sensitive to flow changes.
Project description:Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation leading to high morbidity and mortality among intubated neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Endotracheal tube (ETT) biofilm flora were considered to be responsible for the occurrence of VAP as a reservoir of pathogens. However, regarding neonates with VAP, little is known about the complex microbial signatures in ETT biofilms. In the present study, a culture-independent approach based on next generation sequencing was performed as an initial survey to investigate the microbial communities in ETT biofilms of 49 intubated neonates with and without VAP. Our results revealed a far more complex microflora in ETT biofilms from intubated neonates compared to a previous culture-based study. The abundance of Streptococci in ETT biofilms was significantly related to the onset of VAP. By isolating Streptococci in ETT biofilms, we found that Streptococci enhanced biofilm formation of the common nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and decreased IL-8 expression of airway epithelia cells exposed to the biofilm conditioned medium of PAO1. This study provides new insight into the pathogenesis of VAP among intubated neonates. More studies focusing on intubated neonates are warranted to develop strategies to address this important nosocomial disease in NICUs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The effect of expiratory endotracheal tube (ETT) resistance on dynamic lung inflation is unknown. We hypothesized that ETT resistance causes dynamic lung hyperinflation by impeding lung emptying. We further hypothesized that compensation for expiratory ETT resistance by automatic tube compensation (ATC) attenuates dynamic lung hyperinflation. METHODS: A ventilator equipped with the original ATC mode and operating in a pressure-targeted mode was connected to a physical lung model that consists of four equally sized glass bottles filled with copper wool. Inspiratory pressure, peak expiratory flow, trapped lung volume and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were assessed at combinations of four inner ETT diameters (7.0, 7.5, 8.0 and 8.5 mm), four respiratory rates (15, 20, 25 and 30/minute), three inspiratory pressures (3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 cmH2O) and four lung compliances (113, 86, 58 and 28 ml/cmH2O). Intrinsic PEEP was measured at the end of an expiratory hold manoeuvre. RESULTS: At a given test lung compliance, inspiratory pressure and ETT size, increasing respiratory rates from 15 to 30/minutes had the following effects: inspiratory tidal volume and peak expiratory flow were decreased by means of 25% (range 0% to 51%) and 11% (8% to 12%), respectively; and trapped lung volume and intrinsic PEEP were increased by means of 25% (0% to 51%) and 26% (5% to 45%), respectively (all P < 0.025). At otherwise identical baseline conditions, introduction of expiratory ATC significantly attenuated (P < 0.025), by approximately 50%, the respiratory rate-dependent decreases in inspiratory tidal volume and the increases in trapped lung volume and intrinsic PEEP. CONCLUSIONS: In a lung model of pressure-targeted ventilation, expiratory ETT resistance caused dynamic lung hyperinflation during increases in respiratory rates, thereby reducing inspiratory tidal volume. Expiratory ATC attenuated these adverse effects.