Somatic mutation profiling in BRCA-negative breast and ovarian cancer patients by multigene panel sequencing
ABSTRACT: Targeted therapeutic agents such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) inhibitors have emerged in treating cancers associated with germline BRCA mutations. Recently studies demonstrated the effectiveness of PARP inhibitors in treating patients with somatic BRCA mutations. Somatic mutations in 122 Chinese breast or ovarian cancer patients without BRCA, PTEN and TP53 mutations were screened using multigene sequencing panel. The five most frequent pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutated genes identified in breast cancer patients were PIK3CA (28.6%), TP53 (16.9%), MAP3K1 (14.3%), GATA3 (14.3%) and PTEN (5.2%). The five most frequently mutated genes identified in ovarian patients were TP53 (52.9%), KRAS (23.5%) and PIK3CA (11.8%), BRCA1 (5.9%) and RB1 (5.9%). Somatic PIK3CA and TP53 mutations were common events in both germline BRCA-negative breast and ovarian cancer patients. In contrast, somatic screening of BRCA mutations in BRCA-negative breast cancer patients has limited value. The results highlight the benefit of somatic testing to guide future research directions on other targeted therapies for breast and ovarian malignancies.
Project description:PURPOSE:In this study, we investigated the frequencies of mutations in DNA damage repair genes including BRCA1, BRCA2, homologous recombination genes and TP53 gene in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, alongside those of germline and somatic BRCA mutations, with the aim of improving the identification of patients suitable for treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Tissue samples from 77 Korean patients with ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma were subjected to next-generation sequencing. Pathogenic alterations of 38 DNA damage repair genes and TP53 gene and their relationships with patient survival were examined. Additionally, we analyzed BRCA germline variants in blood samples from 47 of the patients for comparison. RESULTS:BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 mutations were detected in 28.6%, 5.2%, and 80.5% of the 77 patients, respectively. Alterations in RAD50, ATR, MSH6, MSH2, and FANCA were also identified. At least one mutation in a DNA damage repair gene was detected in 40.3% of patients (31/77). Germline and somatic BRCA mutations were found in 20 of 47 patients (42.6%), and four patients had only somatic mutations without germline mutations (8.5%, 4/47). Patients with DNA damage repair gene alterations with or without TP53mutation, exhibited better disease-free survival than those with TP53 mutation alone. CONCLUSION:DNA damage repair genes were mutated in 40.3% of patients with high-grade serous carcinoma, with somatic BRCA mutations in the absence of germline mutation in 8.5%. Somatic variant examination, along with germline testing of DNA damage repair genes, has potential to detect additional candidates for PARP inhibitor treatment.
Project description:Combined inhibition of PI3K and PARP has been shown to be effective in the treatment of preclinical models of breast cancer and prostate cancer independent of BRCA or PIK3CA mutational status. However, the knowledge about this combination treatment in ovarian cancer is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PI3K inhibitor BKM120 and PARP inhibitor Olaparib on ovarian cancer cell lines bearing wild-type PIK3CA genes.We exposed three wild-type PIK3CA ovarian cancer cell lines to a PI3K inhibitor BKM120 and/or a PARP inhibitor Olaparib. The effect of BKM120 as a single-agent or in combination with Olaparib was evaluated by Cell Count Kit (CCK8) assay, immunoblotting, comet assay, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining assay. The combination indexes for synergistic effect on cell viability were calculated with the Chou-Talalay method. Ex vivo cultured ovarian cancer tissues from patients were analyzed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses.Combined inhibition of PI3K and PARP effectively synergized to block the growth of three wild-type PIK3CA ovarian cancer cell lines and explants of a primary ovarian tumor specimen. Mechanistically, dual blockade of PI3K and PARP in these ovarian cancer cell lines resulted in substantially attenuated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, impaired DNA damage response and deficient homologous recombination repair, with remarkable BRCA downregulation.The combined use of PI3K inhibitor BKM120 and PARP inhibitor Olaparib may be effective in ovarian cancers with a broader spectrum of cancer-associated genetic alterations but not limited to those with mutant PIK3CA or BRCA genes. BRCA downregulation may be a potential biomarker for the effective response to the proposed combination treatment.
Project description:The data on the phenotypes associated with some rare germline mutations in Chinese breast cancer patients are limited. The difference in somatic mutation profiles in breast cancer patients with germline BRCA and non-BRCA mutations remains unexplored. We interrogated the germline and somatic mutational profile of 524 Chinese breast cancer patients with various stages unselected for predisposing factors using a panel consisting of 520 cancer-related genes including 62 cancer susceptibility genes. We divided the patients into three groups according to germline mutations: Germline-BRCA1/2, Germline-others (non-BRCA) and Others (non-carriers). A total of 58 patients (11.1%) carried 76 likely pathogenic or pathogenic (LP/P) germline variants in 15 cancer predisposition genes. Germline BRCA1/2 mutations were detected from 29 (5.53%) patients; with 11 (2.10%) BRCA1 carriers and 18 (3.44%) BRCA2 carriers. In addition, LP/P germline mutations were detected in other genes including MUTYH (n=4), PALB2 (n=4), ATM (n=3), BRIP1 (n=3), CDH1 (n=3), RAD51C (n=3), CHEK2 (n=2), FANCA (n=2), PMS2 (n=2), TP53 (n=2), FANCI (n=1), FANCL (n=1) and PTEN (n=1). At least one variant of uncertain significance (VUS) was identified in 490 (93.5%) patients. Young age (P=0.011), premenopausal status (P=0.013), and breast/ovarian cancer family history (P=0.001) were correlated with germline mutations. Germline-BRCA1/2 group was detected with more missense (P=0.02) and less copy-number amplification (P=0.04) than Germline-others group. Meanwhile, Germline-others group and Others group are very similar (P>0.05). The mutation rates of AKT1, CCND1, FGFR1, and PIK3CA were different among the three groups. By investigating all breast and ovarian cancer-related genes listed in the US genetic guidelines, we identified 15 cancer susceptibility genes frequently mutated in the germline of our population and must be included in cancer predisposition screening. Our study contributed a better understanding of the tumor characteristics of patients with LP/P germline mutations.
Project description:Male breast cancer (MBC) is still poorly understood with a large proportion arising in families with a history of breast cancer. Genomic studies have focused on germline determinants of MBC risk, with minimal knowledge of somatic changes in these cancers.Using a TruSeq amplicon cancer panel, this study evaluated 48 familial MBCs (3 BRCA1 germline mutant, 17 BRCA2 germline mutant and 28 BRCAX) for hotspot somatic mutations and copy number changes in 48 common cancer genes.Twelve missense mutations included nine PIK3CA mutations (seven in BRCAX patients), two TP53 mutations (both in BRCA2 patients) and one PTEN mutation. Common gains were seen in GNAS (34.1%) and losses were seen in GNAQ (36.4%), ABL1 (47.7%) and ATM (34.1%). Gains of HRAS (37.5% vs 3%, P=0.006), STK11 (25.0% vs 0%, P=0.01) and SMARCB1 (18.8% vs 0%, P=0.04) and the loss of RB1 (43.8% vs 13%, P=0.03) were specific to BRCA2 tumours.This study is the first to perform high-throughput somatic sequencing on familial MBCs. Overall, PIK3CA mutations are most commonly seen, with fewer TP53 and PTEN mutations, similar to the profile seen in luminal A female breast cancers. Differences in mutation profiles and patterns of gene gains/losses are seen between BRCA2 (associated with TP53/PTEN mutations, loss of RB1 and gain of HRAS, STK11 and SMARCB1) and BRCAX (associated with PIK3CA mutations) tumours, suggesting that BRCA2 and BRCAX MBCs may be distinct and arise from different tumour pathways. This has implications on potential therapies, depending on the BRCA status of MBC patients.
Project description:Recent preclinical studies revealed the efficacy of combined use of PI3K inhibitor BKM120 and PARP inhibitor Olaparib in breast and prostate cancers. The current study investigated the effect of such drug combination on ovarian cancer. Here we showed that combined inhibition of PI3K and PARP effectively synergized to inhibit proliferation, survival and invasion in the majority of ovarian cancer cell lines harboring PIK3CA mutations, including SKOV3, HEYA8, and IGROV1. Mechanistically, combined treatment of PARP and PI3K inhibitors resulted in an exacerbated DNA damage response and more substantially reduced AKT/mTOR signaling when compared to single-agent. Notably, ovarian cancer cells responsive to the PI3K/PARP combination displayed decreased BRCA1/2 expression upon drug treatment. Furthermore, the effect of the drug combination was corroborated in an intraperitoneal dissemination xenograft mouse model in which SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells responded with significantly decreased BRCA1 expression, suppressed PI3K/AKT signaling and reduced tumor burden. Collectively, our data suggested that combined inhibition of PI3K and PARP may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancers with PIK3CA mutations and that the accompanied BRCA downregulation following PI3K inhibition could serve as a biomarker for the effective response to PARP inhibition.
Project description:Breast cancer, one of the most frequently occurring cancers worldwide, is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. AKT1, PIK3CA, PTEN and TP53 mutations were common observed in breast cancer representing potential clinical biomarkers for cancer classification and treatment. A comprehensive knowledge of AKT1, PIK3CA, PTEN and TP53 mutations in breast cancer was still insufficient in Chinese population. In this study, the complete coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of AKT1, PIK3CA, PTEN and TP53 genes were sequenced in paired breast tumor and normal tissues from 313 Chinese breast cancer patients using microfluidic PCR-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing technology. Total 120 somatic mutations were identified in 190 of the 313 patients (60.7%), with the mutation frequency of AKT1 as 3.2%, PIK3CA as 36.4%, PTEN as 4.8%, and TP53 as 33.9%. Among these mutations, 1 in PIK3CA (p.I69N), 3 in PTEN (p.K62X, c.635-12_636delTTAACCATGCAGAT and p.N340IfsTer4) and 5 in TP53 (p.Q136AfsTer5, p.K139_P142del, p.Y234dup, p.V274LfsTer31 and p.N310TfsTer35) were novel. Notably, PIK3CA somatic mutations were significantly associated with ER-positive or PR-positive tumors. TP53 somatic mutations were significantly associated with ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-positive, BRCA1 mutation, Ki67 high expression and basal-like tumors. Our findings provided a comprehensive mutation profiling of AKT1, PIK3CA, PTEN and TP53 genes in Chinese breast cancer patients, which have potential implications in clinical management.
Project description:Breast cancer arising in very young patients may be biologically distinct; however, these tumors have been less well studied. We characterized a group of very young patients (? 35 years) for BRCA germline mutation and for somatic mutations in luminal (HER2 negative) breast cancer. Thirteen of 79 unselected very young patients were BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers. Of the non-BRCA tumors, eight with luminal subtype (HER2 negative) were submitted for whole exome sequencing and integrated with 29 luminal samples from the COSMIC database or previous literature for analysis. We identified C to T single nucleotide variants (SNVs) as the most common base-change. A median of six candidate driver genes was mutated by SNVs in each sample and the most frequently mutated genes were PIK3CA, GATA3, TP53 and MAP2K4. Potential cancer drivers affected in the present non-BRCA tumors include GRHL2, PIK3AP1, CACNA1E, SEMA6D, SMURF2, RSBN1 and MTHFD2. Sixteen out of 37 luminal tumors (43%) harbored SNVs in DNA repair genes, such as ATR, BAP1, ERCC6, FANCD2, FANCL, MLH1, MUTYH, PALB2, POLD1, POLE, RAD9A, RAD51 and TP53, and 54% presented pathogenic mutations (frameshift or nonsense) in at least one gene involved in gene transcription. The differential biology of luminal early-age onset breast cancer needs a deeper genomic investigation.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common cancer found in the pancreas. It has a dismal prognosis and current therapeutic options, including surgical resection, provide only a temporary or limited response due to the development of treatment resistance. <b>Methods:</b> A narrative review of studies investigating poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) pathway inhibitors in metastatic PDAC to highlight recent advances. <b>Results:</b> Mutations in BRCA genes confer a higher risk of PDAC, while germ line mutations are found in 4-7% of individuals harboring pancreatic cancer. Although solid tumors with defective DNA damage repair defect (DDR) genes such as BRCA show heightened sensitivity to platinum agents, tumors can exploit the PARP pathway as salvage pathways. Therefore, blocking this pathway will trigger cell death in vulnerable tumor cells with BRCA/DNA repair deficiency. Several drugs with inhibitory activity on the PARP pathway have been approved for breast and ovarian tumors harboring germ line or somatic BRCA mutations. Based on these results, the phase III POLO study showed a significant improvement in progression-free survival compared with placebo in BRCA mutant pancreatic tumors and highlighted the importance of germ line testing in everyone diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. In addition, expansion of the PARP inhibitor indication beyond BRCA mutations to other genes involved in DDR such as ATM and PALB2 merits attention. <b>Conclusion:</b> PARP inhibitors represent a safe and efficacious treatment for a subset of PDAC patients with BRCA mutations. Ongoing trials are evaluating PARP inhibitors in PDAC patients with non-BRCA DDR gene deficiencies as well as PARP inhibitors in combination with other agents, notably immune checkpoint inhibitors to expand the group of patients that derive benefit from this treatment.
Project description:Acinic cell carcinomas (AcCC) of the breast have been reported to constitute the breast counterpart of salivary gland AcCCs, based on the similarities of their histological and immunohistochemical features. Breast AcCC is a vanishingly rare form of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Recent studies have demonstrated that in TNBCs, the two driver genes most frequently mutated are TP53 (82%) and PIK3CA (10%). We sought to define whether breast AcCCs would harbour TP53 and PIK3CA somatic mutations, and if so, whether these would be present in salivary gland AcCCs.Sanger sequencing of the entire coding region of TP53 and of PIK3CA hotspot mutation sites of 10 breast and 20 salivary gland microdissected AcCCs revealed eight TP53 (80%) and one PIK3CA (10%) somatic mutations in breast AcCCs. No somatic mutations affecting these genes were found in the 20 salivary gland AcCCs analysed.Our findings demonstrate that breast AcCCs display TP53 and PIK3CA mutations at frequencies similar to those of common types of TNBCs, whereas these genes appear not to be altered in salivary gland AcCCs, suggesting that despite their similar histological appearances, AcCCs of the breast and salivary glands probably constitute unrelated diseases.
Project description:Although breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastasis with a notable increase of incidence, genes that mediate breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) are not fully understood. To study the molecular nature of brain metastasis, we performed gene expression profiling of brain metastasis and matched primary breast cancer (BC). We used the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Panel v2 covering 2,855 mutations from 50 cancer genes to analyze 18 primary BC and 42 BCBM including 15 matched pairs. The most common BCBM subtypes were triple-negative (42.9%) and basal-like (36.6%). In a total of 42 BCBM samples, 32 (76.2%) harbored at least one mutation (median 1, range 0-7 mutations). Frequently detected somatic mutations included TP53 (59.5%), MLH1 (14.3%), PIK3CA (14.3%), and KIT (7.1%). We compared BCBM with patient-matched primary BC specimens. There were no significant differences in mutation profiles between the two groups. Notably, gene expression in BCBM such as TP53, PIK3CA, KIT, MLH1, and RB1 also seemed to be present in primary breast cancers. The TP53 mutation frequency was higher in BCBM than in primary BC (59.5% vs 38.9%, respectively). In conclusion, we found actionable gene alterations in BCBM that were maintained in primary BC. Further studies with functional testing and a delineation of the role of these genes in specific steps of the metastatic process should lead to a better understanding of the biology of metastasis and its susceptibility to treatment.