Obesity, eating behavior and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown: A study of UK adults.
ABSTRACT: Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N?=?2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.
Project description:Summary <h4>Background</h4> The COVID?19 crisis is likely to have had wide?ranging consequences on lifestyle behaviours and may have affected weight management. The objective of the present study was to examine perceptions of how weight?related lifestyle changed in social lockdown among UK adults compared with before the emergence of the COVID?19 crisis. <h4>Methods</h4> As part of an online cross?sectional survey conducted during social lockdown in the United Kingdom, 723 UK adults reported on the extent to which their eating (healthiness of diet, frequency of bingeing on food), physical activity, sleep and alcohol consumption had changed since the emergence of the COVID?19 crisis and completed measures of current psychological well?being. <h4>Results</h4> Although both improvements and declines in weight gain protective behaviours were reported, 79% of participants reported a decline in one or more weight gain protective behaviours. Both participants with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness or obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 30) were most likely to report declines in weight gain protective behaviours and show an overall profile of weight management behaviours worsening. Participants experiencing high levels of stress also reported reductions in more weight gain protective behaviours. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Lifestyle behaviours associated with weight gain are likely to have been affected by the COVID?19 crisis. Reductions to the perceived frequency by which people engage in behaviours usually associated with successful weight management appear to be common, and people living with obesity and mental health problems may be at increased risk.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the effect of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and mood changes in the Croatian general population. METHODS:During ten days of the COVID-19 lockdown in Croatia, 3027 respondents (70.3% female) from the general population completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Demographic data and data on lifestyle habits and mood changes before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected. RESULTS:A total of 95.64% of respondents reported to follow most or all restrictions, with female sex (P<0.001) and higher education level (P<0.001) being associated with higher restriction compliance. Women smoked an increased number of cigarettes (P<0.001). The proportion of respondents of both sexes who did not drink or drank 7 drinks per week or more increased (P<0.001). Women also reported lower frequency (P=0.001) and duration of physical exercise (P<0.001). In total, 30.7% of respondents gained weight, with female sex (OR, 2.726) and higher BMI (OR, 1.116; both P<0.001) being associated with an increased likelihood of gaining weight. Both men and women felt more frequently afraid (P<0.001), discouraged (P<0.001), and sad (P<0.001). CONCLUSION:Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in order to reduce long-term negative effects of the lockdown.
Project description:The United Kingdom and Scottish governments instigated a societal lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Subsequently, many experienced substantial lifestyle changes alongside the stresses of potentially catching the virus or experiencing bereavement. Stressful situations and poorer health behaviors (e.g., higher alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, poorer sleep quality, physical inactivity) are frequently linked to poor mental health. Our objective was to examine changes in health behaviors and their relationship with negative mood during COVID-19 lockdown. We also considered associations between health behaviors and socio-demographic differences and COVID-19-induced changes. 399 participants completed a questionnaire asking about their personal situation and health behaviors during lockdown as well as a negative mood scale. The significance threshold for all analyses was ? = 0.05. Poorer diet was linked to more-negative mood, and to changes to working status. Poorer sleep quality was linked with more-negative mood, and with 'shielding' from the virus. Being less physically active was related to more-negative mood and student status, whereas being more physically active was linked to having or suspecting COVID-19 infection within the household. Increased alcohol consumption was linked to living with children, but not to negative mood. Changes to diet, sleep quality, and physical activity related to differences in negative mood during COVID-19 lockdown. This study adds to reports on poor mental health during lockdown and identifies lifestyle restrictions and changes to health behaviors which may, to some extent, be responsible for higher negative mood. Our data suggests that it is advisable to maintain or improve health behaviors during pandemic-associated restrictions.
Project description:The 2019-2020 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a public health issue. Lockdown is among options suggested to reduce spread of the virus. This study aimed to determining the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on Tunisian consumer awareness, attitudes and behaviors related to food wastage. An online survey was conducted during the first 2 weeks of COVID-19 lockdown. The survey collected information on demographic data, awareness and attitudes toward food waste, food purchase behavior and household food expenditure estimation; extent of household food waste; willingness and information needs to reduce food waste. This study included 284 respondents. About 89% of respondents claimed to be aware of food waste, and the COVID-19 lockdown would impact for 93% of respondents, their waste levels, and for 80%, their grocery shopping habits. Interestingly, the COVID-19 lockdown improved food shopping performances and pushed toward a positive behavioral change regarding food wastage: 85% respondents declared nothing of what they bought would be discarded, and most of the respondents have set up a strategy of saving, storing and eating leftovers. The most cited reasons given for discarding food were overcooking, inappropriate storage and overbuying. Consumers' changes in food waste prevention might be probably driven more by the socioeconomical context of the COVID-19 lockdown (i.e. food availability, restricted movements, loss of income), than by a pro-environmental concern. Finally, our study pointed out the consumers' needs of information for taking further action. In conclusion, our study can constitute a basis to further promote household food waste prevention behavior, outlasting the COVID-19 crisis.
Project description:<i>Background</i>: Lockdown measures were implemented in many countries to limit the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such restrictions could precipitate unintended negative consequences on lifestyle behaviors. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of unhealthy behavior changes during the COVID-19 lockdown among residents of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). <i>Methods</i>: A cross-sectional web-based survey of adults residing in the UAE was carried out during lockdown (n = 2060). Using a multi-component questionnaire, the collected data included questions regarding the following lifestyle changes: Increased dietary intake, increased weight, decreased physical activity, decreased sleep, and increased smoking. An unhealthy lifestyle change score was calculated based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle changes each participant reported. In addition, sociodemographic and living conditions information was collected. Descriptive statistics as well as simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence and determinants of the unhealthy lifestyle changes considered in this study. <i>Results</i>: Among the unhealthy lifestyle changes examined, increased food intake was the most common (31.8%), followed by decreased physical activity (30%), increased weight (29.4%), decreased sleep (20.8%), and increased smoking (21%). In addition to identifying the correlates of each of the aforementioned lifestyle changes, the results of the multiple regression linear analyses revealed the following correlates for the overall unhealthy lifestyle change score: females (? = 0.32, CI: 0.22; 0.42), living in an apartment (? = 0.12, CI: 0.003; 0.23) and being overweight/obese (? = 0.24, CI: 0.15; 0.32) had higher scores, while older adults (>40 years) had lower scores (? = -0.23, CI: -0.34; -0.12). <i>Conclusions</i>: The COVID-19 lockdown has resulted in a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and practices among UAE residents. The findings of this study provided the evidence base for officials to design interventions targeting high-risk groups and aiming to improve healthy lifestyle factors among residents during the pandemic.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Home lockdown and isolation due to COVID-19 have been related to negative changes in mood, sleep, and eating behaviors. People with obesity are especially vulnerable to emotional eating and might be more prone to weight gain and negative outcomes during lockdown.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Individuals scheduled for an appointment at the Obesity Unit of a Tertiary Hospital between March 16 and June 21 (n=1230). An online survey was distributed on May 11. Multivariable logistic regression models and general linear models were used to assess the relationship between perceived COVID-19 threat, BS status, and outcome variables.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 603 (72.0% females, 39% aged >55 years) respondents, 223 (36.9%) were BS naïve (non-BS), 134 (22.2%) underwent BS within the two previous years (BS<2y), and 245 (40.6%) more than 2 years before (BS>2y). Participants worried about being infected by COVID-19 showed significantly larger changes in family contact (p=0.04), mood (p<0.01), sleep (p<0.01), dietary habits (p=0.05), purchases of unhealthy food (p=0.02), snacking (p=0.05), and physical activity (p=0.02). Non-BS and BS>2y participants reported greater impact of lockdown in mood (p<0.01), experienced more negative changes in dietary habits (p<0.01), and had a higher likelihood for weight gain (OR: 5.61, 95% CI: 3.0-10.46; OR: 5.45, 95% CI: 2.87-10.35, respectively) compared to BS<2y.<h4>Conclusions</h4>COVID-19 pandemic is having a substantial negative impact in our population affected by obesity. During lockdown, people more than 2 years before BS behave like people without history of BS. Strategies addressed to prevent negative metabolic outcomes in this population are urgently needed.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Disordered eating behaviors are prevalent among adolescents. Understanding how these behaviors link to body mass index (BMI) across different stages of development and over an extended period may provide insight for designing interventions around eating and weight. This study had two objectives: (1) to assess the distribution of disordered eating behaviors and develop a global score of disordered eating behaviors among adolescents and (2) to examine the association between the number of disordered eating behaviors in adolescence and BMI trajectory over 15 years.<h4>Methods</h4>Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults (EAT), a longitudinal study of weight-related health and behavior comprising four waves (EAT-I to EAT-IV), measured seven disordered eating behaviors (importance of weight and shape, frequent dieting, extreme unhealthy weight control behaviors, overeating, distress about overeating, loss of control while overeating, and frequency of overeating and loss of control) at baseline (N = 1,230, ages 11 to 18 years, 1998-1999). These behaviors were summed to create a disordered eating behavior score. BMI was self-reported at all four waves (up to age 27-33 years at EAT-IV). Repeated measures with random slope and intercept examined the association between disordered eating behaviors and BMI trajectories over 15 years.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, 50.7% and 33.7% of females and males endorsed disordered eating behaviors. Throughout 15 years of follow-up, sociodemographic-adjusted BMI was higher among adolescents who engaged in disordered eating behaviors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for baseline BMI (p < .05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among adolescents, regardless of the type of disordered eating behaviors, engagement in disordered eating behavior predicted higher BMI in a dose-response fashion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Strict confinement and social distancing measures have been imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic in many countries. The aim was to assess the temporal evolution of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis and lockdown from two surveys, separated by one month, performed in Spain. METHODS:Symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and the psychological impact of the situation were longitudinally analyzed using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES) respectively. RESULTS:There was a total of 4,724 responses from both surveys. Symptomatic scores of anxiety, depression and stress were exhibited by 37.22%, 46.42% and 49.66% of the second survey respondents, showing a significant increase compared to the first survey (32.45%, 44.11% and 37.01%, respectively). There was no significant longitudinal change of the IES scores, with 48.30% of the second survey participants showing moderate to severe impact of the confinement. Constant news consumption about COVID-19 was found to be positively associated with symptomatic scores in the different scales, and daily physical activity to be negatively associated with DASS-21 scores. CONCLUSIONS:Results indicated a temporal increase of anxiety, depression and stress scores during the COVID-19 lockdown. Factors such as age, consumption of information about COVID-19 and physical activity seem to have an important impact on the evolution of psychological symptoms.
Project description:BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown might increase anxiety and depressive symptoms, but some behaviors may protect against them.MethodTo provide a preliminary evidence of the behaviors associated with decreased symptoms in the current COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown, we conducted a survey of 5545 adult individuals from the Spanish general population, two weeks after an official lockdown was established across the country.ResultsSixty-five percent of the sample reported anxiety or depressive symptoms. Following a healthy/balanced diet and not reading news/updates about COVID-19 very often were the best predictors of lower levels of anxiety symptoms. Following a healthy/balanced diet, following a routine, not reading news/updates about COVID-19 very often, taking the opportunity to pursue hobbies, and staying outdoors or looking outside were the best predictors of lower levels of depressive symptoms.LimitationsCross-sectional nature and use of sample of convenience.ConclusionsThis study suggests that “simple” coping behaviors may protect against anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown.
Project description:Background:Coronavirus disease - 19 (COVID-19) spread throughout the world and become pandemic. To stop and control the rapid infection of COVID-19 lockdown is the best option. Sudden lockdown implies change in entire lifestyle of the population. Social isolation affects individual's lives by greater reduction in their physical activity, which might increase the chance of infection by reducing immunity. To what extent, the physical activity is reduced during this lockdown period among physiotherapy professionals, and students who propagate physical activity is not known. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity level and energy expenditure among physiotherapy professionals and students. Material and methods:One hundred and forty three volunteered physiotherapy professionals and students participated in web-based open E-survey. The survey was carried out by sending the Google Forms link for International Physical activity questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) through social networking sites using Google Forms to gather the amount of PA before and during COVID-19 lockdown period and analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results:Among identified 261 potential survey participants, 143 responded, reaching a response rate of 54.8%. Total physical activity before and during COVID-19 lockdown period were 7809.7 (3849.7-11769.8) MET-min/week and 4135.7 (867.2-7404.1) MET-min/week; p < 0.0001. While energy expenditure before and during COVID-19 lockdown period were 8189.8 (4242.1-12137.6) kcal/wk and 4221.7 (1004.6-7438.8) kcal/wk; p < 0.0001. Conclusion:A significant reduction in self-report physical activity and energy expenditure levels were observed among physiotherapy professionals and students during the COVID-19 lockdown period.