Biophysical basis for Kv1.3 regulation of membrane potential changes induced by P2X4-mediated calcium entry in microglia.
ABSTRACT: Microglia-mediated inflammation exerts adverse effects in ischemic stroke and in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 is required for microglia activation. Both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of Kv1.3 are effective in reducing microglia activation and the associated inflammatory responses, as well as in improving neurological outcomes in animal models of AD and ischemic stroke. Here we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of Kv1.3 inhibition, which remain incompletely understood. Using a combination of whole-cell voltage-clamp electrophysiology and quantitative PCR (qPCR), we first characterized a stimulus-dependent differential expression pattern for Kv1.3 and P2X4, a major ATP-gated cationic channel, both in vitro and in vivo. We then demonstrated by whole-cell current-clamp experiments that Kv1.3 channels contribute not only to setting the resting membrane potential but also play an important role in counteracting excessive membrane potential changes evoked by depolarizing current injections. Similarly, the presence of Kv1.3 channels renders microglia more resistant to depolarization produced by ATP-mediated P2X4 receptor activation. Inhibiting Kv1.3 channels with ShK-223 completely nullified the ability of Kv1.3 to normalize membrane potential changes, resulting in excessive depolarization and reduced calcium transients through P2X4 receptors. Our report thus links Kv1.3 function to P2X4 receptor-mediated signaling as one of the underlying mechanisms by which Kv1.3 blockade reduces microglia-mediated inflammation. While we could confirm previously reported differences between males and females in microglial P2X4 expression, microglial Kv1.3 expression exhibited no gender differences in vitro or in vivo. MAIN POINTS: The voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3 regulates microglial membrane potential. Inhibition of Kv1.3 depolarizes microglia and reduces calcium entry mediated by P2X4 receptors by dissipating the electrochemical driving force for calcium.
Project description:Recent genetic studies suggest a central role for innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, wherein microglia orchestrate neuroinflammation. Kv1.3, a voltage-gated potassium channel of therapeutic relevance in autoimmunity, is upregulated by activated microglia and mediates amyloid-mediated microglial priming and reactive oxygen species production in vitro. We hypothesized that Kv1.3 channel expression is increased in human AD brain tissue. In a blinded postmortem immunohistochemical semi-quantitative analysis performed on ten AD patients and ten non-disease controls, we observed a significantly higher Kv1.3 staining intensity (p = 0.03) and Kv1.3-positive cell density (p = 0.03) in the frontal cortex of AD brains, compared to controls. This paralleled an increased number of Iba1-positive microglia in AD brains. Kv1.3-positive cells had microglial morphology and were associated with amyloid-? plaques. In immunofluorescence studies, Kv1.3 channels co-localized primarily with Iba1 but not with astrocyte marker GFAP, confirming that elevated Kv1.3 expression is limited to microglia. Higher Kv1.3 expression in AD brains was also confirmed by western blot analysis. Our findings support that Kv1.3 channels are biologically relevant and microglia-specific targets in human AD.
Project description:P2X4 receptors are adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channels present on the plasma membrane (PM) and also within intracellular compartments such as vesicles, vacuoles, lamellar bodies (LBs), and lysosomes. P2X4 receptors in microglia are up-regulated in epilepsy and in neuropathic pain; that is to say, their total and/or PM expression levels increase. However, the mechanisms underlying up-regulation of microglial P2X4 receptors remain unclear, in part because it has not been possible to image P2X4 receptor distribution within, or trafficking between, cellular compartments. Here, we report the generation of pH-sensitive fluorescently tagged P2X4 receptors that permit evaluations of cell surface and total receptor pools. Capitalizing on information gained from zebrafish P2X4.1 crystal structures, we designed a series of mouse P2X4 constructs in which a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein, superecliptic pHluorin (pHluorin), was inserted into nonconserved regions located within flexible loops of the P2X4 receptor extracellular domain. One of these constructs, in which pHluorin was inserted after lysine 122 (P2X4-pHluorin123), functioned like wild-type P2X4 in terms of its peak ATP-evoked responses, macroscopic kinetics, calcium flux, current-voltage relationship, and sensitivity to ATP. P2X4-pHluorin123 also showed pH-dependent fluorescence changes, and was robustly expressed on the membrane and within intracellular compartments. P2X4-pHluorin123 identified cell surface and intracellular fractions of receptors in HEK-293 cells, hippocampal neurons, C8-B4 microglia, and alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Furthermore, it showed that the subcellular fractions of P2X4-pHluorin123 receptors were cell and compartment specific, for example, being larger in hippocampal neuron somata than in C8-B4 cell somata, and larger in C8-B4 microglial processes than in their somata. In ATII cells, P2X4-pHluorin123 showed that P2X4 receptors were secreted onto the PM when LBs undergo exocytosis. Finally, the use of P2X4-pHluorin123 showed that the modulator ivermectin did not increase the PM fraction of P2X4 receptors and acted allosterically to potentiate P2X4 receptor responses. Collectively, our data suggest that P2X4-pHluorin123 represents a useful optical probe to quantitatively explore P2X4 receptor distribution, trafficking, and up-regulation.
Project description:Characterization of the key cellular targets contributing to sustained microglial activation in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and optimal modulation of these targets can provide potential treatments to halt disease progression. Here, we demonstrated that microglial Kv1.3, a voltage-gated potassium channel, was transcriptionally upregulated in response to aggregated ?-synuclein (?SynAgg) stimulation in primary microglial cultures and animal models of PD, as well as in postmortem human PD brains. Patch-clamp electrophysiological studies confirmed that the observed Kv1.3 upregulation translated to increased Kv1.3 channel activity. The kinase Fyn, a risk factor for PD, modulated transcriptional upregulation and posttranslational modification of microglial Kv1.3. Multiple state-of-the-art analyses, including Duolink proximity ligation assay imaging, revealed that Fyn directly bound to Kv1.3 and posttranslationally modified its channel activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated the functional relevance of Kv1.3 in augmenting the neuroinflammatory response by using Kv1.3-KO primary microglia and the Kv1.3-specific small-molecule inhibitor PAP-1, thus highlighting the importance of Kv1.3 in neuroinflammation. Administration of PAP-1 significantly inhibited neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in multiple animal models of PD. Collectively, our results imply that Fyn-dependent regulation of Kv1.3 channels plays an obligatory role in accentuating the neuroinflammatory response in PD and identify Kv1.3 as a potential therapeutic target for PD.
Project description:Glial cells actively maintain the homeostasis of brain parenchyma, regulating neuronal excitability and preserving the physiological composition of the extracellular milieu. Under pathological conditions, some functions of glial cells could be compromised, exacerbating the neurotoxic processes. We investigated if the homeostatic activities of astrocytes and microglia could be modulated by the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3. To this end we used in vitro and in vivo systems to model cell-to-cell interactions in tumoral conditions, using a specific inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels, 5-(4-phenoxybutoxy) psoralen (PAP-1). We demonstrated that PAP-1 increases astrocytic glutamate uptake, reduces glioma-induced neurotoxicity, and decreases microglial migration and phagocytosis. We also found in a tumor blood brain barrier model that Kv1.3 activity is required for its integrity. The crucial role of Kv1.3 channels as modulators of glial cell activity was confirmed in a mouse model of glioma, where PAP-1 treatment reduces tumor volume only in the presence of active glutamate transporters GLT-1. In the same mouse model, PAP-1 reduces astrogliosis and microglial infiltration. PAP-1 also reduces tumor cell invasion. All these findings point to Kv1.3 channels as potential targets to re-instruct glial cells toward their homeostatic functions, in the context of brain tumors.
Project description:(1) Background: As membrane channels contribute to different cell functions, understanding the underlying mechanisms becomes extremely important. A large number of neuronal channels have been investigated, however, less studied are the channels expressed in the glia population, particularly in microglia. In the present study, we focused on the function of the Kv1.3, Kv1.5 and Kir2.1 potassium channels expressed in both BV2 cells and primary microglia cultures, which may impact the cellular migration process. (2) Methods: Using an immunocytochemical approach, we were able to show the presence of the investigated channels in BV2 microglial cells, record their currents using a patch clamp and their role in cell migration using the scratch assay. The migration of the primary microglial cells in culture was assessed using cell culture inserts. (3) Results: By blocking each potassium channel, we showed that Kv1.3 and Kir2.1 but not Kv1.5 are essential for BV2 cell migration. Further, primary microglial cultures were obtained from a line of transgenic CX3CR1-eGFP mice that express fluorescent labeled microglia. The mice were subjected to a spared nerve injury model of pain and we found that microglia motility in an 8 µm insert was reduced 2 days after spared nerve injury (SNI) compared with sham conditions. Additional investigations showed a further impact on cell motility by specifically blocking Kv1.3 and Kir2.1 but not Kv1.5; (4) Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of the Kv1.3 and Kir2.1 but not Kv1.5 potassium channels on microglia migration both in BV2 and primary cell cultures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Kv1.3 potassium channels regulate microglial functions and are overexpressed in neuroinflammatory diseases. Kv1.3 blockade may selectively inhibit pro-inflammatory microglia in neurological diseases but the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulated by Kv1.3 channels are poorly defined.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed immunoblotting and flow cytometry to confirm Kv1.3 channel upregulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia and in brain mononuclear phagocytes freshly isolated from LPS-treated mice. Quantitative proteomics was performed on BV2 microglia treated with control, LPS, ShK-223 (highly selective Kv1.3 blocker), and LPS+ShK-223. Gene ontology (GO) analyses of Kv1.3-dependent LPS-regulated proteins were performed, and the most representative proteins and GO terms were validated. Effects of Kv1.3-blockade on LPS-activated BV2 microglia were studied in migration, focal adhesion formation, reactive oxygen species production, and phagocytosis assays. In vivo validation of protein changes and predicted molecular pathways were performed in a model of systemic LPS-induced neuroinflammation, employing antigen presentation and T cell proliferation assays. Informed by pathway analyses of proteomic data, additional mechanistic experiments were performed to identify early Kv1.3-dependent signaling and transcriptional events.<h4>Results</h4>LPS-upregulated cell surface Kv1.3 channels in BV2 microglia and in microglia and CNS-infiltrating macrophages isolated from LPS-treated mice. Of 144 proteins differentially regulated by LPS (of 3141 proteins), 21 proteins showed rectification by ShK-223. Enriched cellular processes included MHCI-mediated antigen presentation (TAP1, EHD1), cell motility, and focal adhesion formation. In vitro, ShK-223 decreased LPS-induced focal adhesion formation, reversed LPS-induced inhibition of migration, and inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of EHD1, a protein involved in MHCI trafficking. In vivo, intra-peritoneal ShK-223 inhibited LPS-induced MHCI expression by CD11b<sup>+</sup>CD45<sup>low</sup> microglia without affecting MHCI expression or trafficking of CD11b<sup>+</sup>CD45<sup>high</sup> macrophages. ShK-223 inhibited LPS-induced MHCI-restricted antigen presentation to ovalbumin-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells both in vitro and in vivo. Kv1.3 co-localized with the LPS receptor complex and regulated LPS-induced early serine (S727) STAT1 phosphorylation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have unraveled novel molecular and functional roles for Kv1.3 channels in pro-inflammatory microglial activation, including a Kv1.3 channel-regulated pathway that facilitates MHCI expression and MHCI-dependent antigen presentation by microglia to CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells. We also provide evidence for neuro-immunomodulation by systemically administered ShK peptides. Our results further strengthen the therapeutic candidacy of microglial Kv1.3 channels in neurologic diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tumors affecting the head, neck, and brain account for significant morbidity and mortality. The curative efficacy of radiotherapy for these tumors is well established, but radiation carries a significant risk of neurologic injury. So far, neuroprotective therapies for radiation-induced brain injury are still limited. In this study we demonstrate that Stichodactyla helianthus (ShK)-170, a specific inhibitor of the voltage-gated potassium (Kv)1.3 channel, protected mice from radiation-induced brain injury. METHODS: Mice were treated with ShK-170 for 3 days immediately after brain irradiation. Radiation-induced brain injury was assessed by MRI scans and a Morris water maze. Pathophysiological change of the brain was measured by immunofluorescence. Gene and protein expressions of Kv1.3 and inflammatory factors were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, reverse transcription PCR, ELISA assay, and western blot analyses. Kv currents were recorded in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: Radiation increased Kv1.3 mRNA and protein expression in microglia. Genetic silencing of Kv1.3 by specific short interference RNAs or pharmacological blockade with ShK-170 suppressed radiation-induced production of the proinflammatory factors interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-? by microglia. ShK-170 also inhibited neurotoxicity mediated by radiation-activated microglia and promoted neurogenesis by increasing the proliferation of neural progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effect of ShK-170 is mediated by suppression of microglial activation and microglia-mediated neurotoxicity and enhanced neurorestoration by promoting proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
Project description:Mounting evidence indicates that alcohol-induced neuropathology may result from multicellular responses in which microglia cells play a prominent role. Purinergic receptor signaling plays a key role in regulating microglial function and, more importantly, mediates alcohol-induced effects. Our findings demonstrate that alcohol increases expression of P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), which alters the function of microglia, including calcium mobilization, migration and phagocytosis. Our results show a significant up-regulation of P2X4 gene expression as analyzed by real-time qPCR (***p?<?0.002) and protein expression as analyzed by flow cytometry (**p?<?0.004) in embryonic stem cell-derived microglial cells (ESdM) after 48 hours of alcohol treatment, as compared to untreated controls. Calcium mobilization in ethanol treated ESdM cells was found to be P2X4R dependent using 5-BDBD, a P2X4R selective antagonist. Alcohol decreased migration of microglia towards fractalkine (CX3CL1) by 75 % following 48 h of treatment compared to control (***p?<?0.001). CX3CL1-dependent migration was confirmed to be P2X4 receptor-dependent using the antagonist 5-BDBD, which reversed the effects as compared to alcohol alone (***p?<?0.001). Similarly, 48 h of alcohol treatment significantly decreased phagocytosis of microglia by 15 % compared to control (*p?<?0.05). 5-BDBD pre-treatment prior to alcohol treatment significantly increased microglial phagocytosis (***p?<?0.001). Blocking P2X4R signaling with 5-BDBD decreased the level of calcium mobilization compared to ethanol treatment alone. These findings demonstrate that P2X4 receptor may play a role in modulating microglial function in the context of alcohol abuse.
Project description:Sigma1 receptors (Sigma1R) are intracellular chaperone proteins that bind psychotropic drugs and also clinically used drugs such as ketamine and haloperidol. Co-expression of the Sigma1R has been reported to enhance the sensitivity of several voltage-gated ion channels to Sigma1R ligands. Kv1.3 is the predominant voltage-gated potassium channel expressed in T lymphocytes with a documented role in immune activation. To gain a better understanding of Sigma1R modulation of Kv ion channels, we investigated the effects of Sigma1R co-expression on Kv1.3 physiology and pharmacology in ion channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We also explored the protein domains of Kv1.3 necessary for protein:protein interaction between Kv1.3 and Sigma1R through co-immunoprecipitation studies. Slowly inactivating outward-going currents consistent with Kv1.3 expression were elicited on step depolarizations. The current characterized by E(rev), V(1/2), and slope factor remained unchanged when co-expressed with Sigma1R. Analysis of inactivation time constant revealed a faster Kv1.3 current decay when co-expressed with Sigma1R. However the sensitivity to Sigma1R ligands remained unaltered when co-expressed with the Sigma1R in contrast to the previously reported modulation of ligand sensitivity in closely related Kv1.4 and Kv1.5 voltage gated potassium channels. Co-immunoprecipitation assays of various Kv1.3 truncation constructs indicated that the transmembrane domain of the Kv1.3 protein was responsible for the protein:protein interaction with the Sigma1R. Sigma1R likely interacts with different domains of Kv ion channel family proteins resulting in distinct modulation of different channels.
Project description:It is widely known that ion channels are expressed in the plasma membrane. However, a few studies have suggested that several ion channels including voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels also exist in intracellular organelles where they are involved in the biochemical events associated with cell signaling. In the present study, Western blot analysis using fractionated protein clearly indicates that Kv1.3 channels are expressed in the nuclei of MCF7, A549, and SNU-484 cancer cells and human brain tissues. In addition, Kv1.3 is located in the plasma membrane and the nucleus of Jurkat T cells. Nuclear membrane hyperpolarization after treatment with margatoxin (MgTX), a specific blocker of Kv1.3 channels, provides evidence for functional channels at the nuclear membrane of A549 cells. MgTX-induced hyperpolarization is abolished in the nuclei of Kv1.3 silenced cells, and the effects of MgTX are dependent on the magnitude of the K(+) gradient across the nuclear membrane. Selective Kv1.3 blockers induce the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and c-Fos activation. Moreover, Kv1.3 is shown to form a complex with the upstream binding factor 1 in the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay reveals that Sp1 transcription factor is directly bound to the promoter region of the Kv1.3 gene, and the Sp1 regulates Kv1.3 expression in the nucleus of A549 cells. These results demonstrate that Kv1.3 channels are primarily localized in the nucleus of several types of cancer cells and human brain tissues where they are capable of regulating nuclear membrane potential and activation of transcription factors, such as phosphorylated CREB and c-Fos.