Collagen-rich omentum is a premetastatic niche for integrin ?2-mediated peritoneal metastasis.
ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays critical roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of ECM proteins to early metastatic onset in the peritoneal cavity remains unexplored. Here, we suggest a new route of metastasis through the interaction of integrin alpha 2 (ITGA2) with collagens enriched in the tumor coinciding with poor outcome in patients with ovarian cancer. Using multiple gene-edited cell lines and patient-derived samples, we demonstrate that ITGA2 triggers cancer cell adhesion to collagen, promotes cell migration, anoikis resistance, mesothelial clearance, and peritoneal metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, phosphoproteomics identify an ITGA2-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway leading to enhanced oncogenic properties. Consequently, specific inhibition of ITGA2-mediated cancer cell-collagen interaction or targeting focal adhesion signaling may present an opportunity for therapeutic intervention of metastatic spread in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Ovarian cancer preferentially metastasizes to the omentum, a fatty tissue characterized by immune structures called milky spots, but the cellular dynamics that direct this tropism are unknown. Here, we identified that neutrophil influx into the omentum is a prerequisite premetastatic step in orthotopic ovarian cancer models. Ovarian tumor-derived inflammatory factors stimulated neutrophils to mobilize and extrude chromatin webs called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs were detected in the omentum of ovarian tumor-bearing mice before metastasis and of women with early-stage ovarian cancer. NETs, in turn, bound ovarian cancer cells and promoted metastasis. Omental metastasis was decreased in mice with neutrophil-specific deficiency of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), an enzyme that is essential for NET formation. Blockade of NET formation using a PAD4 pharmacologic inhibitor also decreased omental colonization. Our findings implicate NET formation in rendering the premetastatic omental niche conducive for implantation of ovarian cancer cells and raise the possibility that blockade of NET formation prevents omental metastasis.
Project description:The work by Etzerodt et al. in this issue of JEM (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191869) identifies a distinct omentum-resident macrophage population of embryonic origin and demonstrates that these cells provide a niche for ovarian cancer metastasis and cancer stemness. This research opens up for many questions and therapeutic prospects.
Project description:Ovarian cancer has a clear predilection to metastasize to the peritoneum, which represents one of the most important prognostic factors of poor clinical outcome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor is significantly overexpressed during the malignant progression of human ovarian cancer. Here, using lentiviral-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology to downregulate GnRH receptor in metastatic ovarian cancer cells, we show that GnRH receptor is an important mediator of ovarian cancer peritoneal metastasis. GnRH receptor downregulation dramatically attenuated their adhesion to the peritoneal mesothelium. By inhibiting the expression of GnRH receptor, we showed decreased expression of ?2?1 and ?5?1 integrin and adhesion to specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. This was also associated with a reduction of P-cadherin. Furthermore, adhesion of ovarian cancer cells to different ECMs and the mesothelium were abrogated in response to ?1 integrin and P-cadherin reduction, confirming that the effects were ?1 integrin- and P-cadherin-specific. Using a mouse model of human ovarian cancer metastasis, we found that the inhibition of GnRH receptor, ?1 integrin, and P-cadherin significantly attenuated tumor growth, ascites formation, and the number of metastatic implants. These results define a new role for GnRH receptor in early metastasis and offer the possibility of novel therapeutic targets.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant tumors of the female reproductive system, with high invasiveness. The disease is a severe threat to women's health. The ITGA2 gene, which codes for integrin subunit ?2, is involved in the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. Although previous studies have shown that ITGA2 increases in ovarian cancer, the specific molecular mechanism of how ITGA2 promotes ovarian cancer proliferation and metastasis is still unclear. In this study, we confirmed that ITGA2 was elevated in ovarian cancer, which led to poor prognosis and survival. Overexpressed ITGA2 promoted the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. We also found that ITGA2 regulated the phosphorylation of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) by mediating AKT phosphorylation, which provided a reasonable explanation for ITGA2's role in ovarian cancer's resistance to albumin paclitaxel. In summary, ITGA2 could be used as a new therapeutic target and prognostic indicator in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play important roles in cancer progression. Here, we have characterized the ontogeny and function of TAM subsets in a mouse model of metastatic ovarian cancer that is representative for visceral peritoneal metastasis. We show that the omentum is a critical premetastatic niche for development of invasive disease in this model and define a unique subset of CD163+ Tim4+ resident omental macrophages responsible for metastatic spread of ovarian cancer cells. Transcriptomic analysis showed that resident CD163+ Tim4+ omental macrophages were phenotypically distinct and maintained their resident identity during tumor growth. Selective depletion of CD163+ Tim4+ macrophages in omentum using genetic and pharmacological tools prevented tumor progression and metastatic spread of disease. These studies describe a specific role for tissue-resident macrophages in the invasive progression of metastatic ovarian cancer. The molecular pathways of cross-talk between tissue-resident macrophages and disseminated cancer cells may represent new targets to prevent metastasis and disease recurrence.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a mediator of tumor progression. However, whether the alterations of the intraperitoneal ECM prior to tumor establishment affects the malignant progression of ovarian cancer remains elusive.Apolipoprotein (ApoE) knock-out mice was used to analyze the intraperitoneal ECM alterations by quantification of the major components of ECM. ID8 cells were implanted in vivo to generate allografts and human ovarian cancer cell lines were characterized in vitro to assess the effects of ECM alterations on the malignant progression of ovarian cancer. Adhesion assay, immunochemistry, cytokines profile, proliferation assay, transwell invasion assay and western blot were used to determine the malignant phenotype of ovarian cancer cells.ApoE loss induced increased ECM deposition, which stimulated the adhesions of ovarian cancer cells. The adhesion-mediated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling enhanced the invasive behaviors of ovarian cancer cells through activation of a ERK-MMP linkage. This ECM-induced signaling cascade was further confirmed in human ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, reversal of the ECM accumulation with BAPN or abrogation of adhesion-induced ERK activation in ovarian cancer cells with MEK inhibitors (MEKi) was found to effectively delay ovarian cancer progression.These findings identify the FAK-ERK activation in cell/matrix adhesion in the malignant progression of ovarian cancer and the efficiency of BAPN or MEKi for tumor suppression, providing an impetus for further studies to explore the possibility of new anticancer therapeutic combinations.
Project description:Metastasis is facilitated by the formation of pre-metastatic niches through the remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) promoted by haematopoietic and stromal cells. The impact of these primed sites is pronounced for intraperitoneal metastases, where the cavity-exposed ECM supports the attachment of the disseminating tumour cells. Likewise, implantation of biomaterial scaffolds influences metastatic progression systemically through a foreign body reaction (FBR). In this study, we integrated the concept of creating an artificial niche to capture tumour cells actively disseminating in the peritoneal cavity with a therapeutic strategy modulating the interactions of metastatic cells with the ECM. The aim was to transform a disseminated disease into a focal disease. For this, we designed and developed a 'biomimetic' ECM composed of a nonresorbable three-dimensional scaffold with collagen coating and characterized the FBR to the implanted biomaterial. We also analysed the safety of the implanted devices and their ability to capture tumour cells in different murine preclinical models of advanced ovarian cancer. Implantation of the biomimetic devices resulted in an initial inflammatory reaction that transformed progressively into a fibrous connective tissue response. The adhesive capabilities of the scaffold were improved with the ancillary effect of the FBR and showed clinical utility in terms of the efficacy of capture of tumour cells, disease focalization and survival benefit. These results demonstrated the performance and safety of this 'biomimetic' ECM in preclinical models of advanced ovarian cancer. Translated into the clinical setting, this new therapeutic strategy represents the possibility for control of peritoneal carcinomatosis upon primary ovarian debulking surgery and to expand the percentage of patients who are candidates for second rescue surgeries at the time of relapse.
Project description:Our recent research identified the protein annexin A2 to be regulated by ovarian cancer-peritoneal cell interactions. This study investigated the role of annexin A2 in ovarian cancer metastasis and its potential utility as a novel therapeutic target, using in vitro and in vivo ovarian cancer models. Annexin A2 expression was examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting in ovarian cancer cell lines and immunohistochemistry in serous ovarian carcinoma tissues. Annexin A2 siRNAs were used to evaluate the effects of annexin A2 suppression on ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and invasion. Furthermore, annexin A2 neutralizing antibodies were used to examine the role of annexin A2 in tumor invasion and metastasis in vivo using a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay and an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model. Strong annexin A2 immunostaining was observed in 90% (38/42) of the serous ovarian cancer cells and was significantly increased in the cancer-associated stroma compared to non-malignant ovarian tissues. Annexin A2 siRNA significantly inhibited the motility and invasion of serous ovarian cancer cells and adhesion to the peritoneal cells. Annexin A2 neutralizing antibodies significantly inhibited OV-90 cell motility and invasion in vitro and in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The growth of SKOV-3 cells and their peritoneal dissemination in nude mice was significantly inhibited by annexin A2 neutralizing antibodies. Annexin A2 plays a critical role in ovarian cancer metastasis and is therefore a potential novel therapeutic target against ovarian cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Among gynecological cancers, ovarian carcinoma has the highest mortality rate, and chemoresistance is highly prevalent in this cancer. Therefore, novel strategies are required to improve its poor prognosis. Formation and disassembly of focal adhesions are regulated dynamically during cell migration, which plays an essential role in cancer metastasis. Metastasis is intricately linked with resistance to chemotherapy, but the molecular basis for this link is unknown. METHODS:Transwell migration and wound healing migration assays were used to analyze the migration ability of ovarian cancer cells. Real-time recordings by total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) were performed to assess the turnover of focal adhesions with fluorescence protein-tagged focal adhesion molecules. SOCE inhibitors were used to verify the effects of SOCE on focal adhesion dynamics, cell migration, and chemoresistance in chemoresistant cells. RESULTS:We found that mesenchymal-like chemoresistant IGROV1 ovarian cancer cells have higher migration properties because of their rapid regulation of focal adhesion dynamics through FAK, paxillin, vinculin, and talin. Focal adhesions in chemoresistant cells, they were smaller and exhibited strong adhesive force, which caused the cells to migrate rapidly. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) regulates focal adhesion turnover, and cell polarization and migration. Herein, we compared SOCE upregulation in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells to its parental cells. SOCE inhibitors attenuated the assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions significantly. Results of wound healing and transwell assays revealed that SOCE inhibitors decreased chemoresistant cell migration. Additionally, SOCE inhibitors combined with chemotherapeutic drugs could reverse ovarian cancer drug resistance. CONCLUSION:Our findings describe the role of SOCE in chemoresistance-mediated focal adhesion turnover, cell migration, and viability. Consequently, SOCE might be a promising therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Project description:Background: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that legumain (LGMN) is abnormally expressed in several malignancies and functions as an oncogene. However, the association between LGMN and gastric cancer (GC) has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the role of LGMN in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of GC patients. Methods: The study had two patient cohorts, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort and the Zhongshan Hospital cohort, both of which were used to analyze the role of LGMN in GC samples. The relationship between LGMN and clinicopathologic characteristics was determined by the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were conducted to investigate the prognostic role of LGMN in GC patients. Moreover, a nomogram was constructed based on the factors that were independently associated with peritoneal metastasis. Finally, the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to explore the underlying pathways through which LGMN was involved in GC progression. Results: The mRNA and protein levels of LGMN were significantly upregulated in GC tissues, especially for diffuse-type GC. High level of LGMN was independently associated with poor prognosis in both TCGA and Zhongshan cohorts. Further analysis showed that increased protein level of LGMN was related to peritoneal metastasis in GC patients. In a nomogram model, the LGMN expression could help predict the possibility of peritoneal metastasis in GC patients. LGMN was a strong determinant for prediction of peritoneal metastasis. GC patients with high LGMN expression tended to have worse survival together with more frequent diffuse-type tumors and increased risk of peritoneal metastasis. The GSEA results showed that focal adhesion, ecm receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules cams, TGF-? signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, gap junction, etc. were differentially enriched in the phenotype with high LGMN expression. Conclusion: LGMN was an independent prognostic factor for OS in GC patients. Increased expression of LGMN was significantly associated with peritoneal metastasis. The nomogram based on LGMN might guide the clinical decisions for patients with GC.