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Inflammation Triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 Augment Drives Multiple Organ Failure of Severe COVID-19: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications.


ABSTRACT: The widespread occurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The S spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a functional "receptor" and then enters into host cells to replicate and damage host cells and organs. ACE2 plays a pivotal role in the inflammation, and its downregulation may aggravate COVID-19 via the renin-angiotensin system, including by promoting pathological changes in lung injury and involving inflammatory responses. Severe patients of COVID-19 often develop acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction/failure with high mortality that may be closely related to the hyper-proinflammatory status called the "cytokine storm." Massive cytokines including interleukin-6, nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) released from SARS-CoV-2-infected macrophages and monocytes lead inflammation-derived injurious cascades causing multi-organ injury/failure. This review summarizes the current evidence and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and inflammation co-mediated multi-organ injury or failure in COVID-19 patients.

SUBMITTER: Iwasaki M 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7541099 | BioStudies | 2021-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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